Aboriginal-based organized crime

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Aboriginal-based organized crime
Founding location Canada
Years active 1990's - present
Territory Canada, United States of America
Ethnicity Canadian Aboriginals
Criminal activities Drug trafficking, weapon trafficking, robbery, contract killing, fraud, money laundering, car theft, counterfeiting, extortion, illegal gambling, murder, prostitution

Aboriginal-based organized crime (ABOC) is a term used to refer to Canadian criminal organizations which have a significant percentage of Aboriginal members. These organizations are primarily found in the prairie provinces, which tend to have areas with high concentrations of people of Aboriginal descent.[1] ABOC is an important national monitored issue, as defined by Criminal Intelligence Service Canada.[2]

Unique features of Aboriginal gangs[edit]

Support and Facilitation: ABOC-classified organizations typically support and facilitate the actions of other groups, usually larger and well organized crime groups, such as the Helontaneous, and disorganized street-level criminal activities, primarily low-level trafficking of marijuana, cocaine and crack cocaine and, to a lesser extent, methamphetamine. The gangs are also involved in prostitution, breaking and entering, robberies, assaults, intimidation, vehicle theft and illicit drug debt collection".[2]

Aboriginal Recruitment: Recruitment typically takes place from Aboriginal populations in larger centres, correctional facilities and from First Nations.[2]

Criminal activities[edit]

There is confusion about how to properly intervene in preventing the growth of these gangs. One approach in Winnipeg recommended an all-Aboriginal school board in the face of increased gang involvement by Aboriginal youth.[3] These schools are viewed as a means of increasing respect for traditional Aboriginal values while giving youth the opportunity to avoid involvement in gangs. There is caution toward such strategies due to the fear that these schools, purely as an anti-crime initiative, will lead to ghettoization.[4] The thought of creating an Aboriginal school system struck some as reeking of segregation. Similar initiatives have been discussed in Saskatchewan, leading to a recommendation by the Federation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations in late 2009.[5]

Aboriginal street gangs[edit]

Indian Posse[edit]

Indian Posse, also known as the IP, is an Aboriginal street gang based in Winnipeg, Manitoba.[6] The first recorded incident from this gang took place in 1988. Originally, they were mainly active in Lac La Biche, Alberta and known as a high threat gang.

The Indian Posse was featured in the fictional film Stryker by Noam Gonick which presents a positive portrayal of the gang "Armies of Resistance” to poverty and other problems. The film dealt with conflicts involving the now-defunct rival gang Asian Bomb Squad. The main character was referred to as “Stryker,” which is a slang term for prospective recruits.[7]

It is estimated that there are over 12,000 Indian Posse members, making it the largest street gang in Canada. Indian Posse is active in Manitoba, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, British Columbia, Texas, Arizona and Oklahoma.[8] One of the alleged founders of the Indian Posse, Daniel Richard Wolfe, was murdered in the Saskatchewan Federal Penitentiary on 5 January 2010.[6]

Warriors[edit]

1. Manitoba Warriors

As the original branch of the Warriors, the Manitoba Warriors are a street gang distinct from other Aboriginal gangs in that they are largely made up of adults. It was founded in 1992 and, by 2000, the gang had over 400 members. They are identified by the colours black and white and are traditionally enemies of the Hells Angels.[9]

2. Alberta Warriors

The Alberta chapter of the Warriors gang arose after individuals from Alberta spent time in a Manitoba correctional facility in 1997. Their color is red; another, rival set of the Warriors called "Bloodless Dubs" (Blood-less meaning against the Blood-sided Warriors and Dubs referring to W, or Warriors) represent the color blue. According to the Calgary Herald, "the Alberta Warriors are most active in Edmonton, but maintain a relatively low profile"[10] Rivals include other ABOCs, such as the Bloods and the small Asian Crazy Dragons, as well as an Indian posse who are mainly active in the prisons.[11]

3. British Columbia Warriors

The British Columbia Warriors are a nomad chapter with no main base. They have high-profile members who are directly linked to the original Winnipeg Chapter. They are not a major organization in the Greater Vancouver area.

4. Saskatchewan Warriors

The Saskatchewan Warriors were an offshoot of the Manitoba chapter. A special unit was set up in Regina, Saskatchewan to stop the Manitoba Warriors from setting up a chapter in that city. The unit took a very directive approach toward stopping the gang from setting up anything formidable.[12]

It is estimated that there are over 7,000 Warriors members in Canada.

Redd Alert[edit]

Redd Alert is an Aboriginal street gang active mainly in Edmonton, Alberta and Regina, Saskatchewan, as well as to a lesser extent in Vancouver, British Columbia and Kamloops, British Columbia. It was "founded" in the mid-1990s but was not largely active until 2005. They wear red bandanas, and have a presence across institutions in the prairies. .[13]

Native Syndicate[edit]

Native Syndicate is an Aboriginal Criminal Organization, It was formed in 1994. Native Syndicate is currently Active in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Ontario, Alberta and some parts of USA. Membership is estimated to be in the thousands. They utilize a Mafia style organizational structure, but otherwise invoke Aboriginal imagery. Their official colours are white and black, but they wear a white bandanna. Their tattoos often resemble “\Z\” (symbolizing NS, or "Native Syndicate"), marked between the thumb and index finger. Rivals include Indian Posse, Native Syndicate Killers NSK and Warriors.[14]

Manitoba Blood Family[edit]

The Manitoba Blood Family is a Criminal Organization made up of several blood sets throughout Manitoba and Alberta. Their ages range from 16-25 mostly Natives and Metis. They are known for Drug Trafficking, Homicide, Weapons Trafficking, Home Invasions and other crimes. Their Rivals primarily are the Manitoba Warriors other rivals include Winnipeg Westside Crips, Most Organized Brothers and B-Side gangs. certain sets are known to be rivals with Indian Posse. MBF is active in Winnipeg, Brandon, Dauphin, Norway House, Portage La Prairie, Edmonton, Calgary and other reservations.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Aboriginal Gangs in Prairie Provinces in 'Crisis Proportions'". Culture. First Nations Drum. Retrieved 2009-12-21. [dead link]
  2. ^ a b c "Aboriginal Based Organized Crime". Criminal Intelligence Services Canada. Government of Canada. Retrieved 2009-12-21. 
  3. ^ "All-Aboriginal Board May Boost Grad Rates, Curb Gangs". News. CTV News. 
  4. ^ Welch, Mary Agnes. "Native-only schools eyed to fight crime". Numbers Watchdog. Retrieved 25 September 2013. 
  5. ^ "FSIN Calls For Aboriginal School System". News. Saskatoon Star-Phoenix. 
  6. ^ a b Friesen, Joe (2010-01-05). "Indian Posse gang leader killed in brawl". Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on 6 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-06. 
  7. ^ "Indian Posse: Prison Gang Profile". Insideprison.com. Archived from the original on 1 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-13. 
  8. ^ indianposseactive
  9. ^ "Manitoba Warriors: Prison Gang Profile". Insideprison.com. Archived from the original on 30 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-13. 
  10. ^ 21 May 2004 Calgary Herald
  11. ^ "Alberta Warriors: Prison Gang Profile". Insideprison.com. Archived from the original on 13 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-13. 
  12. ^ "Policing Gang Activity in Regina". News. Regina Leader Post. Archived from the original on 24 December 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-21. 
  13. ^ "Redd Alert: Prison Gang Profile". Insideprison.com. 2006-10-31. Archived from the original on 22 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-13. 
  14. ^ "Native Syndicate: Prison Gang Profile". Insideprison.com. Archived from the original on 22 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-13.