Abkhazian railway

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Passenger train at the station of Psyrtskha
Adler-Sukhumi railway line
Adler
Adler – Sochi Airport section
Kherota River
Sochi Airport
Mzymta River
Sochi Olympic Village
Sochi Olympic Park
Vesyoloye
Abkhazian–Russian border
Psou
Gyachrypsh
Lapstra River
Mekhadyr River
Chashpsy River
Tsandryphsh
Kholodnaya River
Bagripsh
Anakhamsta River
Chigripsh
Chigripsh River
Zhayuapsy River
Abaata
Gagripsh
Demerdzhipa Street
Ashchyda
Gagra
Bagnasheni
Alachady
Bzyb
Atshda
Bzyb River
Kaldachuara
Myussera
Blabyrchua
Bаrmysh
Chudsyrta
Mshishta
Mshishta River
Apshdvany
Chypsy River
Ashishra
Gudauta
Gudou
Aapsta
Aapsta River
Tskvara
Lapsta
Psyrtskha
New Athos
Guandra
Shishkvara
Dsiata
Eshera
Gumista River
Ashadara
Sukhumi
Guma
Kelasuri
Kelasuri River
Machara River
Gulripsh
Dranda
Kodori
Kodori River
Adsjubsha
Kyndyg
Toumysh River
Tamysh
Aradu
Mokvi River
Ochamchira
Ochamchira – Akarmara section
Beslakhuba
Akuasnia
Gupi
Ghalidzga River
Tkvarcheli
Ghalidzga River
Akarmara
Okhurei River
Anaria
Okumi River
Achigvara
Shesheleti
Gali
Ojoghore River
Kojori River
Khumushkuri River
Salkhino
Khviti River
Sida River
Chuborni River
Khaia River
Tagiloni
De facto Abkhazian–Georgian border

The Abkhazian railway consists of a 101 km (63 mi) rail line along the Black Sea coast.[1] Built to 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 2732 in) Russian gauge, it connected Russia's North Caucasus Railway with Georgian railways prior to 1992. This connection was severed as a result of the War in Abkhazia. The railway is administered by the Abkhazskaya Zheleznaya Doroga (Russian: Абхазская Железная Дорога, Abkhaz: Аҧсны Аиҳаамҩа) company.

As of 2014, there were a few regular long-distance trains to Russia, Adler-Sukhumi local train and occasional freight traffic.[2]

History[edit]

Map of Abkhazia showing its railways
Station of Sukhumi

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union and damaging of the Transcaucasian Railway lines, the Samtredskoye part to the west of the Inguri River came under control of the Abkhazian railway.

The bridge over the Inguri River was blown up on 14 August 1992, which was the day when Georgian forces entered Abkhazia and is the date considered as the start of the War in Abkhazia. The pretext for sending the Georgian National Guard to Abkhazia in 1992 was to protect the railroad.[3] The bridge was subsequently restored but blown up again in 1993, after the end of the war.

The rest of the railway line also suffered greatly during the war. After the war ended, traffic was restored along the line. The railway system of Abkhazia was isolated in the 1990s, due to the blockade imposed by Russia.

On 25 December 2002 the Sochi-Sukhumi elektrichka train made its first run since the war, which let to Georgian protests.[4] As the number of Russian tourists greatly increased in the 2000s, the Psou-Sukhumi section was mainly repaired by Russia in 2004 and on 10 September 2004 the Moscow-Sukhumi train first arrived in the capital of Abkhazia.

The Ochamchira-Sukhumi, Sochi-Sukhumi and Tkvarcheli-Sukhumi elektrichkas, that had operated at various times from 1993, no longer operated by 2007 due to various infrastructure problems. The last of the elektrichka, Gudauta-Sukhumi, was closed down on the end of 2007.[5] The Adler-Gagra train service was resumed on 26 June 2010 by the Don-Prigorod company.[6]

Rail tunnel in Gagra was part of the project that enabled a rail link to be established between Georgia and Russia via Abkhaz ASSR in the 1940s

There have been proposals to restore destroyed parts of the railway and re-establish rail traffic between Russia and the Trans-Caucasian countries of Armenia and Georgia. The alternative route through Azerbaijan is significantly longer and not available at all, in the case of Armenia, due to the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. Georgia has long tied the restoration of rail traffic with the return of refugees to Abkhazia.

On 15 May 2009 the Abkhaz leader, Sergey Bagapsh, announced that Abkhazia's railway and airport would be transferred to Russia with management rights for ten years, a decision which caused a negative outcry in Abkhazia. According to the Abkhaz tycoon and opposition party leader, Beslan Butba, this has led to growing anti-Russian sentiment in Abkhazia.[7]

In late 2012 and early 2013 the new Georgian government under Prime Minister Ivanishvili repeatedly proposed to revamp the Abkhazian Railway and getting it hooked on the Georgian railways, specifically to appease Armenia, and enabling a commercial link to Russia.[8] This sparked domestic and international discussion in Armenia (the country with the most commercial interest in such a connection),[9][10] in Azerbaijan (which has fears it enables Russia with a more efficient military transport to its base in Gyumri, Armenia), and in Russia (Russian Railways owning the Armenian-based South Caucasus Railways).[11] The Abkhaz authorities first reacted dismissively to cooperate with such initiative, but later changed their tone.[12] Azerbaijan shortly threatened with consequences for the Kars–Tbilisi–Baku railway connection, due completion at the end of 2013, and suggested rising the gas price charged to Georgia. In Georgia there is still sharp opposition to reopening this railway link.[13][14]

Currently there is one daily train connection from the Russian Federation to Abkhazia, running from Adler to Sukhumi and returning the same day.[15]

References[edit]

External links[edit]