|Chairman of the Parliament of Iran|
7 August 1952 – 12 March 1953
|Prime Minister||Mohammad Mosaddegh|
|Preceded by||Mohammad-Reza Hekmat|
|Succeeded by||Hassan Emami|
|Died||March 14, 1962
|Political party||National Front|
Ayatollah Seyyed Abol-Ghasem Mostafavi Kashani (Persian: آیتالله سید ابوالقاسم مصطفوی کاشانی) (1882 in Tehran, Iran – 14 March 1962 in Tehran, Iran) was a prominent Twelver Shia Muslim cleric and former Chairman of the Parliament of Iran.
Early life 
His father, Ayatollah Hajj Seyyed Mostafavi Kashani (Persian: آیتالله حاج سید مصطفی کاشانی), was a noted clergyman of Shiism in his time. Abol-Ghasem was trained in Shia Islam by his religious parents and began study of the Quran soon after learning to read and write.
At 16, Abol-Ghasem went to an Islamic seminary to study literature, Arabic language, logic, semantics and speech, as well as the principles of Islamic jurisprudence, or Fiqh. He continued his education at the seminary in an-Najaf in the Qur'an and Hadiths as interpreted in Shia law, receiving his jurisprudence degree when he was 25.
Later life 
Personal life 
One of Kashani's children, Mahmoud Kashani, was head of the Iranian delegation to the International Court of Justice in The Hague, Netherlands, in Iran's case with the United States and a presidential candidate in the Iranian presidential elections of 1988 and 2005. His second son is Ahmad Kashani, a former member of Iranian parliament.
Kashani is also the great grandfather of Iranian-American filmmaker Sam Ali Kashani.
Political life 
Abol-Ghasem expressed Anti-capitalist leanings from early on in his career and opposed what he saw as "oppression, despotism and colonization." Because of these beliefs, he was especially popular with the poor in Tehran. He also advocated the return of Islamic government to Iran, though this was most likely for political reasons.
Due to nationalist positions, Ayatollah Kashani was arrested and exiled by the British and Soviets. He continued to oppose foreign, especially British, control of Iran's oil industry while in exile. After he returned from exile on 10 June 1950, he continued to protest. Angered by the fact that the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company paid Iran much less than it did the British, he organized a movement against it and was the "virtually alone among the leading mujtahids in joining" nationalist Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq, in his campaign to nationalize the Iranian oil industry in 1951.  Kashani served as speaker of the Majles (or lower house of Parliament), during the oil nationalization.
See also 
- Dabby, Elias. "The Ayatollah and Me." The Scribe - Journal of Babylonian Jewry. Issue 70, October 1998.
- Samii, A.W. "Falsafi, Kashani and the Baha'is
- MacKay, Sandra, The Iranians, (Plume, 1998) p.198
- Abrahamian, Ervand, Khomeinism : essays on the Islamic Republic, University of California Press, c1993. p.107