Abilene, Texas

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Abilene, Texas
City
City of Abilene
Downtown Abilene in August 2013
Downtown Abilene in August 2013
Flag of Abilene, Texas
Flag
Location in the state of Texas
Location in the state of Texas
Coordinates: 32°27′N 99°45′W / 32.450°N 99.750°W / 32.450; -99.750Coordinates: 32°27′N 99°45′W / 32.450°N 99.750°W / 32.450; -99.750
Country  United States
State  Texas
Counties Taylor
Jones
Settled 1881[1]
Incorporated (town) 1881[1]
County Seat 1883[1]
Named for Abilene, Kansas[1]
County Seat Taylor County
Government
 • Type Council-Manager
 • City Council Mayor Norm Archibald
Shane Price
Joe Spano
Anthony Williams
Robert O. Briley
Kyle McAlister
Kellie Miller
 • City Manager Larry Gilley
Area
 • City 110.6 sq mi (286.5 km2)
 • Land 105.1 sq mi (272.3 km2)
 • Water 5.5 sq mi (14.2 km2)
Elevation 1,719 ft (524 m)
Population (2010)
 • City 117,063
 • Density 1,113/sq mi (429.9/km2)
 • Urban 107,041
 • Metro 165,252
 • Demonym Abilenian
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP codes 79600-79699
Area code(s) 325
FIPS code 48-01000[2]
GNIS feature ID 1329173[3]
Website abilenetx.com

Abilene (/ˈæbəln/ AB-ə-leen) is a city in Taylor and Jones counties in west central Texas. The population was 117,063 according to the 2010 census making it the twenty-seventh most populous city in the state of Texas. It is the principal city of the Abilene Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a 2011 estimated population of 166,416.[4] It is the county seat of Taylor County.[5] Dyess Air Force Base is located on the west side of the city.

Abilene is located off Interstate 20, between exits 279 on its western edge and 292 on the east. Abilene is 150 miles (240 km) west of Fort Worth, Texas. The city is looped by I-20 to the north, US 83/84 on the west, and Loop 322 to the east. A railroad divides the city down the center into north and south. The historic downtown area is on the north side of the railroad.

The fastest-growing sections of the city are growing to the southwest, along Southwest Drive, the Winters Freeway, and the Buffalo Gap Road corridor; the southeast, along Loop 322, Oldham Lane, Industrial Drive, and Maple Street; and in the northeast near the intersection of SH 351 and I-20. Many developments have begun in these three areas within the last few years. There are three lakes in the city, Lytle Lake on the western edge of Abilene Regional Airport, Kirby Lake on the southeast corner of the US 83/84 & Loop 322 interchange, and Lake Fort Phantom Hill in Jones County in northern Abilene.

History[edit]

An 1883 map of Abilene.
The restored Texas & Pacific Railway depot in Abilene serves as the tourist information center.
The 20-story Bank of America Enterprise Tower is the tallest building in West Central Texas and one of the five highest in the western two-thirds of the state.

Established by cattlemen as a stock shipping point on the Texas and Pacific Railway in 1881, the city was named after Abilene, Kansas,[1][6] the original endpoint for the Chisholm Trail. The T&P had bypassed the town of Buffalo Gap, the county seat at the time. Eventually, a landowner north of Buffalo Gap, Clabe Merchant, known as the father of Abilene, chose the name for the new town. According to a Dallas newspaper, about eight hundred people had already begun camping at the townsite, before the lots were sold. The town was laid out by Colonel J. Stoddard Johnson, and the auction of lots began early on March 15, 1881. By the end of the first day, 139 lots were sold for a total of $23,810, and another 178 lots were sold the next day for $27,550.

Abilene was incorporated soon after being founded in 1881,[1] and Abilenians began to set their sights on bringing the county seat to Abilene and, in a three-to-one vote, won the election. In 1888, the Progressive Committee was formed to attract businesses to the area, which later became the Board of Trade in 1890. By 1900, 3,411 people lived in Abilene, and in that decade, the Board of Trade changed its name to the 25,000 Club in the hope of reaching 25,000 people by the next census. However this committee failed when the population only hit 9,204 in 1910. Replacing it was the Young Men's Booster Club, which became the Abilene Chamber of Commerce in 1914.

The cornerstone was laid for the first of three future universities in Abilene, called Simmons College, in 1891,[1] which later became Hardin-Simmons University. Childers Classical Institute followed in 1906,[1] currently Abilene Christian University, Abilene's largest of the three. In 1923, McMurry College was founded and later became McMurry University.[1] Much more recently, Abilene succeeded in bringing Cisco Junior College and Texas State Technical College branches to Abilene, with the Cisco Junior College headquarters being located in Abilene.

In 1940, Abilene raised the money to purchase land for a U.S. Army base, southwest of town, named Camp Barkeley, which was at the time, twice the size of Abilene with 60,000 men. When the base closed, many worried that Abilene could become a ghost town, but in the post-World War II boom, many servicemen returned to start businesses in Abilene. In the early-1950s, residents raised $893,261 to purchase 3,400 acres (14 km2) of land for an Air Force base. Today, Dyess Air Force Base is the city's largest employer, with 6,076 employees.[7][8] By 1960, Abilene's population nearly doubled in 10 years from 45,570 in 1950 to 90,638. In the same year, a second high school was added, Cooper High School. In 1966, the Abilene Zoo was created near Abilene Regional Airport. The following year, one of the most important bond elections in the city's history passed for the funding of the construction of the Abilene Civic Center and the Taylor County Coliseum, as well as major improvements to Abilene Regional Airport. In 1969, the Woodson elementary and high school for black students closed as the schools are integrated.

In 1982, Abilene became the first city in Texas to create a downtown reinvestment zone. Texas State Technical College opened an Abilene branch three years later. The 2,250-bed French Robertson Prison Unit was built in 1989. A half-cent sales tax earmarked for economic development was created after the decline in the petroleum business in the 1980s. A branch of Cisco Junior College was located in the city in 1990.

The Grace Museum and Paramount Theatre revitalizations, along with Artwalk in 1992 sparked a decade of downtown restoration. In 2004, Frontier Texas!, a multi-media museum highlighting the history of the area from 1780 to 1880 was constructed, and a new $8 million, 38-acre (150,000 m2) Cisco Junior College campus was built at Loop 322 and Industrial Boulevard. Simultaneously, subdivisions and businesses started locating along the freeway, on the same side as the CJC campus, showing a slow but progressive trend for Abilene growth on the Loop. Abilene has become the commercial, retail, medical, and transportation hub of a 19-county area more commonly known as "The Big Country," but also known as the "Texas Midwest", and is part of the Central Great Plains ecology region. By the end of 2005, commercial and residential development had reached record levels in and around the city.[9]

Geography[edit]

Abilene is located 160 miles (257 km) west by south of Fort Worth.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 110.6 square miles (286.5 km²), of which 105.1 square miles (272.3 km²) are land and 5.5 square miles (14.2 km²) are water (4.95%).

Climate[edit]

According to the Köppen climate classification, Abilene lies at the edge of a humid subtropical climate, with areas to the west being semi-arid.

Climate data for Abilene, Texas (1981−2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 90
(32)
94
(34)
98
(37)
104
(40)
109
(43)
110
(43)
110
(43)
111
(44)
107
(42)
103
(39)
92
(33)
89
(32)
111
(44)
Average high °F (°C) 56.8
(13.8)
60.5
(15.8)
68.6
(20.3)
77.3
(25.2)
84.6
(29.2)
90.5
(32.5)
94.2
(34.6)
94.0
(34.4)
86.8
(30.4)
77.3
(25.2)
66.3
(19.1)
56.9
(13.8)
77.0
(25)
Average low °F (°C) 33.0
(0.6)
37.0
(2.8)
44.4
(6.9)
51.9
(11.1)
61.4
(16.3)
68.8
(20.4)
71.2
(21.8)
70.7
(21.5)
63.5
(17.5)
53.6
(12)
42.3
(5.7)
33.6
(0.9)
52.6
(11.4)
Record low °F (°C) −9
(−23)
−7
(−22)
9
(−13)
25
(−4)
33
(1)
44
(7)
54
(12)
48
(9)
38
(3)
23
(−5)
13
(−11)
−7
(−22)
−9
(−23)
Precipitation inches (mm) 1.02
(25.9)
1.36
(34.5)
1.74
(44.2)
1.64
(41.7)
3.18
(80.8)
3.56
(90.4)
1.87
(47.5)
2.59
(65.8)
2.24
(56.9)
2.98
(75.7)
1.41
(35.8)
1.23
(31.2)
24.82
(630.4)
Snowfall inches (cm) 1.8
(4.6)
0.9
(2.3)
0.4
(1)
0.4
(1)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.5
(1.3)
1.2
(3)
5.2
(13.2)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 4.7 5.4 6.0 5.0 7.7 7.0 5.1 5.9 5.8 6.6 4.6 5.1 68.9
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 0.9 0.7 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 0.6 2.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 204.6 203.4 263.5 282.0 306.9 330.0 347.2 316.2 258.0 248.0 198.0 192.2 3,150
Source: National Weather Service, San Angelo[10] Hong Kong Observatory (sun only, 1961–1990)[11]


Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1890 3,194
1900 3,411 6.8%
1910 9,204 169.8%
1920 10,274 11.6%
1930 23,175 125.6%
1940 26,612 14.8%
1950 45,570 71.2%
1960 90,368 98.3%
1970 89,653 −0.8%
1980 98,315 9.7%
1990 106,707 8.5%
2000 115,930 8.6%
2010 117,063 1.0%
U.S. Census Bureau[12] Texas Almanac[13]

As of the census[2] of 2000, there were 115,930 people, 2005 estimate placed the city's population at 120,021, 41,570 households, and 28,101 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,102.7 people per square mile (425.8/km²). There were 45,618 housing units at an average density of 433.9 per square mile (167.5/km²). The ethnic makeup of the city was 78.07% White, 8.81% African American, 0.55% Native American, 1.33% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 8.73% from other races, and 2.44% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 19.45% of the population.

There were 41,570 households, of which 34.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.0% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.4% were non-families. About 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.07.

In the city the population was distributed as 25.6% under the age of 18, 15.3% from 18 to 24, 28.9% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to 64, and 12.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 102.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $33,007, and the median income for a family was $40,028. Males had a median income of $28,078 versus $20,918 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,577. About 10.9% of families and 15.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.6% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.

As of the 2010 census Abilene had a population of 117,063. The racial and ethnic makeup of the population was 62.4% non-Hispanic white, 9.6% black or African-American, 0.7% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% non-Hispanic reporting some other race, 3.3% two or more races and 24.5% Hispanic or Latino.[14]

Government and infrastructure[edit]

The Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) operates the Abilene District Parole Office in the city.[15] The Robertson Unit prison and the Middleton Unit transfer unit are in Abilene and in Jones County.[16][17][18]

The United States Postal Service operates the Abilene Post Office and the Abilene Southern Hills Post Office.[19][20]

Education[edit]

Secondary education[edit]

Abilene has two school districts within the city limits, the Abilene Independent School District (AISD) and Wylie Independent School District (WISD). The local high schools are Abilene High School and Cooper High School of AISD and Wylie High School of WISD. A new building on the Hardin-Simmons University campus serves AISD high school students as a magnet school, called Holland Medical High School, as well as HSU students as the Holland School of Sciences and Mathematics. The Holland Medical High School is affiliated with Hendrick Medical Center, which is across Ambler Avenue from the university campus. Abilene also has a new high school that opened in the fall of 2009, the Academy of Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Science (A.T.E.M.S.). It is a STEM school, which focuses on computer science, engineering science, and mathematics. The school only accepts about 100 students each year, provides each student with their own laptop computer, and is located inside the Abilene campus of Texas State Technical College.

AISD has begun taking steps towards creating magnet schools for the school district. The district is considering locating a specialized math and science classroom at McMurry University, taught by both a university professor and AISD teacher, on the campus. A plan for the future calls for the creation of a magnet school system specializing in four areas: math, science, technology, and fine arts. The four areas will be divided among each of the four middle schools in the district. Regular curriculum will still be taught, but extra emphasis and equipment would be given based on the specific field of the school, such as extra labs for a science school, and an instrument lab for a fine arts school.[21] Also, Bond Proposition 2 for the 2008 AISD bond election proposed a new Professional and Technology magnet school to be located at Lincoln Middle School,[22] one of the oldest schools in the city, after a major renovation project.

Rankings[edit]

Abilene ranked by Business Outlook Magazine as the 17th city in the nation for their public education system in 2006, the highest ranked city in Texas.[23]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Abilene is home to seven colleges, three of which are religiously affiliated. Hardin-Simmons University is the oldest, founded in 1891. Abilene Christian University is the largest with their 2012 undergraduate enrollment at 4,371.

Name Affiliation Founded Enrollment
Abilene Christian University Churches of Christ 1906 4,371[24]
Abilene Commercial College 1963 200[25]
Cisco Junior College Cisco College 1972[26] 3,806[24]
Hardin-Simmons University Baptist 1891 2,301[24]
McMurry University Methodist 1923 1,372[24]
Texas State Technical College West Texas Texas State 1985 1,049[24]
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Abilene Campus Texas Tech 2006 320

Notable buildings[edit]

The many historical buildings in Abilene include the following:

  • Marshal Tom Hill House in Buffalo Gap Historic Village south of Abilene echoes a moving human interest story. When Hill died in an accidental shooting at thirty-two years of age in 1886, his wife, Mollie, and daughter, Belle, were left to provide for themselves in difficult times over six decades.
  • The Dodd-Harkrider House at 2026 North Third Street is a two-story Four-Square dwelling provides a glimpse into the Americana of 1915.
  • Wooten Hotel (1930) at 302 Cypress Street downtown, built by grocery entrepreneur H. O. Wooten, sixteen stories tall, is designed after the Drake Hotel in Chicago. It was restored in 2004 as apartments for the upwardly mobile.
  • First Baptist Church (1954) at 1442 North Second Street has a spire 140 feet from the ground. Pastor Dr. Jesse Northcutt oversaw the planning of this building of 325 tons of steel.
  • The Church of the Heavenly Rest, Episcopal, at 602 Meander Street, reflects surprising Gothic architecture on the West Texas Plains. Its plaque reads: "No man entering a house ignores him who dwells in it. This is the house of God and He is here."
  • The Moreland-Shaheen House, 1120 Elmwood Drive, is a 1946 Art Moderne dwelling, shaded by six fruit trees, is also referred to as the "Sugar House" because Henry Moreland operated the Abilene Dr Pepper and 7-Up bottling companies.

An Abilene dwelling has an indirect link to Hollywood actress Joan Crawford: her father, Thomas LeSeur, was a construction laborer on the George R. Davis House at 718 Victoria Street, built in 1930 in Prairie School architecture.

  • The 20-story Enterprise Building at 500 Chestnut Street, the highest structure in Abilene, soars to 283 feet above the Plains.
  • The Taylor County Courthouse at 300 Oak Street, with its international architectural style of concrete and pink granite, resembles few other courthouses.
  • Paramount Theatre at 352 Cypress Street opened in 1930 and restored in 1986 had an original marquee 90 feet tall, with 1,400 lights.
  • Abilene Courts at 633 South Eleventh Street, a defunct motel built in 1930 alongside The Bankhead Highway (the precursor to U.S. Highway 80 and Interstate 20) reflects the Abilene of yesteryear.[27]

Health care[edit]

The largest hospital facility in the area is the Hendrick Medical Center, opened in 1934, and now consists of a 504-bed hospital facility, and employs 2,600 staff. It is one of seven healthcare institutions affiliated with the Baptist General Convention of Texas.[28]

The Abilene Regional Medical Center was built by a group of physicians in 1968 as the West Texas Medical Center. It has a 231-bed hospital, with 200 physicians and 800 staff.[29]

The Presbyterian Medical Care Mission was founded in 1983 as a medical and dental clinic. Its services are focused to low-income individuals and families without insurance.[30]

Culture[edit]

The cultural aspects of Abilene center around a mix of the local college and university campuses, the agriculture community of the surrounding area, and the numerous evangelical churches present. The Abilene Arts Alliance captured the essence of the city with "Frontiering," a brand name for the city introduced in November 2008 to connect its pioneer spirit with its modern efforts to push the boundaries of education, technology, transportation, energy, the arts, and health care. Abilene is also home to the restored Paramount Theatre, The Abilene Philharmonic, The Grace Museum, the Center for Contemporary Arts, the National Center for Children's Illustrated Literature, The Abilene Zoo, Frontier Texas!, the 12th Armored Division Museum, Taylor County Coliseum, six libraries (3 private, 3 public), twenty-six public parks, six television stations and several radio stations, including one NPR station (89.7 KACU).

The city plays an important part in Richard Kelly's 2007 film, Southland Tales, as well as his unproduced 1999 screenplay adaptation of Holes, both of which take place in the years following a nuclear attack on the city, where much of Kelly's family lives.

Economy[edit]

The economy in Abilene was originally based on the livestock and agricultural sectors,[1] but has since evolved and is now based strongly on Government, Education, Healthcare, and Manufacturing. The petroleum industry is prevalent in the surrounding area also.[1] The city has established incentives to bring new businesses to the area, including job training grants, relocation grants, and more.[31]

Top employers[edit]

The following are the top ten employers in Abilene, as of January 2013:[32]

Rank Employer # of Employees Industry
1 Dyess Air Force Base 5038 Government
2 Hendrick Health System 2869 Healthcare
3 Abilene ISD 2413 Education
4 Abilene State Supported Living Center 1472 Government
5 City of Abilene 1200 Government
6 Texas Department of Criminal Justice 1128 Government
7 Blue Cross Blue Shield of Texas Claims Center 1050 Call Center
8 Abilene Christian University 772 Education
9 Abilene Regional Medical Center 750 Healthcare
10 Teleperformance USA 600 Call Center

Recreation and entertainment[edit]

Park system[edit]

The Abilene park system includes 29 parks, occupying a total of 1,247.56 acres (5.0487 km2). In addition, three athletic complexes located throughout the city are under the jurisdiction of the parks department.

The new Abilene Zoo entrance sign

The Abilene Zoo is a popular attraction in Abilene, boasting several hundred animals of various species. It hosts educational and summer programs as well as special events throughout the year. Currently, the zoo is undergoing expansion with the addition of a black rhino exhibit this year. Next to arrive will be South American Maned Wolves and cougars as well as an expanded giraffe exhibit and a wetlands exhibit. The Elm Creek backyard area will be built to house locally found animals such as armadillos, skunks, and river otters.

Events[edit]

The West Texas Fair & Rodeo, held annually for ten days in mid-September, features exhibits and amusements reflecting early days of Abilene, plus modern attractions of West Texas.

The Western Heritage Classic in early May features ranch rodeo, campfire cook-off, sheepdog trials, farrier competition, Cowboy Poets Society, a Western art show and many other activities.

On every second Thursday evening of the month, Artwalk is held in downtown Abilene. During Artwalk all the local museums are free, local musicians and performers busk, and several crafters and artists set up booths and sell their wares.

There are also several special-interest conventions, festivals, and shows scattered throughout the year, including the Abilene Gem and Mineral Show, the West Texas Book and Music Festival, the Abilene Gun and Knife Show, the Friends of the Abilene Public Library book sale.

Also of note is the annual Abilene High vs. Cooper High football game, the Crosstown Showdown, usually held near Halloween. Two of these games, in 2001 and 2002, were for the district championship and were called the “Showdown at Shotwell” as games were played at Shotwell Stadium.

Photo gallery[edit]

Media[edit]

Newspapers[edit]

The Abilene Reporter-News is the primary daily newspaper of the city of Abilene and the surrounding Big Country area.

Television[edit]

Radio[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Major highways[edit]

Airport[edit]

The city of Abilene is served by Abilene Regional Airport.

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abilene". Encyclopedia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8. 
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  4. ^ "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas". 2011 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. July 1, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2012. 
  5. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  6. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. p. 22. ISBN 0-7884-0579-9. 
  7. ^ Abilene's Top Employers/Manufacturers[dead link]
  8. ^ "History of Abilene "From railroad tracks to vapor trails"". myabilene.com. Retrieved 2 October 2012. [dead link]
  9. ^ Historical Highlights - MyAbilene.com
  10. ^ "Abilene Climate Data". National Weather Service, San Angelo. Retrieved 2014-07-21. 
  11. ^ "Climatological Normals of Abilene". Hong Kong SAR Government. Retrieved 2011-12-10. 
  12. ^ http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/SAFFPopulation?_event=Search&_name=abilene&_state=04000US48&_county=abilene&_cityTown=abilene&_zip=&_sse=on&_lang=en&pctxt=fph%7CUS Census
  13. ^ http://www.texasalmanac.com/population/population-city-history.pdf%7CTexas Almanac
  14. ^ 2010 Census report for Abilene
  15. ^ "Parole Division Region V." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 22, 2010.
  16. ^ "Super Neighborhood Areas." (Direct map link) City of Abilene. Retrieved on July 23, 2010.
  17. ^ "Robertson Unit." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on July 23, 2010.
  18. ^ "Middleton Unit." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on July 23, 2010.
  19. ^ "Post Office Location - ABILENE." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 22, 2010.
  20. ^ "Post Office Location - ABILENE SOUTHERN HILLS." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 22, 2010.
  21. ^ Reporter-News "Attracting magnet schools"
  22. ^ "Lincoln a Magnet School?". reporternews.com. April 12, 2008. [dead link]
  23. ^ AISD News/Events Abilene Ranked 17th Best in Nation
  24. ^ a b c d e Fowler, Ethan (12 September 2012). "Tarleton State, TSTC increase fall enrollments; other Big Country schools decline". Abilene Reporter News. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  25. ^ Adame, Jamie (2 November 2012). "American Commercial College students in Abilene sent home as federal agents with Dept. of Education take over". Abilene Reporter News. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  26. ^ Bethel, Brian (27 January 2006). "Cisco Junior College Abilene outgrows building". Abilene Reporter News. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  27. ^ Donald S. Frazier and Robert F. Pace, with photographs by Steve Butman, Abilene Landmarks: An Illustrated Tour (Abilene Texas: State House Press at McMurry University, 2008) ISBN=978-193333730-2
  28. ^ "About Us". ehendrick.org. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  29. ^ "About Us". abileneregional.com. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  30. ^ "Medical Care Mission : Abilene". medicalcaremission.org. Retrieved 2 October 2012. 
  31. ^ "Incentives : Abilene Industrial Foundation". Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  32. ^ "Major Employers". Retrieved 22 January 2013. 
  33. ^ a b c Al Pickett. "Abilene has produced more than its share of stars," Abilene Reporter-News, December 24, 1999.
  34. ^ "Not Guilty". cowboysforchrist.net. Retrieved February 6, 2014. 
  35. ^ ACU Centennial: Billy Olson
  36. ^ Ted Dunnam. "Coaching by Hood vaulted ACU over top," Abilene Reporter-News, June 25, 2000.
  37. ^ All-Time U.S. Rankings — Men’s Pole Vault, ranked #1 in the world for 1982.
  38. ^ Frank Litsky. "Billy Olson is inching ahead on way to a 19-foot (5.8 m) vault," The New York Times, February 22, 1982, page C6, column 1 (late city final edition).
  39. ^ Abilene, Texas at the Internet Movie Database
  40. ^ Coe, Andre (25 April 2000). "Abilene gives Western farewell to delegates from new sister city". Abilene Reporter-News. Retrieved 21 September 2013. 

External links[edit]