Siebold & Zucc.
Abies firma is a medium-sized to large evergreen coniferous tree growing to 50 metres (160 ft) tall and 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) in trunk diameter, with a broad conical crown of straight branches rising at an angle of about 20° above horizontal. The bark is scaly grey-brown, with resin blisters on young trees. The shoots are grooved, buff to grey-brown, glabrous or finely pubescent. The leaves ("needles") are flattened, 2–5 centimetres (0.79–1.97 in) long and 2–4 millimetres (0.079–0.157 in) broad, spread at nearly right angles from the shoot; the apex is sharp, bifid (double-pointed) on the leaves of young trees, single-pointed on mature trees. They are bright green above, and greyish-green below with two broad stomatal bands. The cones are 7–15 centimetres (2.8–5.9 in) long by 3–5 centimetres (1.2–2.0 in) wide, green maturing yellow-brown, tapering to a 2–3 centimetres (0.79–1.18 in) broad bluntly rounded apex. The scale bracts are exserted 3–6 millimetres (0.12–0.24 in), triangular. The seeds are 7–9 millimetres (0.28–0.35 in) long with a wedge-shaped wing 1.5 centimetres (0.59 in) long, are released after the cones disintegrate at maturity in October.
- Katsuki, T., Zhang, D, Rushforth, K. & Farjon, A. (2013). "Abies firma". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 3 May 2014.
- Gymnosperm Database