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Aarakocra[edit]

Aarakocra
Characteristics
Alignment Neutral Good
Type Monstrous Humanoid
Image Wizards.com image
Publication history
Source books Monsters of Faerun, Monstrous Compendium Volume 2, 1E Fiend Folio, Terrors Beyond Tyr, Monstrous Manual, Races of Faerun, Dark Sun Creature Catalog

In the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy tabletop role-playing game, the aarakocra (/ɑrəˈkkrə/ ar-ə-KOH-krə[1][2] are a race of bird-like monstrous humanoids dwelling in high mountains. First appearing in the Fiend Folio in 1981, they have since appeared in and been adapted to numerous campaign settings including Greyhawk, Dragonlance, Dark Sun, and the Forgotten Realms.

Publication history[edit]

The aarakocra (bird-man) first appeared in the Fiend Folio (1981) and were credited to Lawrence Schick.[3] The article "The Wings of Eagles" by J.E. Keeping from Dragon #124 (August 1987) presents the aarakocra as both a player character and non-player character race. A sidebar by Christopher Jones introduced the lesser god Krocaa as the god of aarakocra.[4]

The aarakocra first appeared in second edition in Monstrous Compendium Volume Two (1989),[5] which was reprinted in the Monstrous Manual (1993).[6]

The aarakocra is presented as a playable character race in The Complete Book of Humanoids (1993),[7] and is later presented as a playable character race again in Player's Option: Skills & Powers (1995).[8]

Aarakocra were introduced as a playable race for the Dark Sun setting in the Revised Dark Sun Campaign Setting.[9]

The aarakocra appeared for third edition in Monsters of Faerûn (2001),[10] and then appeared as a player character race in Races of Faerûn (2003).[11]

Aarakocra entry appeared in 4th edition Dark Sun Creature Catalog, featuring Aarakocra Diver, Aarakocra Warrior, and Aarakocra Windcaller.

Ecology[edit]

Aarakocra resemble humanoid birds. The average specimen stands about five feet tall and has a wingspan of twenty feet. Halfway along the edge of each wing is a hand with three human-sized fingers and an opposable thumb. An elongated fourth finger extends the length of the wing and locks in place during flight. The hands cannot grasp while flying, but are nearly as useful as human hands when an aarakocra is perched and its wings folded back. Their powerful legs end in four sharp talons that can unlock and fold back to reveal another pair of functional hands. These humanoids have hollow, fragile bones. Their faces combine the features of both parrots and eagles. They have gray-black beaks and black eyes. Plumage color varies, but males generally have red, orange, and yellow coloration, while females tend towards brown and gray.[5]

Aarakocra inhabit high mountains.

The standard alignment of aarakocra is neutral good.

Society[edit]

Aarakocra live in small tribes of about 11-30 members. Each tribe has a hunting territory of about 10,000 square miles (26,000 km2) with colorful banners and pennants marking the boundaries.

Each tribe lives in a communal nest made of woven vines with a soft lining of dried grass. The eldest male serves as the tribe's leader. In tribes of more than 20 members, the second oldest male serves as the shaman, leading simple religious ceremonies involving the whistling of melodic hymns at sunset on the first day of a new month. Males spend most of their waking hours hunting for food and occasionally for treasure, such as gems and other shiny objects. Females spend eight months of the year incubating their eggs, passing the time by fabricating javelins and other tools from wood and stone. While resting on their backs, aarakocra females can use all four hands at the same time to weave boundary pennants, javelins sheaths, and other useful objects from vines and feathers.[5]

Aarakocra have little to do with other species, including neighboring aarakocra tribes, and leave their home territory only in extreme circumstances. They rarely encounter humans except for an occasional foray into a rural community to snatch a stray farm animal; this is not an intentionally malicious act, as aarakocra are unable to distinguish between domestic and wild animals. A human venturing into aarakocra territory may be able to convince one to serve as a guide or a scout in exchange for a shiny jewel or coin.[5]

Aarakocra are extremely claustrophobic and will not willingly enter a cave, building, or other enclosed area.

Aarakocra worship the goddess Syranita.[12]

Five aarakocra, including a shaman, can summon an air elemental by chanting and performing an intricate aerial dance. The summoned air elemental will comply with the aarakocras' request for a favor, though it will not endanger its life on their behalf.

Use in campaign settings[edit]

Aarakocra appear in several campaign settings.

In the Dark Sun setting, aarakocra are one of several player character races. Aarakocra inhabit the Jagged Cliffs region. Most aarakocra live in mountain tribes.

In Dragonlance, living amongst the mountains of Krynn, aarakocra are rivals of the kyrie and often fight over living space, especially those tribes on the island of Karthay where aarakocra have been known to work with barbaric minotaur tribes to hunt kyrie. Aarakocra that live in the Abanasinia region often trade with the phaethons that live among the Sentinel peaks.

Aaracokra feature statistically only in the Forgotten Realms campaign setting in 3rd Edition Dungeons & Dragons. In this setting, they are thought to be an immigrant race to Faerûn from Maztica.[11] Aarakocras almost all worship Aerdrie Faenya, who appears to them as a giant white bird.[11] In Faerûn this rare people have just four established colonies: in the Star Mounts in the High Forest, in the Storm Horns in Cormyr, in the Cloven Mountains on the Vilhon Reach, and in the Mistcliffs in Chult.[10] However the Star Mounts colony has been almost wholly destroyed by a green dragon called Elaacrimalicros.[10]

In the World of Greyhawk setting, aarakocra have been encountered in the Rakers, Corrusk, Griff, Lortmil, and Yatil Mountains. Aarakocra also dwell on the planet Edill.

Abishai[edit]

Abishai
Abishai.JPG

Abishai (/ˈæbɨʃ/ AB-i-shy[2]) are a fictional species of baatezu (devils) in the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game.

Publication history[edit]

The first edition AD&D article "From the Sorcerer's Scroll: New Denizens of Devildom" by Gary Gygax in Dragon #75 (July 1983) introduced the black abishai, blue abishai, green abishai, red abishai, and white abishai (lesser devil),[13] and then appeared in the first edition Monster Manual II (1983).[14]

The black abishai, green abishai, and red abishai lesser baatezu appear in second edition in the Monstrous Compendium Volume Outer Planes Appendix (1991),[15] and next appear in the Monstrous Manual (1993).[16] The black abishai, green abishai, and red abishai lesser baatezu are detailed for the Planescape setting in the first Planescape Monstrous Compendium Appendix (1994).[17]

The black abishai, blue abishai, green abishai, red abishai, and white abishai setting appear in third edition for the Forgotten Realms in Monsters of Faerûn (2000).[18] Fiendish Codex II: Tyrants of the Nine Hells (2006) includes the black abishai, blue abishai, green abishai, red abishai, and white abishai.[19]

Description[edit]

The abishai are a subgroup of Baatezu created through the joint efforts of Tiamat and Pearza of the Dark Eight. They are humanoid creatures that resemble gargoyles or humanoid dragons. There are five kinds, easily distinguishable by color (black, blue, green, red, and white). Most abishai are servitors of the dragon goddess Tiamat. They are the scouts, torturers, and wardens of the first two layers of Baator.

Ranked in power, the red abishai are the most powerful, followed by the blue, green, black, and white.

Aboleth[edit]

Aboleth
Characteristics
Alignment Lawful Evil (usually)
Type Aberration
Image Wizards.com image
Stats Open Game License stats
Publication history
Source books Monster Manual 3.5

In the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game, aboleths (/ˈæbɵlɛθ/ AB-o-leth)[2] are a fictitious race of malevolent, eel-like aberrations with potent psionic abilities. Aboleths are some of the most ancient beings in existence according to Lords of Madness, a Dungeons & Dragons supplement book about creatures classified as "aberrations" such as aboleths, illithids and beholders.

Publication history[edit]

The aboleth was created by David "Zeb" Cook for the first edition of Advanced Dungeons & Dragons.

Advanced Dungeons & Dragons 1st edition (1977-1988)[edit]

The aboleth first appears in the module Dwellers of the Forbidden City (1981),[20] and later appears in the first edition Monster Manual II (1983).[14]

The aboleth was detailed in Dragon #131 (March 1988), in the "Ecology of the Aboleth",[21] which also describes the grand aboleth, the greater aboleth, the noble aboleth, and the ruler aboleth.

The saltwater aboleth appears in Dungeon #12 (July 1988).

Advanced Dungeons & Dragons 2nd edition (1989-1999)[edit]

The aboleth appears first in the Monstrous Compendium Volume Two (1989),[22] and is reprinted in the Monstrous Manual (1993).[16]

The abilities of psionic aboleths are detailed in The Complete Psionics Handbook (1991).[23]

The savant aboleth first appears in Night Below: An Underdark Campaign (1995),[24] and in Monstrous Compendium Annual Two (1995).

Dungeons & Dragons 3.0 edition (2000-2002)[edit]

The aboleth appears in the Monster Manual for this edition (2000).[25]

Dungeons & Dragons 3.5 edition (2003-2007)[edit]

The aboleth appears in the revised Monster Manual for this edition (2003), along with the aboleth mage.

The psionic aboleth appears in the Expanded Psionics Handbook (2004).[26]

The aboleth receives its own chapter in the book Lords of Madness: The Book of Aberrations (2005),[27] which also includes the amphibious aboleth, the stygian aboleth, and the uobilyth (aerial aboleth).

Dungeons & Dragons 4th edition (2008-)[edit]

The aboleth appears in the Monster Manual for this edition (2008), including the aboleth lasher, the aboleth slime mage, the aboleth observer, and the aboleth servitor.[28]

The aboleth movable citadel of Xxiphu is described in the Sixth Chapter of this edition's Forgotten Realms Campaign Guide (2008), in the Settlements and Features section.[29]

Physical description[edit]

Aboleths are fish-like amphibians, twenty feet long and weighing about 6,500 pounds; they continue to grow as they age, however, and some fantastically ancient specimens reach much longer lengths. They are a kind of hybrid of fish and eel with some insectoid and annelid qualities; they have long, tubular bodies, like that of an eel, but fish-like tails at the end and two fins near the head and a dorsal fin near the back. Their bodies are also segmented, which is a worm or insect-like characteristic. Their underbellies are orange-pink, and their topsides sea-green. A little bit back from the head are four long tentacles, two on each side, two on the topside and two on the underbelly. Their heads are roughly triangle shaped, with a spherical, somewhat beak-like nose. Above the nose are their three eyes, each one set atop the other. Tendrils and a few shorter tentacles dangle from the bottom of the head. Four blue-black slime-secreting orifices line the bottom of their bodies.

Aboleths have powerful psionic powers, being natural psions like the illithids. However, the aboleth, like the other archetypal aberrations, has a much more fearsome ability: aboleths secrete a viscous grey fluid, much like mucus, which brings about a terrible transformation in air-breathing creatures. The skin of the victim is transformed into a membrane which allows it to breathe in water, but robs the creature of air-breathing. This allows the aboleth to keep slaves, which it dominates and keeps captive with its mind. This same mucus is the only way aboleths breathe at all – if robbed of the ability to extrude aboleth slime, they suffocate in water or on land. Out of the water, an aboleth's membranelike skin dries out quickly, but this does not prove fatal. Instead, the aboleth will eventually enter a state of suspended animation, called long dreaming, a fate considered far worse than simply dying. It forms a tough, waterproof membrane, but, once the membrane is pierced, liquid floods out and death is usually not far off for the aboleth. With the exception of the gained damage reduction and increased armor class, an aboleth out of water is a sitting duck.

Another strange feature of aboleths is their memory. An aboleth is born with a racial memory, each individual inheriting the memories of its ancestors. Furthermore, it assimilates the memories of those it consumes. An aboleth's memories are stored in an ever-growing part of its brain which extends down its back as it ages. Aboleths enjoy spending time lost in particularly fine memories of their ancestors, and if they have nothing better to do, they may relive entire portions of their lives.

Aboleths do not die of old age, living indefinitely barring death from violence or disease.

Society[edit]

Aboleths are utterly self-centered as a race; they know they were among the first beings in existence, and see all else as theirs. Their enmity towards other races stems in part from their perception that these "upstart" races have stolen what is rightfully the aboleths'. All that stops them from conquering the surface is their weakness on land (though an aboleth is always a fierce opponent) and the fact that they would rather enjoy themselves than waste time subduing feeble creatures such as humans. By contrast they are greatly unsettled by the Illithids due to their lack of information over that race's creation.

Aboleth cities are vast affairs of bizarre and alien architecture, located deep underwater. The Shape of Water, located in the Underdark's Glimmersea, is the largest known Aboleth city. This is where the leaders of the race reside and hold council.

Aboleths have no gods. While they acknowledge the presence and power of gods, they have memories of a time long before any modern gods were worshipped and recall such gods' birth and often demise. They are not concerned with an afterlife since they intend to live forvever, considering death a failure. They do have a certain respect and reverence for the ancient beings known as the "Elder Evils" Bolothamogg, Holashner, Piscaethces, Shothotugg, and Y’chak, based on the Cthulhu Mythos of H. P. Lovecraft. According to the 2nd edition box set Night Below they do have a god, known as the Blood Queen.[24]

Other sources also indicate that a minority of them worship Juiblex.[30]

In the 4th Edition Underdark sourcebook, it is noted that some sages are unsure whether aboleths have a true self-awareness, or instead have a form of psyche utterly alien to all existence. It is also noted that aboleths were originally native to the Far Realm, and they actually seek to have not just the world, but the totality of the Astral Sea and Elemental Chaos as well, subsumed by the Far Realm.

Ecology[edit]

An aboleth brood consists of a parent and one to three offspring. Though the offspring are as large and as strong as the parent, they defer to the parent in all matters and obey it implicitly.

Aboleth have both male and female sexual organs. A mature aboleth reproduces once every five years by concealing itself in a cavern or other remote area, then laying a single egg and covering it in slime. The parent aboleth guards the egg while the embryo grows and develops, a process that takes about five years. A newborn aboleth takes about 10 years to mature.

The omnivorous aboleth will eat any organic matter, usually algae and micro-organisms, but they are also fond of intelligent prey so they can absorb nutrients and information at the same time. Aboleth have no natural enemies, as even the mightiest marine creatures give them a wide berth.

In campaign settings[edit]

Forgotten Realms[edit]

The aboleth were eventually roused from a period of hibernation that spanned millennia, and the city of Xxiphu has since risen above the Sea of Fallen Stars,[31] and the aboleth conquered territory for the Sovereignty.[29]

The Xxiphu citadel, a "glyph-inscribed obelisk wrapped in an eternal storm that soars over the surface of the world," is said to hold in its inscriptions meanings too ghastly for mortal minds to comprehend and remain sane, as well as the consciousnesses of some of the few enormous conscience-altered elder aboleths, whose minds are inimical to creatures not part of their ancient Sovereignty.[29]

Alaghi[edit]

Alaghi
Characteristics
Alignment Neutral
Type Monstrous Humanoid
Image Wizards.com image
Publication history
Source books Monsters of Faerun, Monstrous Compendium Annual 3, Forgotten Realms 2 (MC11)

In the Forgotten Realms campaign setting for the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game, the alaghi is a monstrous humanoid that lives in temperate mountains and forests. It is 6 feet tall and covered in shaggy brown hair. An alaghi is often neutral in alignment - however, villages of alaghi tend to be evil, while alaghi hermits tend to be nice and well faring creatures. Most alaghis are semi-nomadic hunter-gatherers.

The alaghi was introduced in the second edition in the Monstrous Compendium Forgotten Realms Appendix II (1991), which was later reprinted in Monstrous Compendium Annual Volume Three (1996).[32] The alaghi is presented as a playable character race in The Complete Book of Humanoids (1993),[7] and is later presented as a playable character race again in Player's Option: Skills & Powers (1995). The alaghi appeared in third edition in Monsters of Faerûn (2001).[33]

Aoa[edit]

Aoa
Characteristics
Alignment True Neutral
Type Outsider
Image Wizards.com image
Publication history
Source books 3rd Edition Fiend Folio

Aoa are fictional creatures in the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game. Aoa resemble huge blobs of quicksilver that float above the surface of whatever environment they may be found. Their surface is like a mirror and reflects all light. Aoa are surrounded by tiny orbs that randomly separate from the sphere and reabsorb back into it. These outsiders are born from the friction caused as a result of the rare occurrences when the Negative Energy Plane and Positive Energy Plane graze each other.

Publication history[edit]

The aoa droplet and the aoa sphere appeared in the third edition Fiend Folio (2003).[34]

Description[edit]

Aoa naturally reflect most attacks and spells. Since aoa reflect energy, scholars theorize that they may be a neutral counterpart to energons, such as the positive-energy xag-yas and negative-energy xeg-yis, which produce energy. Aoa can also release a pulse about three times per day that reflects magical energy back onto itself, which may destroy magical auras and shatter magic items.

Aoa are can be found floating around the Astral and Ethereal Planes, always seeking out large quantities of magic. They are most common at the borders of two or more planes where conflicting energies create magical maelstroms.

Aoa normally move slowly through the air, bobbing lazily. When they sense magic, they become excited or agitated and rush towards its source. When around spellcasting, an aoa will fly crazily around and try to intercept magical blasts and touch magical items. Aoa are sometimes summoned and used as guardians, kept content by low amounts of magic. Aoa do not appear to be very sentient; they do not speak nor seem to understand any languages.

A full-sized aoa is called a sphere. Smaller aoa called droplets split off from a sphere when it reflects a large amount of magical energy. Eventually, a droplet will grow to become a full-sized sphere.

Aranea[edit]

Aranea
Characteristics
Alignment Neutral
Type Magical beast
Image Wizards.com image
Stats Open Game License stats
Publication history
First appearance X1 The Isle of Dread

In the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game, the aranea is a spider-like magical beast that lives in temperate forests. Its natural form is that of a spider of monstrous size, with two small humanlike arms below its mandibles.

Publication history[edit]

The aranea first appeared in 1981 in the Dungeons & Dragons modules X1 Isle of Dread,[35] and X2 Castle Amber.[36] It description was later reprinted in AC9 Creature Catalogue (1986).

The aranea appeared in second edition Advanced Dungeons & Dragons in the Mystara Monstrous Compendium Appendix (1994), which was later reprinted in Monstrous Compendium Annual Three (1996).

The aranea appeared in the third edition in the Monster Manual (2000),[37] and then in the revised 3.5 Monster Manual (2003). The aranea appeared as a player character race in the book Savage Species (2003), and later in Dragon #351 (January 2007).

Description[edit]

An aranea is usually neutral in alignment. It has the ability to change its shape into that of a humanoid, or a spider-humanoid hybrid. It has the poison and webspinning ability of a spider, as well as the ability to cast spells like a sorcerer.

Other publishers[edit]

The aranea appeared in Paizo Publishing's book Pathfinder Roleplaying Game Bestiary 2 (2010), on page 30.[38]

Azerblood[edit]

An Azerblood is a type of planetouched that is the combination of a fire outsider known as an azer and dwarven blood, based in the campaign setting of the Forgotten Realms for Dungeons and Dragons fantasy role-playing game. As a planetouched, it is an outsider of the Native subtype with a collection of power based on its fiery bloodline as well as abilities based on its dwarven nature.

Both Dwarves and Azers pride law over chaos, but Azerbloods take after their outsider relatives in regard of good and evil by staying out of that conflict. So the common Azerblood is Lawful Neutral. Their favourite class is Fighter.

Publication history[edit]

The azerblood appeared in the third edition for the Forgotten Realms campaign setting in Dragon #350 (December 2006).[39]

Physical description[edit]

Azerblood resemble a dwarf of the Shield subrace for the most part, with some variations based on the outsider blood that flows in their veins[citation needed]. Common traits are metallic brass-coloured skin, flame-red hair and irises that appear to move with flames. They favour the Azer way of dressing in metallic skirts of brass, bronze and copper. But they will dress for necessity, including heavier armours.

Details[edit]

Azerblood usually dwell in their own small communities or within larger communities of dwarves. They worship the Dwarven gods, especially Gorm Gulthyn and Dumathoin. They prefer coins and trade goods as treasure, most likely due to their dwarven natures. In combat, they are well known[who?] for team tactics and using their natural protections against fire to cast flaming magics.

The most common society of Azerblood are those who live in the Small Teeth mountains of Amn[citation needed], as they are descendants of Clan Azerkyn of the Adamant Kingdom of Xothaerin. Azerblood are also born to shield dwarves in locations near natural outlets to the Elemental Plane of Fire or places of great heat, like the Lake of Steam.

References[edit]

  1. ^ )"Dungeons & Dragons FAQ". Wizards of the Coast. Archived from the original on 2008-10-03. Retrieved 2008-10-03. 
  2. ^ a b c Mentzer, Frank. "Ay pronunseeAY shun gyd" Dragon #93 (TSR, 1985)
  3. ^ Turnbull, Don, ed. Fiend Folio (TSR, 1981)
  4. ^ Keeping, J.E. "The Wings of Eagles." Dragon #124 (TSR, 1987)
  5. ^ a b c d Cook, David, et al. Monstrous Compendium Volume Two (TSR, 1989)
  6. ^ Stewart, Doug, ed. Monstrous Manual (TSR, 1994)
  7. ^ a b Slavicsek, Bill. The Complete Book of Humanoids (TSR, 1993)
  8. ^ Niles, Douglas and Dale Donovan. Player's Option: Skills & Powers (TSR, 1995)
  9. ^ Slavicsek, Bill. Dark Sun Campaign Setting, Expanded and Revised (TSR, 1995)
  10. ^ a b c Wyatt, James and Rob Heinsoo. Monstrous Compendium: Monsters of Faerûn (Wizards of the Coast, 2001)
  11. ^ a b c Reynolds, Sean K., Matt Forbeck, James Jacobs, Erik L. Boyd. Races of Faerûn (Wizards of the Coast, 2003)
  12. ^ Sargent, Carl. Monster Mythology (TSR, 1992)
  13. ^ Gygax, Gary. "From the Sorcerer's Scroll: New Denizens of Devildom." Dragon #75 (TSR, 1983)
  14. ^ a b Gygax, Gary. Monster Manual II (TSR, 1983)
  15. ^ LaFountain, J. Paul. Monstrous Compendium Outer Planes Appendix. (TSR, 1991)
  16. ^ a b Stewart, Doug, ed. Monstrous Manual (TSR, 1993)
  17. ^ Varney, Allen, ed. Planescape Monstrous Compendium Appendix (TSR, 1994)
  18. ^ Wyatt, James and Rob Heinsoo. Monstrous Compendium: Monsters of Faerûn (Wizards of the Coast, 2001)
  19. ^ Laws, Robin D., and Robert J. Schwalb. Fiendish Codex II: Tyrants of the Nine Hells (Wizards of the Coast, 2006)
  20. ^ Cook, David. Dwellers of the Forbidden City (TSR, 1981)
  21. ^ Grist, Brandon. "Ecology of the Aboleth." Dragon #131 (TSR, 1988)
  22. ^ Cook, David, et al. Monstrous Compendium Volume Two (TSR, 1989)
  23. ^ Winter, Steve. The Complete Psionics Handbook (TSR, 1991)
  24. ^ a b Sargent, Carl. Night Below: An Underdark Campaign (TSR, 1995)
  25. ^ Cook, Monte, Jonathan Tweet, and Skip Williams. Monster Manual (Wizards of the Coast, 2000)
  26. ^ Cordell, Bruce R. Expanded Psionics Handbook (Wizards of the Coast, 2004)
  27. ^ Baker, Rich, James Jacobs, and Steve Winter. Lords of Madness (Wizards of the Coast, 2005)
  28. ^ Mearls, Mike, Stephen Schubert, and James Wyatt. Monster Manual (Wizards of the Coast, 2008)
  29. ^ a b c Cordell, Bruce R., Ed Greenwood, and Chris Sims. Forgotten Realms Campaign Guide (Wizards of the Coast, 2008)
  30. ^ Sargent, Carl. Monster Mythology (TSR, 1992)
  31. ^ Bruce R. Cordell. City of Torment (Wizards of the Coast, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7869-5184-0
  32. ^ Pickens, Jon, ed. Monstrous Compendium Annual Volume Three (TSR, 1996)
  33. ^ Wyatt, James and Rob Heinsoo. Monstrous Compendium: Monsters of Faerûn (Wizards of the Coast, 2001)
  34. ^ Cagle, Eric; Jesse Decker; James Jacobs; Erik Mona; Matthew Sernett; Chris Thomasson; and James Wyatt. Fiend Folio, 2003 Wizards of the Coast, Inc.
  35. ^ Cook, David, and Tom Moldvay. The Isle of Dread (TSR, 1981)
  36. ^ Moldvay, Tom. Castle Amber (TSR, 1981)
  37. ^ Williams, Skip, Jonathan Tweet, and Monte Cook. Monster Manual (Wizards of the Coast, 2000)
  38. ^ Baur, Wolfgang, Jason Bulmahn, et al. Pathfinder Roleplaying Game Bestiary 2 (Paizo Publishing, 2010)
  39. ^ Boyd, Eric L. Legacies of Ancient Empires: Planetouched of Faerûn, Dragon #350 (Paizo Publishing), December 2006