Abigail

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This article is about the wife of David. For more information on the human name "Abigail", see Abigail (name). For other uses, see Abigail (disambiguation).
David and Abigail by Antonio Molinari

Abigail (Hebrew: אֲבִיגַיִל / אֲבִיגָיִל, Modern Avigáyil Tiberian ʾĂḇîḡáyil / ʾĂḇîḡāyil ; "my father's joy",[1] spelled Abigal in 2 Samuel 17:25 in the American Standard Version but not in the King James Version) was the wife of Nabal; she became a wife of David after Nabal's death (1 Samuel 25).[2] She became the mother of one of David's sons, who is listed in the Book of Chronicles under the name Daniel,[3] in the Masoretic Text of the Books of Samuel as Chileab,[4] and in the Septuagint text of 2 Samuel 3:3 as Δαλουια, Dalouia.[5]

Prudent Abigail by Juan Antonio Escalante

Biblical history[edit]

In the passage from 1 Samuel, Nabal demonstrates ingratitude towards David, and Abigail attempts to placate David in order to stop him taking revenge. She gives him food, and speaks to him, urging him not to "have on his conscience the staggering burden of needless bloodshed" (verse 31, NIV) and reminding him that God will make him a "lasting dynasty" (verse 28). Jon Levenson calls this an "undeniable adumbration" of Nathan's prophecy in 2 Samuel 7.[6] Alice Bach notes that Abigail pronounces a "crucial prophecy,"[7] and the Talmud regards her as one of the Tanakh's seven female prophets.[8] Levenson, however, suggests that she "senses the drift of history" from intelligence rather than from special revelation.[6]

After Abigail reveals to Nabal what she has done, "Yahweh struck Nabal and he died," (v.38), after which David married her.

The text explicitly describes Abigail as "intelligent and beautiful" (1 Samuel 25:3, NIV, also in the JPS Tanakh). The Talmud amplifies this idea, mentioning her as being one of the "four women of surpassing beauty in the world."[9] In terms of her moral character, Abraham Kuyper argues that Abigail's conduct indicates "a most appealing character and unwavering faith,"[10] but Alice Bach regards her as subversive.[11]

Levenson and Halpern suggest that Abigail may, in fact, also be the same person as Abigail, mother of Amasa.[12] Richard M. Davidson, however, points out that "on the basis of the final form of Old Testament canon, references to Abigail in the biblical accounts indicate two different individuals."[13]

Generic use[edit]

Abigail's self-styling as a handmaid[14] led to Abigail being the traditional term for a waiting-woman, for example as the waiting gentlewoman in Beaumont and Fletcher's The Scornful Lady, published in 1616. Jonathan Swift and Henry Fielding use Abigail in this generic sense, as does Charlotte Brontë. Anthony Trollope makes two references to the abigail (all lower case) in The Eustace Diamonds, at the beginning of Chapter 42, whilst Thomas Mann makes the same reference at the start of the second chapter of Part 2 in Buddenbrooks (published in 1901). William Rose Benet notes the notoriety of Abigail Hill, better known as "Mrs Masham", a lady-in-waiting to Queen Anne.[15] George MacDonald Fraser makes mention of "an abigail fussing about the room" in his novel Flashman from The Flashman Papers series.

In art[edit]

Abigail is a featured figure on Judy Chicago's installation piece The Dinner Party, being represented in one of the 999 tiles of the Heritage Floor.[16][17]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "my father's joy", "my father rejoices", "my father is joy" (or similar); from either the verbal root g-y-l "to rejoice" directly, or from the root noun gil "rejoicing, joy". See: Adele Berlin in: Carol L. Meyers, Toni Craven, Ross Shepard Kraemer (eds.), Women in Scripture: A Dictionary of Named and Unnamed Women in the Hebrew Bible, the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books, and the New Testament, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2000, p. 43
  2. ^ Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abigail". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8. 
  3. ^ 1 Chronicles 3:1
  4. ^ 2 Samuel 3:3
  5. ^ 2 Samuel 3, LXX
  6. ^ a b Jon D. Levenson, "1 Samuel 25 as Literature and History," CBQ 40 [1978] 20.
  7. ^ Alice Bach, "The Pleasure of Her Text," Union Seminary Quarterly Review 43 [1989] 44.
  8. ^ Megillah 14a
  9. ^ Megillah 15a
  10. ^ Abraham Kuyper, Women of the Old Testament (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1941), 106.
  11. ^ Alice Bach, "The Pleasure of Her Text," Union Seminary Quarterly Review 43 [1989] 41.
  12. ^ Jon D. Levenson and Baruch Halpern, "The Political Import of David's Marriages," JBL 99 [1980] 511–512.
  13. ^ Davidson, Richard M. (2007). Flame of Yahweh: A Theology of Sexuality in the Old Testament. Hendrickson. p. 444. 
  14. ^ 1 Samuel 25:25 and following
  15. ^ The Reader's Encyclopedia, 1948, s.v. "Abigail".
  16. ^ "Abigail". Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art: The Dinner Party: Heritage Floor: Abigail. Brooklyn Museum. 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  17. ^ Chicago, 69.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Chicago, Judy. The Dinner Party: From Creation to Preservation. London: Merrell (2007). ISBN 1-85894-370-1