Abram Fitkin

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Abram Edward Fitkin
Born (1878-09-18)September 18, 1878
Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
Died March 18, 1933(1933-03-18) (aged 54)
Manhattan, New York, U.S.
Nationality American
Other names A.E. Fitkin
Occupation investment banker and philanthropist
Spouse(s) Susan Norris Fitkin (1896-1933)

Abram Edward Fitkin[1] (September 18, 1878 – March 18, 1933), was an American minister, investment banker, businessman, public utilities operator, and philanthropist, who founded and ran dozens of companies, including A.E. Fitkin & Co.; the National Public Service Corporation; the United States Engineering Corporation; and the General Engineering and Management Corporation, which by 1926 managed 178 utility companies in 18 US states and over 1,000 local communities. As a philantthropist Fitkin donated in excess of $3,000,000 to finance the construction of the Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Hospital in Manzini, Swaziland; the Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Institution in Scobeyville, New Jersey; the Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Pavilion for Children at the New Haven Hospital in Yale; and the Jersey Shore University Medical Center (formerly Raleigh Fitkin and Paul Morgan Memorial Hospital) at Neptune Township, New Jersey.[2]

Personal history[edit]

Abram Edward Fitkin was born on September 18, 1878 in Brooklyn, New York,[3][4][5] the sixth son and 11th of thirteen children of Mary E. Vought (born September 18, 1843 in Easton, Pennsylvania; died May 7, 1914) and Thomas Furlong Fitkin (born June 10, 1833 in Weston Turville, England; died March 2, 1914),[6][7][8] a harness-manufacturer,[9][10] who migrated to the USA in 1850,[11][12] settling in Brooklyn. Fitkin's parents were married on December 31, 1861.

Fitkin had thirteen brothers and sisters:[13] Thomas Ellsworth Fitkin (1862–1868); Louisa Fitkin (born 1863; died June 1879 of diphtheria);[14] Mary E. Fitkin Raynor (born October 1865; died 1952); [12][15] Nellie Fitkin Christy (born September 20, 1866; died 1936);[16][17] Walter Raleigh Fitkin (born October 1868; died June 1935);[8][18][19] Thomas George Fitkin (born and died in 1869); William Fitkin (born and died 1870); Robert Laurence Fitkin (born May 26, 1873; died February 20, 1938);[8][20][21] Maude Fitkin (born and died in 1875); Sarah "Sadie" Fitkin (1876–1882); Francis "Nance" Fitkin (born March 1880; died in 1880); and Fuller Fitkin (born and died in 1881).[18]

In June 1880 the Fitkin family lived on Second Street, Brooklyn.[8] Fitkin was a member of the Andrews Methodist Episcopal Church at 95 Richmond Street, Brooklyn.[22]

On October 15, 1895 Fitkin met Susan W. "Susie" Norris (born March 31, 1870 in Ely, Quebec, Canada; died October 18, 1951 in Oakland, California),[23][24] an ordained Canadian Quaker pastor, at a camp meeting in the Methodist Episcopal Church in Clintondale, New York, where she was entirely sanctified.[25][26] In mid-June 1896 the Clintondale Pentecostal Church was organized after another revival campaign, with Hiram F. Reynolds, a Methodist minister, deciding to join at that time.[27]

Ministry[edit]

For the next six months Fitkin, described as a "gifted evangelist",[28] was teamed with Susie Norris.[29] On February 26, 1896, Fitkin, transferred his church membership from the Andrews Methodist Episcopal Church in Brooklyn to the Marlborough Monthly meeting of the Society of Friends in Ulster County.[22] During their six months of itinerant ministry in New York state, Fitkin loaned Susan books on holiness, and many became Christians through their ministry.[28] According to Basil Miller: "This attraction grew into love, and at length love had its way, and they were married by William Thomas Willis (born October 1832),[30][31] a Quaker minister,[32] former pastor of the Clintondale Preparative Meeting of the Society of Friends at Clintondale, New York (1885-1889),[33] and then resident Quaker minister,[34][35][36] at his home in Clintondale[37] on May 14, 1896".[28]

After their wedding, the Fitkins continued to hold revival meetings "throughout the eastern states in campaigns when hundreds were converted and many led into the experience of full salvation".[38] In October 1896 the Fitkins rented a former blacksmith shop in Hopewell Junction, New York, where they conducted their services, with the result that "scores were converted", and on November 1, 1896, sixty of the converts were organized into a church,[39] with Fitkin and Susan agreeing to be the pastors.[40] At Fitkin's recommendation, the church affiliated with the newly established Association of Pentecostal Churches of America (APCA), a holiness denomination led at that time by William Howard Hoople.[41][42] Soon after the Fitkins started another church in Cornwall, New York, which they also pastored.[42] In April 1897 Fitkin was dropped from membership by the Marlborough Monthly Meeting because he has become a member of another denomination.[34] In 1898 Fitkin was ordained as a minister in the APCA at Brooklyn.[43]

By 1900 Fitkin and Susan were co-pastors of the APCA church in South Manchester, Connecticut,[44] where they lived in a rented house on Main Street.[23] On April 12, 1900, Susan Fitkin was elected president of the APCA's Women's Foreign Missionary Auxiliary at its second annual meeting, held in Saratoga, New York.[45] During the last four months of 1900, Fitkin and his wife devoted their efforts to traveling evangelism.[44]

As a consequence of the depressed economic circumstances caused by the Panic of 1893, Fitkin struggled financially while serving as a pastor and evangelist, with little financial support possible from the church.[46] Basil Miller records: "those years at the turn of the century were marked with struggle. There were times when the food on the parsonage table had literally been prayed in by Abram and Susan. ... Week by week a soup-bone graced the parsonage larder, the meat of which served the first day or so, the bone at length, mixed by a skillful hand with vegetables, becoming soup to end the week.[47]

On Thursday, May 14, 1903 Fitkin was the preacher at an all day holiness meeting at the Emanuel Pentecostal Church at 190 1/2 Main Street, Fitchburg, Massachusetts, pastored by John Norberry.[48]

After ministry[edit]

During 1903 Fitkin left pastoral ministry and ceased his evangelistic work[49] to devote his attention to making sufficient income to support both his family and his future ministry. Fitkin announced: "It is better to be a good businessman than a poor minister."[50] Fitkin admitted to his friend, Rev. E. G. Anderson, that at first he only aimed to make enough to be independent in God's work. The goal he set was a half million.[51]

By 1904 the Fitkins moved to Everett, Massachusetts, where Susan became the pastor of the APCA church.[52] Abram and Susan Fitkin had four children: A. Raleigh (born September 3, 1904 in Everett, Massachusetts; died September 7, 1914);[52] Mary-Louise (born June 12, 1907 in Swampscott, Massachusetts; died August 17, 1987 in Klamath Falls, Oregon);[52] Willis Carradine (born October 10, 1908 in Hollis, New York; died Meredith, New Hampshire); and Ralph MacFarland (born March 7, 1912; died July 16, 1962 in Dade County, Florida).

One of Fitkin's last ministry activities was as one of the preachers at the dedication of new church and parsonage for the Emmanuel Pentecostal Church at Peabody, Massachusetts on June 3, 1906.[53]

By the end of 1907 Fitkin and Susan, and their two children, moved to Brooklyn because of Fitkin's increased business activities.[51] In 1907 the Fitkins became members of the John Wesley Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene located at the corner of Saratoga Avenue and Sumpter Street, Brooklyn,[54] then pastored by William Howard Hoople.[55] Their third child, Willis Carradine, named in honor of holiness evangelist Beverly Carradine, was born on October 10, 1908 in Hollis, Queens[56] By April 1910 the Fitkins lived in their own home on Wallis Avenue, Queens, New York.[57] While living here, their fourth child, Ralph MacFarland was born March 7, 1912.[51]

After a fishing trip with his father in August 1914,[58] Raleigh Fitkin was thrown from their car after its axle broke. Miller records: "Though badly frightened, father and son seemed to be uninjured. The next day when Raleigh said that he had a severe abdominal pain, the family at first thought it a mere recurrence of appendicitis attacks, which previously had passed off with no after effects." Despite an operation in a home in Allenhurst, New Jersey and the efforts of six physicians, on September 14, 1914, Raleigh died.[59] Raleigh, who was "the light of the father's eye",[52] had testified to becoming a Christian at age 6, had indicated that he wanted to be a missionary to Africa.[60] Raleigh's funeral was held in Allenhurst, New Jersey.[51]

By January 1920 Fitkin and his family resided at 271 Brooklyn Avenue, Brooklyn;[61] by December 1926, Fitkin and his family lived at 8 Remsen Street, Brooklyn.[62]

By June 1927, Fitkin and his wife lived at a large estate, called "Milestones",[63] that overlooked the Atlantic Ocean at 16 and 18 Corlies Avenue (at the corner of Ocean Avenue), Allenhurst, New Jersey.[64] After a trip to California, Fitkin relocated the original colonial house to the rear of the property,[65] and had a 20-room, 3-story bungalow constructed in its place for the family residence.[66] At noon on June 14, 1927 Fitkin's only daughter, Mary-Louise, married Esley Foster Salsbury (1907–1993) at "Milestones", in a ceremony conducted by her cousin, Rev. Chauncey David Norris.[67][68] On October 21, 1927, Willis C. Fitkin married Helen Shubert at the St. Paul Methodist Episcopal Church in Ocean Grove, New Jersey.[69]

In July 1928 Fitkin took possession of Memory III,[65][70] which was described as "one of the outstanding yachts of her day", and was designed by Philadelphia naval architect Thomas D. Bowes and built by Defoe Boat and Motor Works of Bay City, Michigan specifically for Fitkin in 1927-28.[71][72][73][74][75] Memory III was a 306-ton steel yacht, 142 feet in length, with a beam of 23 feet and a draught of 9 feet 9 inches, and capable of a top speed of 12 knots.[76][77] In August 1928, Fitkin's other yacht, Adios II,[78] valued at $100,000, was attacked by a former steward who been fired by Fitkin.[79]

In October 1928, Fitkin was threatened with a loaded rifle by a US Coast Guard officer while on his way up the Shrewsbury River in a motor launch, as it was suspected he may have been involved in smuggling alcohol in violation of Prohibition laws. Angered by what he considered the officer's rude manner, Fitkin, "a lifelong Republican", vowed to vote for Democrat Al Smith in the 1928 US Presidential elections.[80][81][82]

On February 13, 1932 Ralph M. Fitkin and Lorene Hastings eloped and married at Elkton, Maryland.[83]

Career[edit]

In 1900 Fitkin began his business career in Boston as a bookkeeper, before moving to New York to become a manager at Pelser, Welker & Co., a financial firm that dealt mainly in railroad securities.[7][84][85] Fitkin formed Fitkin Securities Corp. as a holding company for all of his interests;[86] and in 1908 Fitkin formed a partnership with WC Harty, under the name of A.E Fitkin & Co,[87][88] which operated as an investment bank and security brokerage, specializing in public utility securities.[43] Walter Raleigh Fitkin (1868–1935), Fitkin's oldest living brother, was employed as a cashier at A.E. Fitkin & Co. in 1909.[89] In December 1912 A.E. Fitkin & Co. published a stock and bond sheet listing 600 unlisted securities.[90] Additionally, Fitkin created the United States Engineering Corp., an engineering and management subsidiary.[86]

Eventually Fitkin accumulated $75,000 from commissions, which he used as the "seed money" for his future success.[65] From 1912 Fitkin, later described as "a utility czar",[91] and as "a confident, testy builder and vendor of public utility systems",[92] focused on the acquisition, management, and sale of public utilities.[43][93] The Los Angeles Times later described Fitkin's strategy: "A.E. Fitkin, who makes a business of buying strategically located public utility properties, building them up with new capital and expert management, and selling the revamped set-up to one of its larger competitors."[94]

1913-1920[edit]

After borrowing $400,000 from a friend at the Guaranty Trust Company, in 1913 Fitkin bought control of The San Angelo Water, Light & Power Co. at San Angelo, Texas.[65][95][96] Before World War I, A.E. Fitkin & Co. drew on capital from New York, Chicago, and Saint Louis to acquire and consolidate a number of East Texas utility companies.[97] In 1916 A.E. Fitkin & Co. purchased the H. M. Spalding Electric Light Plant in Concordia, Kansas for $550,000 from Lemuel K. Green (died 1930).[98]

In 1918 A.E. Fitkin & Co. purchased a site on San Jacinto Bay and established an oil refinery for the manufacture of lubricants.[99] In May 1919 A.E. Fitkin & Co. sold most of their stock in the Mexican-Pantjo Oil Co.[100] In an effort to sell the balance of their holdings, W. C. Harty extolled the virtues of Mexican oil: "It is true that Mexican crude is of low grade, but for fuel purposes it is unequalled".[101]

In 1919 the Century Oil Company was incorporated by the General Engineering and Management Corporation,[102][103] one of the subsidiaries of A.E. Fitkin Co.[104] In October 30, 1924 Century Oil Company and six of its subsidiaries was put into receivership at the request of Fitkin.[102][105]

By August 1919 A.E. Fitkin & Co. had its headquarters at 141 Broadway, Manhattan, and branch offices in Boston, Pittsburgh, and Chicago.[106] On March 18, 1920 A.E. Fitkin & Co.'s partners were Fitkin, W.C. Harty, A,M. Hall II, L.L. Benedict, Jr., and M.J. O'Shaughnessy.[107] However, by August 24, 1920 O'Shaughnessy declared bankruptcy.[108][109] On September 1, 1921 Benedict and Hall both retired from A.E. Fitkin & Co.,[110] leaving Fitkin and Harty as the sole partners.[111]

1921-1927[edit]

On October 1, 1921[112] Fitkin bought the St. Petersburg Electric Light and Power Co. from Bird Malcolm Latham (born July 5, 1885 in Mahanoy City, Pennsylvania; died January 12, 1961 in St. Petersburg, Florida),[113] and renamed it the Pinellas County Power Co., which later became the Florida Power Corporation.[114]

On April 22, 1922 A.E. Fitkin & Co. purchased The Tidewater Power Company of Wilmington, N.C.,[115] which controlled the electric light, gas, and street railway companies of Wilmington, North Carolina, from Hugh MacRae for $5,000,000.[116][117][118] Fitkin became president and Harty became vice president.[119]

On October 30, 1922, Fitkin took over the Clearwater Lighting Company in Clearwater, Florida through the Tide Water Power Company,[120] and merged its assets with those of the St. Petersburg Lighting Company on November 15, 1922 to create the original Florida Power Corporation.[121][122] Fitkin was president of FPC until he appointed Bird Latham on October 25, 1925.[123] In February 1923 Fitkin was able to announce a minimum 12% reduction in power rates for St. Petersburg customers.[124]

In 1923 A.E. Fitkin & Co. had established the National Public Service Corporation (incorporated in Virginia in 1923),[125] with Fitkin as president,[126] to be a holding company for their utilities in eight US states, including its Jersey Central Power and Light Company.

In February 1924 A.E. Fitkin & Co. negotiated the purchase of the Miami Municipal street railway from Carl G. Fisher, after having already purchased the electric light and power plant at Miami Beach and the Miami Beach Electric Railway for $1,500,000.[127]

On March 16, 1924 A.E. Fitkin & Co. announced that they had acquired the Tri-County Electric Co. of Pompton Lakes, and the Consolidated Gas Company of New Jersey, which they would merge with their Jersey Central Power and Light Corporation.[128]

By 1925 Fitkin had formed the Fitkin Realty and Improvement Company of Delaware, with one of its first projects the sale for $80,000 of a property at 5th Street and 1st Avenue South in St. Petersburg, Florida to the Pinellas County Power Co. for the construction of the Florida Power Building, the headquarters of the Florida Power Corporation.[129]

In March 1925 the National Public Service Corporation acquired an additional seven utility companies in three states.[130] By December 1925 Fitkin's utility companies served more than 700 communities in fifteen US states.[131]

In January 1926 Fitkin Utilities acquired the Newport News Hamilton Railway, Gas and Electric Company of Virginia.[126][132][133]

By the end of February 1926, A.E. Fitkin's companies were operating in 18 states, and had increased its capital from $30,000,000 to $171,000,000 in the previous four years.[134] At that time, Bird Latham retired from his role in Fitkin's companies, proclaiming Fitkin, "one of the greatest men in America today, a big man who has really put sentiment into business".[135]

By March 1, 1926 Fitkin Utilities had acquired The Southside Virginia Power Co., and merged with its previous acquisitions in Virginia to form the Virginia Public Service Corporation, a subsidiary of National Public Service Corporation.[136][137]

In April 1926 Fitkin gave 10,000 shares of General Engineering and Management Corporation, which at that time managed the 178 companies in the Fitkin Utility group, to the company's 35 executives and department heads, in recognition of their efforts, saying: "those who devote their energies to upbuilding a concern are entitled to participate in benefits which their help creates".[138][139][140] Later in April 1926 two of A.E. Fitkin & Co.'s subsidiaries, Fitkin Utilities, Inc. and the General Engineering and Management Corporation purchased for $3,000,000 a fifteen year-old sixteen-story building at 84 William Street, New York, where they planned to relocate to after May, 1927.[141][142]

On June 1, 1926 North Carolina governor Angus Wilton McLean opened the one mile long concrete Wrightsville Beach causeway to Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina,[143][144] financed and constructed by A.E. Fitkin & Co. for $126,000, through a subsidiary, Wilmington-Wrightsville Beach Causeway Company., which charged users 10 cents to cross.[145][146] The Tide Water Power Company sold lots to develop Shore Acres.[147]

Fitkin was a booster of Florida's economic opportunities,[148] and was a dominant force during and but especially after the Florida land boom of the 1920s, purchasing undeveloped tracts of land, building and enlarging power plants due to anticipated and actual population increases,[149] and then connecting the new communities to his various utilities, including the Georgia Power & Light Co. (later Georgia-Florida Power Co.),[150] and selling the land with substantial profits.[151]

In June 1926, A.E. Fitkin & Co. merged 24 public utility companies held by Commonwealth Light and Power and by the Interstate Electric Corporation into a new Inland Power & Light Corporation.[152][153] In October 1927 Fitkin sold Inland Power & Light Co. to Samuel Insull and his interests, for $30,000,000.[65][93][154] By October 1926 Fitkin's utility companies served more than 1,000 communities in the USA.[155]

In November 1926 Fitkin merged four of his utilities companies in Florida into a new Florida Power Corporation,[156] which had been organized and incorporated by the National Public Service Corporation in February 1925 to take over the physical properties of the old Florida Power Corporation (incorporated in 1922).[157][158] On 1 March 1927 the organization of the new Florida Power Corporation, to be under the control of the National Public Service Corporation, was completed with the merger of the old Florida Power Corporation (1922), the Pinellas County Power Co., and the Central Florida Power & Light Co., valued at $20,000,000, and making it the largest electric power organization in Florida.[159][160]

In late 1926 Fitkin group purchased from Lemuel Green the West Missouri Power Company, which was to be merged with the Missouri Public Service Company (MPS).[98] By February 1927 Fitkin's companies provided utilities to 1,146 communities in 16 US states.[95]

In 1927 Fitkin sold his interests in the "Shore Acres" real estate development on Harbor Island, South Carolina to Oliver T. Wallace and Richard L. Player.[161]

Fitkin was optimistic about Florida's economic recovery after the collapse of the Florida Boom in 1925,[162] and invested heavily in Florida, indicating in March 1927: "We have invested many millions in Florida and the investment has been profitable. We have abundant faith in Florida's future and we are planning to extend our investment and our service to Florida by the expenditure of many more millions of dollars in permanent construction".[163] In July 1926 Fitkin & Co. indicated it would spend $12,000,000 to construct underground conduit in St. Petersburg, Florida, and power lines from there to other cities on Florida's west coast, and 88 communities on the east coast.[164][165]

On March 1, 1927 Fitkin sold its interest in the National Public Service Corporation to Day & Zimmermann for $250,000,000.[65][166][167] On March 25, 1927 A. E. Fitkin & Co. sold control Western United Corporation to Day & Zimmerman.[168] On October 27, 1927 A.E. Fitkin & Co. sold its interests in Commonwealth Light & Power Co. to Insull Son & Co.,[169][170][171] and in late 1927 Insull also acquired the Florida Power Corporation from the A.E. Fitkin & Co.[172]

1927-1933[edit]

In October 1927 Fitkin announced his retirement from the public utilities field to engage in Stock Exchange and investment activities.[93][173][174][175] A few days later Fitkin purchased a seat on the New York Stock Exchange for $255,000 from Walter L. Ross, but the Admissions Committee rejected Fitkin's admission at that time.[176][177] On October 26, 1927 Fitkin left New York to establish branches in Europe for his stockbroking business.[93]

In June 1928 Fitkin's personal fortune was estimated at $30,000,000.[178] In January 1928 Fitkin formed A.E. Fitkin Co., Inc., with offices in New York, Chicago and Los Angeles.[179] and later opened branches in San Francisco and Seattle.[180] Also in 1928 Fitkin formed A.E. Fitkin & Sons, Inc.[87][88]

In the summer of 1929 Fitkin formed the United American Utilities, Inc. as an investment trust,[181] which later created the Pacific Freight Lines Corporation, Ltd as its subsidiary.[181]

In early October 1929, just weeks before the Wall Street Crash, A.E. Fitkin & Co sold control of Pacific Public Service Co. to Standard Oil of California for $26,801,327,[182] which through subsidiaries operated the largest bottled spring and distilled water business in the world, supplied electric light, power and natural gas to 80 California communities in two areas, including the industrial region in Contra Costa County, and the city of Santa Cruz; owned 21 plants for the production of butane gas, including one at El Centro, then largest in the U.S.; and owned ice and cold storage plants, a 12-mile refrigeration pipeline that ran through the business district of Los Angeles, serving office buildings, markets and theatres,[92] to Standard Oil Company of California for $26,801,327.[183][184] By late 1929 A.E. Fitkin Limited had opened branches in Los Angeles and San Francisco, but had closed its branch in Boston.[185]

On January 2, 1930 Fitkin announced the reorganization of A.E. Fitkin & Co., which included the formation of Fitkin & Co., Ltd., an investment and securities corporation, that would succeed A.E. Fitkin & Co.[186] David A. Pepp of Los Angeles was appointed president of A. E Fitkin & Co., Ltd.[187][188]

In 1930 Fitkin became board chairman of American Gas & Power Co.[65]

In 1930 Fitkin gained control of Atlantic Public Utilities, Inc., which controlled the water supply of 200 communities on the Atlantic seaboard, but which had been placed in receivership after a drought.[189] In June 1931 Fitkin sold the utility assets of Atlantic Public Utilities, Inc., to Samuel Insull, giving him a foothold in every Atlantic State except Rhode Island,[190] and an additional 10 million customers.[189] Fitkin retained the water and ice properties and the Cleveland Southwestern railroad system.[189]

In January 1932 Fitkin re-entered the market and acquired control of the American Gas and Power Company, which was in receivership.[86][94][191][192] After Fitkin's death, control of American Gas and Power was acquired by F.W. Seymour through his purchase of its holding company, Community Gas & Power Co., in September 1934.[193]

In June 1932 Fitkin created A.E. Fitkin & Sons, a new securities brokerage, which succeeded A.E. Fitkin & Co.,[86] which admitted his two sons, W.C. Fitkin and Ralph F. Fitkin, as partners.[194]

Philanthropy[edit]

The death of Fitkin's oldest son, Raleigh (born September 3, 1904), "the light of the father's eye",[52] on September 7, 1914, was the primary factor in Fitkin's philanthropic enterprises. According to Basil Miller: "The lad Raleigh was to play an important role in the family's missionary future. ... [T]he boy's interest in missions prompted his father Abram to build at a cost of thousands of dollars the Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Hospital in Africa".[51] Fitkin's ability to make money financed his wife's ministry,

into which her husband's generosity in the span of his life poured a fortune. For during the days of her active service, she was to cover the foreign world more extensively than any church sire or leader among the Nazarenes. All of this was made possible by Abram's midas' touch. Traveling more than a half-million missionary miles, she did so without cost to the church she loved so deeply. Likewise she contributed through Mr. Fitkin's successes the expenses of her companion on home and foreign trips, as well as making liberal missionary donations. In the dim backdrop of this was Raleigh, whose missionary zeal and interest so touched his father's heartstrings that he could but be generous with God's work and philanthropic causes.[51]

While his wife dedicated her energies to promoting the missionary program of the Church of the Nazarene (in partnership with Hiram F. Reynolds) in her capacity as the unpaid founding president of the Nazarene Women's Missionary Society for almost 33 years from September 30, 1915,[195] "her husband poured into the cause of philanthropy and missions millions in memory of their beloved son Raleigh. That thread of interest wove in and out of A. E. Fitkin's career until he died. The dream of perpetuating Raleigh's memory was not one that came early and then vanished. But the father did good deed after good deed until his end".[195] According to Basil Miller: "Throughout the years of Mrs. Fitkin's missionary travels as president of the W.F.M.S., he financed liberally all her expenses as well as those of her companions en route. In addition there were large gifts directly to missionary causes, these amounts going far over the ten thousand mark in some years".[196]

Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Church of the Nazarene, Swaziland (1916)[edit]

Early in 1916 Susan Fitkin began dreaming of building a missionary chapel in Africa in memory of Raleigh. Abram Fitkin provided the funds to construct the Raleigh Fitkin Memorial church, "the first tangible memorial to that would-be child missionary, Raleigh",[197] at Piggs Peak, Swaziland.

Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Hospital, Piggs Peak, Swaziland (1919-1925)[edit]

In October 1916 the Fitkins advised Hiram F. Reynolds, a general superintendent of the Church of the Nazarene and head of its foreign missionary program, that they would "provide the money for the erection of a memorial hospital in Africa."[198] The Fitkins donated funds to build the Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Hospital, a small 18-bed facility built on the Nazarene mission compound at Piggs Peak, Swaziland from April 1919, and opened in 1920.[199][200][201] By 1919 the Nazarene mission station at Piggs Peak, formerly known as the Camp Station, was renamed the Fitkin Memorial Station.[202]

In 1925 the Swaziland government granted 35 acres of land fifty miles further south at Bremersdorp to the Church of the Nazarene for a hospital closer to the population centre of the country.[200][203] After the opening of the new Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Hospital in 1927, the old hospital building was used to house a portion of the Piggs Peak Nazarene Primary School.[204]

Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Hospital, Bremersdorp, Swaziland (1927)[edit]

Excluding the $10,000 contributed by members of the Church of the Nazarene from 1926,[205] the Fitkins and Mrs Ada E. Bresee were the principal donors of the substantial amount given to build the replacement 80-bed Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Hospital (RFMH) for the Church of the Nazarene in Bremersdorp, Swaziland.[200][206][207][208][209] By June 1925 the first stage was dedicated,[210] and on July 16, 1927, RFMH hospital was dedicated by Susan Norris Fitkin.[211][212][213][214]

Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Institution, New Jersey (1927)[edit]

By July 1927 Fitkin bought a 160 acre farm on the south side of the county road between Colt's Neck and Scobeyville, New Jersey for $26,000, which included an apple and peach orchards, crops, livestock, farm machinery, outbuildings and a century-old fifteen room house, which Fitkin intended to have enlarged and remodeled in order to use as an orphanage.[215]

Later in 1927 Fitkin donated $1,000,000 to build and endow the Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Institution, a hospital and home for crippled children on the state highway, between Eatontown and Freehold in Shrewsbury Township, New Jersey.[216][217] The plans included the purchase of 200 acres to establish a self-supporting farm to fund the Institute.[184]

Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Pavilion for Children, Connecticut (1928-1930)[edit]

On June 15, 1928 Fitkin donated $1,000,000 to Yale University for the care and treatment of children in memory of his oldest son, Raleigh,[218][219][220] with $500,000 for the study of children's diseases,[221] and another $500,000 for the construction of a 125-bed hospital[222] at the New Haven Hospital at 789 Howard Avenue in New Haven, Connecticut,[223][224][225] to be designed by Henry Colden Pelton (born October 18, 1868 in New York; died on August 28, 1935, in New York City),[226][227][228][229] who had previously designed Christodora House (1928), the Babies and Children's Hospital of New York at the Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center (1928), and the Riverside Church (1930).[230]

Escalating construction costs resulted in Fitkin donating an additional $100,000 in June 1929 to build the now larger six-story 136-bed Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Pavilion for Children.[223][224][225] Fitkin's donation allowed the expansion and consolidation of pediatric inpatient facilities in a single building, close to the departmental offices and clinic facilities.[231] Fitkin dedicated the hospital on February 8, 1930,[232][233] however at that time only two of five floors of the Fitkin buildings were assigned to pediatrics.[231] According to Howard Pearson, "Fifty inpatient beds were on Fitkin 3 and Fitkin 4, and included two air-conditioned rooms for premature infants. The outpatient clinic had 20 examining rooms on the third floor of the Clinic Building. There were two pediatric infectious disease wards on the second floor of the Isolation Building. This set-up remained essentially the same for the next 25 years".[231] The Fitkin wards remained the inpatient pediatric service at the hospital until the 1980s.[231]

Also in 1928 $1,000,000 was given to create the Ralph Fitkin Ward Unit in honor of Fitkin's youngest son for the "study and treatment of diseases of childhood".[234]

Raleigh Fitkin-Paul Morgan Memorial Hospital, New Jersey (1930)[edit]

In order to honor his deceased son, and also A.E. Fitkin & Co. Vice-President Paul L. Morgan (born about 1896; died March 1929), who died of pneumonia at the age of 32,[235][236] by May 1930 Fitkin contributed $500,000 to the Spring Lake Hospital Society to build the Fitkin-Morgan Memorial Hospital at Corlies Avenue in Neptune Township, New Jersey.[237][238] On November 19, 1930 Fitkin laid one of the cornerstones for the hospital,[239] which was opened on Thursday, November 19, 1931.[240][241][242] The hospital was founded as "a voluntary non-profit, general hospital "with the aim of providing "medical and surgical care and nursing service to the sick and injured who need the services of the hospital, regardless of their ability to pay".[238]

In 1966 the hospital's corporate name was changed to Jersey Shore University Medical Center - Fitkin Hospital.[243][244]

Church of the Nazarene[edit]

Fitkin also paid off the $50,000 mortgage of the John Wesley Church of the Nazarene, where he held his church membership since 1907.[245] In 1927 Fitkin and his wife gave $14,000 for Nazarene missions.[246]

DeWint Home (1932)[edit]

Fitkin was affiliated with several fraternal organizations, including the Corson Commandery, No. 15, of the Knights Templar, in Asbury Park, New Jersey.[87] By 1928 Fitkin was a member of the Altair Lodge No. 601 of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons in Brooklyn,[7][87][247] and served on its Board of Trustees Masonic Hall and Asylum Fund.[87][248] In May 1932 Fitkin was one of the four primary benefactors who purchased the historic Johannes de Wint home at Tappan, New York, where George Washington had made his temporary headquarters on four separate occasions during the American Revolutionary War, and then gave it to the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the State of New York to convert into a museum.[249]

Death[edit]

After a lengthy illness,[250] Fitkin died of chronic myocarditis and interstitial neuritis in the morning of Saturday, March 18, 1933 in his apartment at the Savoy-Plaza Hotel[9][251][252][253] Fitkin left an estate estimated at $250,000,000.[254][255][256] at the corner of Fifth Avenue and 59th Street in Manhattan, New York.[257] After a funeral on Monday, March 20, 1933 at his Allenhurst, New Jersey home,[248] he was buried in Brooklyn near his son, Raleigh.[258]

According to Fitkin's friend, Rev. Elmer G. Anderson: "While he had left the ministry, and lived during these years without God, still there was a tenderness in his heart concerning the work of the Kingdom. He was a man that literally lived under conviction. I have seen him close his door, refuse all appointments that might have meant thousands of dollars, and say to me, 'Elmer, read the Bible and pray with me.' Nor did he dispose of his early holiness and ministerial books."[196] Fitkin's wife believed that on his deathbed, when he was only fifty-four, he had returned to God. According to Miller: "She and the ministers who were his personal friends, E. G. Anderson and W. B. Riley, prayed for hours with him, until God gave Mrs. Fitkin the assurance that he had come back to the Father's home."[259]

Legacy[edit]

The Fitkin Memorial Church of the Nazarene (recently Fitkin's Memorial Church of the Nazarene), established at 1110 38th Avenue, Meridian, Mississippi by January 1948,[260][261] was one of the oldest African-American congregations in the Church of the Nazarene.[262]

Upon the occasion of the retirement in June 1948 of Susan Norris Fitkin after almost 33 years as its unpaid general president, the Nazarene Women's Foreign Missionary Society decided to honor her by raising $50,000 to establish the Fitkin Memorial Training School on the new Nazarene mission field in Ji'an, Jiangxi, China.[263][264] Eventually almost $75,000 was raised by members of the Church of the Nazarene for this project.[205][265][266] The Fitkin Memorial Bible School was opened on October 12, 1948 with 26 students.[267][268]

However, after the departure of Nazarene missionaries from China in May 1949,[269] the balance of funds given for the Fitkin Memorial School in Daming were reallocated to educational projects in other countries, including $9,000 sent to British Honduras,[205] where the Fitkin Memorial Nazarene Bible College of British Honduras was opened in Benque Viejo del Carmen on June 8, 1950,[270][271] but closed in 1965;[272] Japan, where $25,000 was allocated to construct the building that housed the new Nippon Nazarene Seminary in Tokyo, which was christened the Susan N. Fitkin Memorial Building, and dedicated on April 13, 1952;[273][274] and $9,000 to the Philippines,[205] where it was used to fund the construction of the Fitkin Memorial Bible Training School (now Luzon Nazarene Bible College) in La Trinidad, Benguet in July 1952, with an initial enrolment of 35 students, which was named in honor of Susan Norris Fitkin, who had died in 1951;[275][276][277] and Lebanon, where land was purchased in the suburb of Sioufi, in the Achrafieh district of east Beirut, and a five-story building constructed in 1953 that housed a church and the Fitkin Memorial Nazarene Bible School, which operated from October 1954 until 1969.[278][279]

Family[edit]

Abram and Susan Fitkin had four children.

Abram Raleigh Fitkin[edit]

Abram Raleigh Fitkin (born September 3, 1904 in Everett, Massachusetts; died September 7, 1914);[52]

Mary-Louise Hooper[edit]

Mary-Louise Fitkin Hooper (born June 12, 1907 in Swampscott, Massachusetts),[52] was a member of the Church of the Nazarene from childhood,[280] attended Adelphi Academy at Lafayette Avenue, St. James Place and Clifton Place, Brooklyn, New York,[281] and studied at Stanford University[282][283][284] for one year until June 1928.[285]

Esley Foster Salsbury (1928-1938)[edit]

Mary-Louise married Esley Foster Salsbury (born August 28, 1907 in Canada; died June 13, 1993 in Los Angeles, California)[286] on June 14, 1928 at "Milestones", the Fitkin home in Allenhurst, New Jersey;[287][288] In April 1930 the Salsburys lived with Susan Norris Fitkin in Oakland, California.[289] They had one child, Suzanne Mary Salsbury (born December 7, 1933 in Berkeley, California),[290][291][292] who attended the California College of Arts and Crafts in Berkeley, California, and on December 1950 married artist Lloyd David Cogley (born March 5, 1917 in San Francisco; died February 2, 1992 in Klamath Falls),[293][294] and they subsequently had five sons.[292]

Karl Josef Deissler (1938-1946)[edit]

By August 1938 Mary-Louise had married Dr. Karl Josef Deissler (born June 29, 1906 in Heidelberg, Germany; died August 15, 1998 in Bern, Switzerland),[295][296][297] a German physician,[298] who had fled Germany for the USA in 1931 because of his liberal ideas and fears of Nazi persecution,[299] and had been a fellow of the Mayo Clinic from 1931 to 1935,[300] who was excluded from the US western defense area on September 4, 1942 until November 17, 1943 as an enemy alien,[301] During their period of separation, Mary-Louise and her daughter lived in Illinois. The Deisslers divorced in 1946,[302] and Mary-Louise and Suzanne moved to Carmel, California.

Clifford Hooper (1947-1949)[edit]

In late 1947 Mary-Louise married Clifford Hooper, an African American whom she had met while campaigning for the NAACP, in Seattle, Washington, as the laws of California did not allow inter-racial marriages.[303] After living in Vancouver, British Columbia for a year, the Hoopers separated, and were divorced in 1949. By June 1950 Mary Louise had become a Quaker. Hooper returned to Stanford University in 1953 to complete her degree, majoring in German, graduating with honors in June 1955.[285] Mary-Louise Hooper, who had been "long active in volunteer work to better inter-racial relations",[285] was also "an active supporter of African struggles against colonialism and apartheid".[304] After a three-month tour of South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria,[285] with a group of Quakers in 1955, Hooper migrated to South Africa later that year, buying a home in Durban, South Africa.[305] Hooper supported the African National Congress,[306] described at one time as "the only white person to ever work inside the African National Congress",[307] campaigned for the abolition of apartheid, and worked as a volunteer aide and secretary to ANC president Chief Albert Luthuli.[308][309][310][311][312] Hooper was active in supporting those tried during the Treason Trial.[313] Hooper, who had moved to Hillbrow,[314] a suburb of Johannesburg, was arrested on March 10, 1957 and imprisoned for five days in what she described as "degrading and humiliating" conditions[315] in the Fort Prison in Johannesburg,[316][317] and was ordered to be deported from South Africa after being accused of assisting South African "negroes".[318] Hooper was freed by the Rand Supreme Court on a writ of habeas corpus,[319][320][321] and later awarded damages.[322] On May 14, 1957 Eben Dönges, the Interior Minister, ordered her deportation as he believed her presence in South Africa was not in the public interest.[323][324] After leaving South Africa voluntarily at the end of May 1957,[325] she was excluded by the South African government,[307] but continued to be active in her opposition to apartheid, including giving interviews on radio,[326] and television;[327] raising funds for the South African Defense Fund;[328] serving as one of the three ANC delegates to the first All-African Peoples' Conference in December 1958 in Accra, Ghana;[329][330] and one of only two American observers at the Third All-African Peoples' Conference in Cairo in March 1961;[331] organizing boycotts of South African goods and preventing the unloading of South African ships in January 1963;[332][333] spoke to churches,[334] and civic organizations; and writing articles.[335] Hooper worked for the American Committee on Africa (ACOA), helped initiate and organize the 1965 Declaration of American Artists Against Apartheid, which sought to prevent cultural contacts with the apartheid regime;[336] testified before the United Nations Commission on Human Rights in May 1967,[337][338] and invited Martin Luther King, Jr to speak at the 1965 South Africa Benefit, where he called for economic sanctions against South Africa.[339][340] Hooper also supported the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN), in its efforts to gain independence for Algeria from France,[304] writing Refugee Algerian Students in 1960.[341] Mary-Louise died in Klamath Falls, Oregon on August 14, 1987.[342][343]

Willis Carradine Fitkin[edit]

Willis Carradine "Bud" Fitkin (born October 10, 1908 in Hollis, New York; died November 8, 1980 in Meredith, New Hampshire);[344] attended Adelphi Academy in Brooklyn;[345] In July 1924 Willis, then aged 15, was the driver of a car that was involved in a collision in New Jersey with a truck loaded with eggs, that damaged both vehicles severely but left both drivers uninjured.[346] On October 22, 1927 at the St Paul's Methodist Episcopal Church at Ocean Grove, New Jersey, W.C. Fitkin married Helen E. Shubert (born August 12, 1906 in Minnesota; died May 29, 1993 in Mahopac, New York)[347][348][349][350] They had four children: Abraham Edward Fitkin (born 13 June 13, 1929 in Long Brant, Monmouth County, New Jersey; died March 17, 1992 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma),[351][352] Willis C. Fitkin, III (born about 1931), Joyce Fitkin Pietri (born about 1933),[353] and Karen E. Fitkin Draper.[354]

Fitkin was a vice-president, director and stockholder in A.E. Fitkin & Co. and A.E. Fitkin & Sons since 1932;[345] president and chairman of Michigan Gas Utilities Co since April 1953;[355][356] a member of the board of directors of Tampa Electric Co. until 1979;[345] and was a member of the board of trustees of the Fitkin Memorial Hospital in Neptune, New Jersey from its opening in November 1931.[240][345] He resided in Naples, Florida since 1955.[345]

Ralph MacFarland Fitkin[edit]

Ralph MacFarland Fitkin (March 7, 1912 - July 16, 1962),[357] attended Adelphi Academy in Brooklyn until 1930, attended Yale University in 1931-1932,[358] married Lorene Billie Hastings (born November 6, 1911; died 1987) on February 13, 1932 in Elkton, Maryland with no family members present;[83] and had three sons:[359] Reed Keawaiki Fitkin (born September 22, 1939),[358] Thomas Hastings Fitkin (born 1943; died 1945), and Scott Norris Fitkin (born August 8, 1945 in Hawaii).[360] Ralph Fitkin was a vice-president, director and stockholder in A.E. Fitkin & Co. and A.E. Fitkin & Sons since 1932;[358] served as a lieutenant in the US Navy during World War II, working in the cable censor's office in Hawaii,[361] before retiring from the US Navy as a lieutenant commander;[362] and was the owner of KHON in Honolulu, Hawaii,[363][364] (which was part of the Aloha Broadcasting Company,[365][366] which also included KTOH Lihue Kauai, KMVI Wailuku Maui, and KIPA Hilo),[367] from its founding in 1946[363][364] until at least 1952.[368] Fitkin, who resided at Greenwich, Connecticut,[369] died on July 16, 1962 in Dade County, Florida.[370]

Susan Norris Fitkin[edit]

Susan Norris Fitkin died on October 18, 1951, aged 81, in Oakland, California.[24][371]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Also listed as Abraham Edward Fitkin, see James Terry White, The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography Vol. 27 (James T. White & Co., 1939.):142.
  2. ^ "Our History".
  3. ^ Ancestry.com. World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918. Registration Location: Kings County, New York; Roll: 1754592; Draft Board: 65.
  4. ^ However, Fitkin's US Passport application on January 31, 1921 indicates he was born September 18, 1876. See Ancestry.com. U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925 [database on-line]. Passport Applications, January 2, 1906 - March 31, 1.
  5. ^ Ancestry.com. World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-1918. Registration Location: Nassau County, New York; Roll: 1754388; Draft Board: 4.925 (M1490).
  6. ^ His baptism record indicates that on 21 July 1833 that he and his parents were living in Turnham Green, Chiswick, a suburb of west London. See Ancestry.com. London, England, Births and Baptisms, 1813-1906. Church of England Parish Registers, 1754-1906. London Metropolitan Archives, London. http://search.ancestry.co.uk/cgi-bin/sse.dll?rank=1&new=1&MSAV=1&msT=1&gss=angs-g&gsfn=Thomas+Furlong&gsln=Fitkin&msbdy=1833&msbpn__ftp=England&msbpn=3251&msbpn_PInfo=3-%7c1652381%7c3257%7c3251%7c&cpxt=0&catBucket=rstp&uidh=n3f&_83004003-n_xcl=f&cp=12&pcat=ROOT_CATEGORY&h=2954056&recoff=9+10+11+33+44+45&db=LMAbirths&indiv=11
  7. ^ a b c Who Was Who in America with World Notables, Vol. 1 (Marquis-Who's Who, 1960):403.
  8. ^ a b c d Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1880 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Brooklyn, Kings, New York; Roll: 847; Family History Film: 1254847; Page: 184D; Enumeration District: 113; Image: 0460.
  9. ^ a b "Milestones, Mar. 27, 1933", Time (March 27, 1933), http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,745423,00.html
  10. ^ "Thomas Furlong Fitkin", http://trees.ancestry.co.uk/tree/22910402/person/1323034456
  11. ^ Ancestry.com. 1850 United States Federal Census. Year: 1850; Census Place: Brooklyn Ward 8, Kings, New York; Roll: M432_519; Page: 13B; Image: 462.
  12. ^ a b Ancestry.com. 1900 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Brooklyn Ward 26, Kings, New York; Roll: T623_1064; Page: 15B; Enumeration District: 473.
  13. ^ "Business & Finance: Fitkin Sells Again", Time (June 15, 1931), http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,846911,00.html
  14. ^ Ancestry.com. U.S. Census Mortality Schedules, New York, 1850-1880. Month of Census Year: 1880; Family Number: 13; Line number: 27; Roll: M10.
  15. ^ In 1910 Mary was married to John H. Raynor, a bookeeper in a bank, since about 1891. Her father lived with her at 308 South Fifth Street, Brooklyn, in a house she shared with her younger sister, Nellie, Nellie's husband, their 6 children, and her mother. See Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Brooklyn Ward 13, Kings, New York; Roll: T624_962; Page: 9B; Enumeration District: 0274; Image: 401; FHL Number: 1374975.
  16. ^ In 1910 she lived with her husband, Thomas W. Christy, a plumber, whom she married about 1893; and her mother, and her 6 children. They shared a house with her older sister, Louisa and her husbane, John H. Raynor, and her father. See Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Brooklyn Ward 13, Kings, New York; Roll: T624_962; Page: 9B; Enumeration District: 0274; Image: 401; FHL Number: 1374975.
  17. ^ Ancestry.com. 1920 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Brooklyn Assembly District 4, Kings, New York; Roll: T625_1149; Page: 9B; Enumeration District: 198.
  18. ^ a b "WALTER R. FITKIN.; Brother of Late A. E. Fitkin, Philanthropist and Financier", The New York Times (June 28, 1935).
  19. ^ In 1930, Walter was married to Bessie S. Dexter since about 1910, and was employed as a clerk at A.E. Fitkin & Co. Ancestry.com. 1930 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Brooklyn, Kings, New York; Roll: 1539; Page: 1A; Enumeration District: 466; Image: 1080.0.
  20. ^ "Deaths; In Memoriam", The New York Times (February 21, 1938).
  21. ^ In 1930 Robert, a men's clothing salesman, and his wife, Jennie Colyer Fitkin (born 1878), whom he married about 1903, and their 2 sons, Robert L. Fitkin, Jr., and Clinton F. Fitkin, were living in Lynbrook, New York. See Ancestry.com. 1930 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Lynbrook, Nassau, New York; Roll: 1458; Page: 10B; Enumeration District: 60; Image: 756.0.
  22. ^ a b Shirley V. Anson and Laura M. Jenkins, Quaker History and Genealogy of the Marlborough Monthly Meeting, Ulster County, N.Y., 1804-1900+ (Gateway Press, 1980):119.
  23. ^ a b Ancestry.com. 1900 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Manchester, Hartford, Connecticut; Roll: T623_138; Page: 1B; Enumeration District: 199.
  24. ^ a b "Veteran Missions Head, Rev. Susan Fitkin, Dies", The Sun (Baltimore, MD) (October 20, 1951):9.
  25. ^ Susan Norris Fitkin, Grace Much More Abounding: A Story of the Triumphs of Redeeming Grace During Two Score Years in the Master's Service (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House, n.d. Holiness Data Ministry, 1997):12-14,
  26. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):26-29, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  27. ^ Stan Ingersol, "Across a Century: The Heritage of the Association of Pentecostal Churches of America", http://www.nazarene.org/ministries/administration/centennial/goals/across/display.aspx
  28. ^ a b c Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):29, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  29. ^ See, for example, "Cornwall", Newburgh Daily Journal (February 17, 1896):4.
  30. ^ Ancestry.com. 1900 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Plattekill, Ulster, New York; Roll: T623_1170; Page: 7A; Enumeration District: 122.
  31. ^ Ancestry.com and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1880 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Sterling, Rice, Kansas; Roll: 394; Family History Film: 1254394; Page: 177C; Enumeration District: 274; Image: 0567.
  32. ^ Samuel Rhoads and Enoch Lewis, eds., Friends' Review: A Religious, Literary and Miscellaneous Journal 19 (J. Tatum., 1866):780.
  33. ^ Shirley V. Anson and Laura M. Jenkins, Quaker History and Genealogy of the Marlborough Monthly Meeting, Ulster County, N.Y., 1804-1900+ (Gateway Press, 1980):12, 18-19.
  34. ^ a b Shirley V. Anson and Laura M. Jenkins, Quaker History and Genealogy of the Marlborough Monthly Meeting, Ulster County, N.Y., 1804-1900+ (Gateway Press, 1980):119, see http://www.clintondalefriends.org/history.htm.
  35. ^ "Leptondale", Newburgh Daily Journal (February 4, 1903):2.
  36. ^ B. Russell Branson, "History of Clintondale, NY Monthly Meeting 1760-1939", (1939), http://thorn.pair.com/thorn/cmm/cmmhist.htm
  37. ^ Another source indicates it was at New Paltz, New York.
  38. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):30, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  39. ^ Timothy L. Smith, Called Unto Holiness: The Story of The Nazarenes: The Formative Years (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House, 1962; Digital Edition: Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):55, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2501-2600/HDM2593.pdf
  40. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):30-31, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  41. ^ Susan Norris Fitkin, Grace Much More Abounding: A Story of the Triumphs of Redeeming Grace During Two Score Years in the Master's Service (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House, n.d. Holiness Data Ministry, 1997):15-16.
  42. ^ a b Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):32, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  43. ^ a b c James Terry White, ed., The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 27 (University Microfilms, 1967):142.
  44. ^ a b Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):36, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  45. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):35, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  46. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):37-38, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  47. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):37, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  48. ^ "Sunday Services", The Fitchburg Sentinel (Fitchburg, Massachusetts) (May 9, 1903):6.
  49. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):33, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  50. ^ Abram Fitkin, in "Business & Finance: Fitkin Sells Again", Time (June 15, 1931), http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,846911,00.html
  51. ^ a b c d e f Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):42, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  52. ^ a b c d e f g Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):41, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  53. ^ "NEW EDIFICE DEDICATED", Boston Daily Globe (June 4, 1906):14.
  54. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):40, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  55. ^ Brooklyn Eagle (Saturday, 12 December 1896):8; E.D. Messer, comp., "Early Nazarene Leaders", The Preacher's Magazine (September 1933):296, http://wesley.nnu.edu/preachers_magazine/1933_09-10.pdf; W.T. Purkiser, Called Unto Holiness: The Story of the Nazarenes Vol. 2 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1983):70; Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac (1912):334.
  56. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):42, 44, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  57. ^ Ancestry.com. 1910 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Queens Ward 4, Queens, New York; Roll: T624_1065; Page: 9A; Enumeration District: 1279; Image: 735.
  58. ^ http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/0401-0500/HDM0417.pdf
  59. ^ "ASBURY PARK OPENS $1,000,000 HOSPITAL; Dr. James F. Ackerman, Sponsor, Receives Bronze Medal as Memorial Is Dedicated.LARGEST IN MONMOUTH Gifts of A.E. Fitkin Established First Public Institution In Shore City", Special to The New York Times (December 30, 1931):5.
  60. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):44, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  61. ^ Ancestry.com. 1920 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Brooklyn Assembly District 18, Kings, New York; Roll: T625_1172; Page: 7B; Enumeration District: 1103; Image: 1015.
  62. ^ "Fitkin-Salisbury", The New York Times (December 29, 1926).
  63. ^ "Salsbury-Fitkin", The New York Times (June 13, 1927).
  64. ^ "Landmark Burns at Allenhurst", Red Bank Register (December 1, 1960):1.
  65. ^ a b c d e f g "Fitkin Sells Again", Time (magazine) (June 15, 1931):50, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,846911,00.html
  66. ^ Landmark Burns at Allenhurst", Red Bank Register (December 1, 1960):1.
  67. ^ "Fitkin-Salsbury", The New York Times (June 15, 1927).
  68. ^ "Mary L. Fitkin Now Mrs. Salsbury: Salsbury -- Fitkin", Special to The New York Times (June 13, 1927):20.
  69. ^ "Fitkin-Shubert", The New York Times (October 22, 1927).
  70. ^ Alexander J. Dickie and Frank A. Stanley, eds., Pacific Marine Review 25 (Pacific American Steamship Association, 1928):438.
  71. ^ Alexander J. Dickie and Frank A. Stanley, eds., Pacific Marine Review 25 (Pacific American Steamship Association, 1928):86.
  72. ^ Yachting 77 (CBS Magazines, 1945):46.
  73. ^ "Defoe Built", advertisement ():282, http://cgi.ebay.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?VISuperSize&item=370474826795
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  76. ^ Rivers and Harbors 14 (1929):41.
  77. ^ The Miami News (December 19, 1929):11.
  78. ^ "George S. Lawley & Sons, Neponset MA" (September 18, 2010), http://www.shipbuildinghistory.com/history/shipyards/6yachtsmall/lawley.htm
  79. ^ "$100,000 YACHT DAMAGED.; Discharged Steward Accused of Trying to Wreck Engines", The New York Times (August 25, 1928).
  80. ^ "Threatened by Coast Guard Is Charge Made by Fitkin", The Evening Independent (St. Petersburg, FL) (October 16, 1928):14.
  81. ^ "Fitkin Wants Explanation as Coast Guard Stops Launch", The New York Times (October 12, 1928).
  82. ^ Chicago Daily Tribune (October 12, 1928):14.
  83. ^ a b "Miss Lorene Hastings Bride of R.M. Fitkin", The New York Times (February 27, 1932).
  84. ^ "ABRAM E. FITKIN, ACTIVE IN PUBLIC UTILITIES, DEAD: Turned from Pulpit to Business", Chicago Tribune (March 19, 1933):18.
  85. ^ "Abram E. Fitkin", Power Engineering 37 (Technical Pub. Co., 1933):232.
  86. ^ a b c d James Terry White, ed., The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 27 (University Microfilms, 1967):143.
  87. ^ a b c d e "ABRAM FITKIN DIES; MADE $250,000,000", The New York Times (March 19, 1933).
  88. ^ a b "Abram E. Fitkin, Utilities Operator, Dies", Gas Age-Record 71 (Robbins Publishing Co., 1933):321.
  89. ^ The Bankers Magazine 78 (1909):172.
  90. ^ "Financial Notes", The New York Times (December 3, 1912):17.
  91. ^ Gene Smith, "Personality: Down to a Mere $128 Million; Willis C. Fitkin, Son of A.E., Carries On in Utilities", The New York Times (January 20, 1957), Section Business & Finance, Page 141.
  92. ^ a b "Deals & Developments", Time (July 18, 1932), http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,753416,00.html
  93. ^ a b c d "Former Minister Gets 30 Millions for Corporation", San Antonio Express (October 19, 1927):4.
  94. ^ a b Earle E. Crowe, "FITKIN RE-ENTERS MARKET: Buys New Public Utility Property in East From Receivers; Known as Expert Business Trader", Los Angeles Times (January 22, 1932):12.
  95. ^ a b "Local Power Unit is Linked with Sandy Hook Fortress", St. Petersburg Times (February 6, 1927):49.
  96. ^ ABRAM FITKIN DIES; MADE $250,000,000", The New York Times (March 19, 1933).
  97. ^ Kenneth Lipartito and Joseph A. Pratt, Baker & Botts in the Development of Modern Houston (University of Texas Press, 1991):76.
  98. ^ a b "History of UTILICORP UNITED INC.", http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/history2/76/UTILICORP-UNITED-INC.html
  99. ^ Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering 19 (McGraw Hill Co., 1918):838.
  100. ^ Standard Corporation Service, Daily Revised (Standard Statistics Company, Inc., 1919).
  101. ^ Magazine of Wall Street 24 (1919):289.
  102. ^ a b "RECEIVER NAMED FOR CENTURY OIL; Appointment Made in Friendly Action Brought in Federal Court by Fitkin & Co.", The New York Times (October 31, 1924).
  103. ^ United States Federal Trade Commission, Utility Corporations: Letters from the Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission Transmitting, in Response to Senate Resolution No. 83, 70th Congress, a Monthly Report on the Electric Power and Gas Utilities Inquiry, Vol. 44 (United States Government Printing Office, 1937):229.
  104. ^ The New York Times (February 25, 1923).
  105. ^ "Here and There in Oil", San Antonio Express (November 3, 1924):15.
  106. ^ Advertisement, The Washington Post (August 11, 1919):11.
  107. ^ "Stock Exchange News", The New York Times (March 21, 1920).
  108. ^ "Business Records", The New York Times (August 24, 1920).
  109. ^ Investment Bankers and Brokers of America (A. C. Babize, 1922):2003.
  110. ^ "Stock Exchange News", The New York Times (September 4, 1921).
  111. ^ United States Federal Trade Commission, Electric-Power Industry: Control of Power Companies, Vol. 2: Supply of Electrical Equipment and Competitive Conditions (U.S. Govt. Print. Off.):232.
  112. ^ "Growth of Florida Power Corporation Keeps Pace with City's Development", The Evening Independent (October 20, 1928):4-A. However, one source says it was in 1923. See Paul Davis, "Bird Latham, Pioneer Power Chief, Pilot, Dies", St. Petersburg Times (January 12, 1961):10.
  113. ^ Paul Davis, "Bird Latham, Pioneer Power Chief, Pilot, Dies", St. Petersburg Times (January 12, 1961):10.
  114. ^ Scott Taylor Hartzell, Remembering St. Petersburg, Florida: Sunshine City Stories (The History Press, 2006):69.
  115. ^ Al Parsons, Lightning in the Sun: A History of Florida Power Corporation, 1899-1974 (Florida Power Corporation, 1974):94.
  116. ^ "Buys $5,000,000 Power Company", The New York Times (April 24, 1922).
  117. ^ Steam 29-30 (The Ferguson Publishing Company, 1922):175.
  118. ^ United States Federal Trade Commission, Utility Corporations: Letters from the Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission Transmitting, in Response to Senate Resolution No. 83, 70th Congress, a Monthly Report on the Electric Power and Gas Utilities Inquiry, Issue 41 (United States Government Printing Office, 1937):19.
  119. ^ Archibald Henderson, North Carolina: The Old North State and the New, Vol. 3 (The Lewis Publishing Company, 1941):265.
  120. ^ Al Parsons, Lightning in the Sun: A History of Florida Power Corporation, 1899-1974 (Florida Power Corporation, 1974):102.
  121. ^ "Growth of Florida Power Corporation Keeps Pace with City's Development", The Evening Independent (October 20, 1928):4-A.
  122. ^ Al Parsons, Lightning in the Sun: A History of Florida Power Corporation, 1899-1974 (Florida Power Corporation, 1974):71.
  123. ^ Al Parsons, Lightning in the Sun: A History of Florida Power Corporation, 1899-1974 (Florida Power Corporation, 1974):108.
  124. ^ "Fitkin Announces Reduction in Rates", St. Petersburg Times (February 11, 1923):17.
  125. ^ Gifford Pinchot, Power Monopoly: Its Make-Up and Its Menace (Milford, PA, 1928):167ff, http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/9978/Pow_Mon.pdf?sequence=1
  126. ^ a b "FITKIN INTERESTS BUY NEWPORT NEWS RWY", The Wall Street Journal (January 21, 1926).
  127. ^ "Improved Car Service Will Follow Sale", Miami News-Metropolis (February 13, 1924):17.
  128. ^ "ADD GAS COMPANY TO JERSEY MERGER; Fitkin Interests Also Acquire the Tri-County Electric Co. of Pompton Lakes. TO JOIN CENTRAL POWER Corporation and Its Constituent Concerns to Serve a Territory of More Than 1,800 Square Miles", The New York Times (March 17, 1924).
  129. ^ "Florida Power Rebuys Building", St. Petersburg Times (April 6, 1951):13.
  130. ^ "FITKIN GROUP BUYS 7 MORE UTILITIES; Obtains Permission in Jersey to Merge 11 Concerns Worth $19,939,905. CALL THE STOCKHOLDERS To Approve Financing of National Public Service Corporation as a Holding Company", The New York Times (March 8, 1925).
  131. ^ "The Clearinghouse", Los Angeles Times (December 20, 1925):B17.
  132. ^ "NEWPORT NEWS & HAMPTON ACQUIRED BY FITKIN UTILITIES", The Christian Science Monitor (February 10, 1926):10.
  133. ^ "FITKIN UTILITIES BUY VIRGINIA GAS CONCERN; Newport News & Hampton Property Will Be Combined With Other Southern Companies", The New York Times (January 21, 1926).
  134. ^ "Plans Retirement After Many Years", The Evening Independent (February 26, 1926):4-A.
  135. ^ Bird Latham, in "Plans Retirement After Many Years", The Evening Independent (February 26, 1926):4-A
  136. ^ The Youngstown Vindicator (March 1, 1926):23.
  137. ^ "FITKIN UTIL. EXTEND HOLDINGS: Purchase Southside Virginian Power Co. and Combine All Virginia Properties Into New Company", The Wall Street Journal (March 1, 1926).
  138. ^ "10,000 Utility Stock Shares Given to Aids", The Miami News (April 8, 1926):a-9:10.
  139. ^ "EMPLOYES GIVEN STOCK: A. E. Fitkin Gives $10,000 Shares To Department Heads", The Sun (Baltimore, MD) (April 8, 1926):19.
  140. ^ The New York Times (April 8, 1926).
  141. ^ "Fitkin Buys Building", American Gas Association Monthly 8 (1926):229.
  142. ^ "Fitkin Utilities Buys New 16-Story Building", The Evening Independent (St. Petersburg, FL) (April 17, 1926):43.
  143. ^ Deborah Kelly, "Beach Causeway Hailed as Miracle in 1926", Wilmington Morning Star (December 31, 1984):1D.
  144. ^ Lewis Philip Hall, Land of the Golden River: Historical Events and Stories of Southeastern North Carolina and the Lower Cape Fear (Hall, 1975):125-126.
  145. ^ Ray McAllister, Wrightsville Beach: The Luminous Island (John F. Blair, Publisher, 2007):65.
  146. ^ Susan Taylor Block, "Wrightsville Beach", http://louistmoore.wordpress.com/chapter-three-wrightsville-beach/
  147. ^ Ray McAllister, Wrightsville Beach: The Luminous Island (John F. Blair, Publisher, 2007):64-65.
  148. ^ "Fitkin and Party to Inspect Property Growth in Florida", The Evening Independent (March 3, 1927):7.
  149. ^ United States Federal Trade Commission, Utility Corporations: Letters from the Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission Transmitting, in Response to Senate Resolution No. 83, 70th Congress, a Monthly Report on the Electric Power and Gas Utilities Inquiry (U.S. Govt. print. off., 1932):957.
  150. ^ United States Federal Trade Commission, Utility Corporations: Letters from the Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission Transmitting, in Response to Senate Resolution no. 83, 70th Congress, a Monthly Report on the Electric Power and Gas Utilities Inquiry 42 (US Govt. print. off., 1932):320, 379.
  151. ^ United States Federal Trade Commission, Utility Corporations: Letters from the Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission Transmitting, in Response to Senate Resolution no. 83, 70th Congress, a Monthly Report on the Electric Power and Gas Utilities Inquiry 42 (US Govt. print. off., 1932):379.
  152. ^ "24 PUBLIC UTILITIES IN WEST TO MERGE; Properties Directed by Fitkin & Co. Range From Texas to Michigan. ALL VALUED AT $17,806,000 Financing of $11,000,000 Required -- Corporation to Be Called Inland Power and Light", The New York Times (June 10, 1926).
  153. ^ "24 Public Utility Properties to Merge", San Antonio Express (June 10, 1926):6.
  154. ^ "Insulls Buys All Interests of Mr. Fitkin", Nashua Telegraph (October 18, 1927):2.
  155. ^ Los Angeles Times (October 5, 1926):15.
  156. ^ "New Power Combine to Spend $3,500,000 for Development", The Evening Independent (St. Petersburg, FL) (November 27, 1926):11; "Big Companies Merge Interests", The Evening Independent (St. Petersburg, FL) (November 26, 1926):7.
  157. ^ United States Federal Trade Commission, Utility Corporations: Letters from the Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission Transmitting, in Response to Senate Resolution No. 83, 70th Congress, a Monthly Report on the Electric Power and Gas Utilities Inquiry, (United States Government Printing Office, 1937):537, 584.
  158. ^ Al Parsons, Lightning in the Sun: A History of Florida Power Corporation, 1899-1974 (Florida Power Corporation, 1974):105.
  159. ^ Elmer E. Paine, "Trade Talk", The Miami News (March 1, 1927):M2.
  160. ^ "Fitkin Interests Include Local Company in Merger", The Evening Independent (March 1, 1927):11.
  161. ^ Lewis Philip Hall, Land of the Golden River: Historical Events and Stories of Southeastern North Carolina and the Lower Cape Fear (Hall, 1975):133.
  162. ^ "Ancient Guild in Industry Predicted by Utility Head", The Evening Independent (March 4, 1927):21.
  163. ^ "Fitkin and Party to Inspect Property Growth in Florida", The Evening Independent (March 3, 1927):1.
  164. ^ "North Watching Port Activity all Over State", The Evening Independent (June 3, 1926):7.
  165. ^ "St. Petersburg: Another Name for the World's opportunity", St. Petersburg Times (July 11, 1926), Section 3, page 12.
  166. ^ "BUY A FITKIN COMPANY.; Day & Zimmermann Get Interest in National Public Service Corp.", The New York Times (March 12, 1927),
  167. ^ Gifford Pinchot, Power Monopoly: Its Make-Up and Its Menace (Milford, PA, 1928):170, http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/9978/Pow_Mon.pdf?sequence=1
  168. ^ Gifford Pinchot, Power Monopoly: Its Make-Up and Its Menace (Milford, PA, 1928):215, http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/9978/Pow_Mon.pdf?sequence=1
  169. ^ Gifford Pinchot, Power Monopoly: Its Make-Up and Its Menace (Milford, PA, 1928):148, http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/9978/Pow_Mon.pdf?sequence=1
  170. ^ Marion Livingston Ramsay, Pyramids of Power: The Story of Roosevelt, Insull and the Utility Wars (The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1937):95, 104, 105.
  171. ^ Forrest McDonald, Insull: The Rise and Fall of a Billionaire Utility Tycoon (Beard Books, 2004):251.
  172. ^ United States Federal Trade Commission, Utility Corporations: Letters from the Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission Transmitting, in Response to Senate Resolution No. 83, 70th Congress, a Monthly Report on the Electric Power and Gas Utilities Inquiry (U.S. Govt. print. off., 1932):975.
  173. ^ "THRIFTY PARSON TURNS BROKER: E. A. Fitkin Sells Utility Holdings and Buys Exchange Seat", Los Angeles Times (October 19, 1927):13.
  174. ^ "A.E. Fitkin Donates $1,000,000 for Hospital For Crippled Children as a Memorial to Son", The New York Times (October 25, 1927).
  175. ^ "School Teacher Builds Fortune of $30,000,000", Chicago Daily Tribune (October 18, 1927):29.
  176. ^ "FITKIN FAILS TO GET SEAT ON EXCHANGE; Committee Meets Without Approving Sale of W.L. Ross's Membership for $255,000. HITCH IN DEAL INDICATED", The New York Times (October 28, 1927). Another source indicates the purchase price was $240,000. See "Former Minister Gets 30 Millions for Corporation", San Antonio Express (October 19, 1927):4.
  177. ^ "STOCK EXCHANGE REJECTS FITKIN", Syracuse Herald (October 28, 1927):12.
  178. ^ "HAS FORTUNE OF $30,000,000.; A.E. Fitkin Amassed Wealth in Public Utilities Operation", The New York Times (June 21, 1928).
  179. ^ "ADDITIONAL CHANGES IN WALL ST. HOUSES; Dissolutions and Organization of New Firms Announced", The New York Times (January 5, 1928).
  180. ^ Chicago Daily Tribune (May 5, 1930):29.
  181. ^ a b "ACCORD REACHED IN FITKIN GROUP; Plan Is Drafted for United American Utility and Pacific Freight Lines", The New York Times (October 21, 1933).
  182. ^ Gas Re-cycled", Time (October 14, 1929), http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,752156,00.html
  183. ^ "Gas Re-cycled", Time (October 14, 1929), http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,752156,00.html
  184. ^ a b Fitkin Sells Again", Time (June 15, 1931):50, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,846911,00.html
  185. ^ San Francisco Municipal Record (December 1929):2.
  186. ^ "FITKIN & CO. REORGANIZE.; Securities Corporation Formed as Part of Readjustment", The New York Times (January 2, 1930).
  187. ^ "Corporation Reports, Latest Developments", The Hartford Courant (January 5, 1930):B5.
  188. ^ Los Angeles Times (January 2, 1930).
  189. ^ a b c "Report Insull is New Owner of Water Firms", The Gettysburg Times (June 19, 1931):1.
  190. ^ "Shaken Empire", Time (April 18, 1932), http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,743596,00.html
  191. ^ "FITKIN MAKES DEAL FOR AMERICAN GAS; Buys Control of $70,000,000 Utility From Receivers of Commonwealths Power", The New York Times (January 21, 1932).
  192. ^ "PRICE CHANGES ON CURB MIXED", The Sun (Baltomore, MD) (January 22, 1932):17.
  193. ^ "AM. GAS & POWER CONTROL PASSES: F.W. Seymour Syndicate Buys 51% of Voting Stock of Holding Unit", The Wall Street Journal (September 12, 1934).
  194. ^ "Sons of Fitkin in Reorganized Security House", Los Angeles Times (August 18, 1932):12.
  195. ^ a b Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):46, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  196. ^ a b Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):100, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  197. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):49, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  198. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):50, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  199. ^ Amy N. Hinshaw, Missionaries of the Cross in Africa (Woman's Foreign Missionary Society Church of the Nazarene, 1929; Holiness Data Ministry, 2007):10, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2659.pdf
  200. ^ a b c Stan Ingersol, "Ministering to Body as Well as Spirit: The Transformation of Nazarene Social Ministry, 1925-1970", paper presented at the Theological Symposium, 4th Quadrennial Compassionate Ministries Conference, Church of the Nazarene (October 29, 1998):7-8 , http://didache.nts.edu/index2.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=738&Itemid=39
  201. ^ J. Fred Parker, Mission to the World: A History of Missions in the Church of the Nazarene Through 1985 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1988):123.
  202. ^ Amy N. Hinshaw, Missionaries of the Cross in Africa (Woman's Foreign Missionary Society Church of the Nazarene, 1929; Holiness Data Ministry, 2007):10, 13, 16, 20, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2659.pdf
  203. ^ J. Fred Parker, Mission to the World: A History of Missions in the Church of the Nazarene Through 1985 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1988):89.
  204. ^ Junita Moon, "Clinics Past and Present", Nazarene Health 3 (June 2009):3, http://snhi.org/pdf/nazarene_health_news_edition_3_jun_2009.pdf
  205. ^ a b c d J. Fred Parker, Mission to the World: A History of Missions in the Church of the Nazarene Through 1985 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1988):78.
  206. ^ Edgar Barton Worthington, Science in Africa: A Review of Scientific Research Relating to Tropical and Southern Africa (Oxford University Press, 1938).
  207. ^ Julius A. Weber, Religions and Philosophies in the United States of America (Wetzel Publishing Co., inc., 1931):126.
  208. ^ Sibongile C. Nxumalo, "Swaziland", in Erwin Fahlbusch, ed., The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Vol. 5, trans. Geoffrey William Bromiley (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2008):242.
  209. ^ "Couple Take Hospital Posts in South Africa", Chicago Tribune (April 8, 1965):N4.
  210. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):67, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  211. ^ George Frame, Blood Brother of the Swazis: The Life Story of David Hynd (Beacon Hill Press, 1952):85-86.
  212. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):76, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  213. ^ Amy N. Hinshaw, Missionaries of the Cross in Africa (Woman's Foreign Missionary Society Church of the Nazarene, 1929; Holiness Data Ministry, 2007):39, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2659.pdf
  214. ^ J. Fred Parker, Mission to the World: A History of Missions in the Church of the Nazarene Through 1985 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1988):126.
  215. ^ "Farm for an Orphanage", Red Bank Register (July 6, 1927):1.
  216. ^ "A Million for a Hospital and Home for Crippled Children", Journal of the American Medical Association, 89:14-26 (1927):1613.
  217. ^ "Abram E. Fitkin, Utility Operator, Dies At 57 New Jersey Financier Started Life As A Clergyman", The Sun (Baltimore, MD) (March 19, 1933):10.
  218. ^ "YALE ALUMNI TOLD OF $1,000,000 GIFT; Donor Is Abram E. Fitkin of New York--Fund for Child Disease Study", Special to The New York Times (June 21, 1928):16,
  219. ^ "Former Clergyman Donates $1,000,000 For Yale Memorial: A. E. Fitkin, Who Made Fortune in Public Utilities, Gives Money for Care and Treatment of Children", The Sun (Baltimore, MD) (June 21, 1928):1.
  220. ^ "News and Comment: Gift to Yale", Am J Dis Child 36:2 (August 1928):370.
  221. ^ Report of the Treasurer of Yale University, with the Accounts of its Several Departments (1928).
  222. ^ American Association for the Advancement of Science, Science 67 (JSTOR, 1928).
  223. ^ a b "FITKIN ADDS TO YALE GIFT.; Makes Total $1,100,000 for Children's Hospital Pavilion", Special to The New York Times (February 17, 1929):35.
  224. ^ a b The New York Times (September 22, 1929).
  225. ^ a b Society for the Advancement of Education, Intellect 29 (Society for the Advancement of Education, 1929):328.
  226. ^ Bulletin of Yale University 41 (Yale University, 1945):77.
  227. ^ "FUNERAL SERNICE FOR HENRY PELTON; Columbia Trustee was Victim of Attack of Pneumonia", The New York Times (August 30, 1935).
  228. ^ Ancestry.com. U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925. National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), Washington D.C.; Passport Applications, January 2, 1906 - March 31, 1925; Microfilm Serial: M1490;Roll #2587.
  229. ^ "St. Paul’s Rectory", http://www.greatneckplaza.net/historic/vsurvey.php?p=sprectory; from Earle G. Shettleworth, Jr. "Brief Biographies of American Architects Who Died Between 1897 and 1947", transcribed from the American Art Annual, Society of Architectural Historians website, http://www.sah.org/index.php?src=gendocs&ref=BiographiesArchitectsP&category=Resources
  230. ^ "Henry C. Pelton", http://www.emporis.com/application/?nav=company&lng=3&id=103897
  231. ^ a b c d Howard A. Pearson, "History of The Department of Pediatrics Yale University School of Medicine", Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 70 (1997):205.
  232. ^ "NEW HAVEN OBTAINS HOSPIPAL PAVILION; Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Presented by Abram E. Fitkin, Is Formally Dedicated. TOTAL OF GIFTS $1,100,000. President Angell of Yale Delivers Address Accepting New Unit of the Hospital Plan", Special to The New York Times (February 09, 1930):N8.
  233. ^ "News and Comment", Am J Dis Child 39:3 (March 1930):615-617.
  234. ^ Alfred S. Evans, "The Past is Prologue: A 50 Year Perspective on Volume 1 The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 1928-1929", The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine 51 (1978):478.
  235. ^ "Paul L. Morgan Dies: Vice President of A.E. Fitkin & Co. a Victim of Pneumonia at 32", Special to The New York Times (March 7, 1929):25.
  236. ^ Helen-Chantal Pike, Asbury Park's Glory Days: The Story of an American Resort (Rutgers University Press, 2007):134.
  237. ^ Alexander Hopkins McDannald, ed., Yearbook of the Encyclopedia Americana (Americana Corporation, 1930):250; and Randall Gabrielan, Monmouth County, New Jersey: Postcard History (Arcadia Publishing, 1998):110. One source indicates Fitkin and L.C. deCoppet gave a total of $600,000. See Homeopathic Medical Society of the State of Pennsylvania, The Hahnemannian Monthly 65 (LaBarre Printing Co, 1930):480. LC Coppet gave $100,000. See "GIVES $100,000 FOR NURSES; L.C. De Coppet Provides Home at Neptune City Hospital", The New York Times (May 2, 1930):15.
  238. ^ a b History of Township of Neptune (1964; Bicentennial Edition, 1976):75.
  239. ^ "A.E. FITKIN TO PLACE STONE; Double Ceremony Is Planned for Hospital Project at Neptune, N.J.", Special to The New York Times (November 19, 1930):28.
  240. ^ a b "Hospital Dedication", Red Bank Register (October 28, 1931):3.
  241. ^ "ASBURY PARK OPENS $1,000,000 HOSPITAL; Dr. James F. Ackerman, Sponsor, Receives Bronze Medal as Memorial Is Dedicated. LARGEST IN MONMOUTH Gifts of A.E. Fitkin Established First Public Institution In Shore City", Special to The New York Times (December 30, 1931):5.
  242. ^ Evelyn Stryker Lewis, Neptune and Shark River Hills (Arcadia Publishing, 1998):32.
  243. ^ History of Township of Neptune (1964; Bicentennial Edition, 1976):12, 75.
  244. ^ Alison Waldman, "A Century of Healing: JERSEY SHORE TURNS 100", Asbury Park Press (October 2, 2003):1.
  245. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):43, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  246. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):81, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf
  247. ^ Scottish Rite (Masonic order). Supreme Council for the Southern Jurisdiction, "Gives $1,000,000 to Crippled Children", The New Age Magazine 36 (Supreme Council, 33, Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry of the Southern Jurisdiction, U.S.A., 1928):56.
  248. ^ a b "Obituary", The New York Times (March 20, 1933).
  249. ^ "HISTORIC TAPPAN HOME PRESENTED TO MASONS", The New York Times (May 6, 1932).
  250. ^ "A.E. Fitkin Dead", The Wall Street Journal, (March 20, 1933).
  251. ^ "Utility Operator Dies", San Antonio Express (March 19, 1933):5.
  252. ^ "Abram E. Fitkin, Utility Operator, Dies At 57 New Jersey Financier Started Life As A Clergyman", The Sun (Baltimore, MD) (March 19, 1933):10.
  253. ^ "Fitkin Dies in New York", St. Petersburg Times (March 18, 1933):2.
  254. ^ "ABRAM FITKIN DIES; MADE $250,000,000; Left Pulpit at 21, Became a Bookkeeper and Later Led in Public Utilities. A NOTED PHILANTHROPIST Founded Hospital in New Haven and Set Aside $500,000 for the Study of Children's Diseases", The New York Times.
  255. ^ "By-the-Bye in Wall Street", The Wall Street Journal (April 3, 1933).
  256. ^ Aylmer Vallance, Very Private Enterprise: An Anatomy of Fraud and High Finance (Thames and Hudson, 1955):174.
  257. ^ "Savoy-Plaza Hotel", http://www.nyc-architecture.com/GON/GON024.htm
  258. ^ "FITKIN SERVICES HELD.; After Funeral in Allenhurst, N.J., Body Is Taken to Brooklyn", Special to The New York Times (March 21, 1933):20.
  259. ^ Basil Miller, Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Digital ed. (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):100, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2627.pdf<
  260. ^ Oliver R. Phillips, "Where Do We Go From Here? Remember, Celebrate, Act!" An address prepared for the National Black Nazarene Conference (Atlanta, GA: July 25–28, 2002), http://www.missionstrategy.org/missionstrategy/Phillipsaddress/tabid/183/Default.aspx
  261. ^ One source suggests the church was founded about 1954. See "FITKIN MEMORIAL CELEBRATES WITH CHARLES JOHNSON" (2005), http://www.missionalstrategies.org/fitkin_johnson.html
  262. ^ Charles Edwin Jones, Black Holiness: A Guide to the Study of Black Participation in Wesleyan Perfectionist and Glossolalic Pentecostal Movements (American Theological Library Association, 1987):65.
  263. ^ "Francis Sutherland", in Who's Who on the Pacific Coast: A Biographical Dictionary of Leading Men and Women of the Pacific Coast and the Western States, 2nd ed. (A.N. Marquis Co., 1949):904.
  264. ^ J. Fred Parker, Mission to the World: A History of Missions in the Church of the Nazarene Through 1985 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1988):269-270.
  265. ^ F.C. Sutherland, China Crisis (Nazarene Publishing House, 1948):76, 77.
  266. ^ W.T. Purkiser, Called Unto Holiness: The Story of the Nazarenes, Vol. 2: The Second Twenty-five Years, 1933-58 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1983; Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):160-161, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2623.pdf
  267. ^ Leon Clarence Osborn, Christ at the Bamboo Curtain (Beacon Hill Press, 1956).
  268. ^ J. Fred Parker, Mission to the World: A History of Missions in the Church of the Nazarene Through 1985 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1988):269.
  269. ^ W.T. Purkiser, Called Unto Holiness: The Story of the Nazarenes, Vol. 2: The Second Twenty-five Years, 1933-58 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1983; Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):139, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2623.pdf
  270. ^ Ruth B. Hess, "British Honduras: Preaching Christ in the 'Wonder Colony'", in Gladys J. Hampton, How Great is the Darkness: The Story of Nazarene Missions in Central America (Beacon Hill Press, 1951):44.
  271. ^ J. Fred Parker, Mission to the World: A History of Missions in the Church of the Nazarene Through 1985 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1988):432, 495.
  272. ^ Clifton L. Holland, "EXPANDED STATUS OF CHRISTIANITY COUNTRY PROFILE: BELIZE, 1980", Rev. ed. (May 2009), http://www.prolades.com/cra/docs/holland/english/belize1980_profile.pdf
  273. ^ J. Fred Parker, Mission to the World: A History of Missions in the Church of the Nazarene Through 1985 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1988):301.
  274. ^ Russell V. DeLong and Mendell Taylor, Fifty Years of Nazarene Missions, Vol. 2: History of the Fields (Kansas City, MO: Beacon Hill Press, 1955):67.
  275. ^ Floyd T. Cunningham, Holiness Abroad: Nazarene Missions in Asia (Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2003):159, 165, 241.
  276. ^ Russell V. DeLong and Mendell Taylor, Fifty Years of Nazarene Missions, Vol. 2: History of the Fields (Kansas City, MO: Beacon Hill Press, 1955):102.
  277. ^ W.T. Purkiser, Called Unto Holiness: The Story of the Nazarenes, Vol. 2: The Second Twenty-five Years, 1933-58 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1983; Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):137, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2623.pdf
  278. ^ Russell V. DeLong and Mendell Taylor, Fifty Years of Nazarene Missions, Vol. 2: History of the Fields (Kansas City, MO: Beacon Hill Press, 1955):271; J. Fred Parker, Mission to the World: A History of Missions in the Church of the Nazarene Through 1985 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1988):394.
  279. ^ W.T. Purkiser, Called Unto Holiness: The Story of the Nazarenes, Vol. 2: The Second Twenty-five Years, 1933-58 (Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1983; Holiness Data Ministry, 2006):204-205, http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2623.pdf
  280. ^ "Nazarene", The Oakland Tribube (March 6, 1926):7.
  281. ^ Adelphi Academy, Annual Catalog (Ronalds Press, 1913):96.
  282. ^ "Fitkin-Salsbury", The New York Times (December 29, 1926).
  283. ^ Stanford University, Alumni Directory and Ten-Year Book (Graduates and Non-Graduates), Vol. 4 (Published by the University, 1932):268.
  284. ^ The Stanford Illustrated Review 28:6 (1927):299.
  285. ^ a b c d "3 College Girls Have 171 Years Total", Greensburg Daily Tribune (June 30, 1955):19.
  286. ^ Ancestry.com. California Death Index, 1940-1997. Place: Los Angeles; Date: 13 Jun 1993; Social Security: 564075824.
  287. ^ The New York Times (June 13, 1927).
  288. ^ "Mary L. Fitkin Now Mrs. Salsbury: Salsbury -- Fitkin", Special to The New York Times (June 15, 1927):20.
  289. ^ Ancestry.com. 1930 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Oakland, Alameda, California; Roll: 104; Page: 4A; Enumeration District: 123; Image: 521.0.
  290. ^ Ancestry.com. California Birth Index, 1905-1995. Birthdate: 7 Dec 1933; Birth County: Alameda.
  291. ^ Ancestry.com. New York Passenger Lists, 1820-1957. Year: 1938; Arrival: New York , United States; Microfilm Serial: T715; Microfilm Roll: T715_6196; Line: 26; Page Number: 84.
  292. ^ a b "Suzanne Cogley", http://www.chiloquinarts.com/?page_id=2313
  293. ^ Ancestry.com. Oregon Death Index, 1903-98. County: Klamath. Death Date: 2 Feb 1992. Certificate: 92-02524.
  294. ^ "Paintings and Poetry by Suzanne Cogley", http://www.cogleyart.com/sueart.html
  295. ^ On August 4, 1938 Mary-Louise and Karl Deissler are listed in the passenger list on the SS Hamburg sailing from Hamburg to the USA. See Ancestry.com. New York Passenger Lists, 1820-1957. Year: 1938; Arrival: New York , United States; Microfilm Serial: T715; Microfilm Roll: T715_6196; Line: 26; Page Number: 84.
  296. ^ James Terry White, ed., The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 27 (University Microfilms, 1967):143
  297. ^ Ancestry.com. Social Security Death Index. Number: 327-20-2392; Issue State: Illinois; Issue Date: Before 1951.
  298. ^ Ancestry.com. New York Passenger Lists, 1820-1957. Year: 1931; Microfilm Serial: T715; Microfilm Roll: T715_5042; Line: 1; Page Number: 38.
  299. ^ Karl J. Deissler, Wie ein Gärtner - Gedanken zur Rehabilitation Drogensüchtiger Sammlung von Artikeln und Referaten (Neuland, 1. Auflage 2005), see http://www.neuland.com/index.php?s=buc&s2=tit&bnr=000246
  300. ^ F. Fredersdorf, "Synanon in Germany: An Example of a Residential Self-help Organization for Drug Dependent Individuals", International Journal of Self Help and Self Care 1;@ (1999-2000):131 - 143.
  301. ^ "Army Lifts Two Exclusion Orders", The Long Beach Independent (November 25, 1943):16.
  302. ^ "Doctor Ordered to Pay Support", Oakland Tribune (November 11, 1962):3.
  303. ^ Ancestry.com. Honolulu, Hawaii, Passenger Lists, 1900-1953. Repository Name:National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); NARA Series:A3422; Roll:258.
  304. ^ a b "Mary-Louise Hooper with the FLN underground", http://africanactivist.msu.edu/image.php?objectid=32-131-30C
  305. ^ "Mary-Louise Hooper", http://africanactivist.msu.edu/image.php?objectid=32-131-18D
  306. ^ William Henry Robinson, comp., Nommo: An Anthology of Modern Black African and Black American Literature (Macmillan, 1972):68.
  307. ^ a b "Hooper Tells of Opposition to Apatheid", California Tech (Pasadena, CA) (February 14, 1963):1.
  308. ^ "Chief Albert Luthuli and Mary-Louise Hooper", http://africanactivist.msu.edu/image.php?objectid=32-131-30A
  309. ^ "African Activist Archive Project Launches New Website", (February 12, 2009), http://allafrica.com/stories/200902120915.html
  310. ^ South African Democracy Education Trust, The Road to Democracy in South Africa: 1960-1970, Vol. 1 (Zebra, 2004):443, 558.
  311. ^ Ismail Meer, A Fortunate Man (Zebra Press, 2002):191.
  312. ^ Sipho Khumalo, The Quaker who Became Luthuli's Assistant", The Mercury (South Africa) (November 24, 2010), http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-242749631.html
  313. ^ "Mary-Louise Hooper and Monty Naicker at the Treason Trial", http://africanactivist.msu.edu/image.php?objectid=32-131-30B
  314. ^ Mary-Louise Hooper, "We Shall Not Ride: The Johannesburg Bus Boycott", Africa Today 4:6 (November–December 1957):13-16.
  315. ^ Friends Journal, Vol. 3 (1957).
  316. ^ "Covering the International Scene", The Afro American (March 9, 1957)5.
  317. ^ Africa Report, Vols. 1-5 (African-American Institute, 1971).
  318. ^ "DEPORTATION ORDERED; New York Woman Had Aided South African Negroes", Special to The New York Times (March 13, 1957):24.
  319. ^ "WRIT AIDS AMERICAN; Woman Fights Deportation From South Africa", The New York Times (March 15, 1957).
  320. ^ Africa Bureau (London, England, "Unlawful Detention of American Citizen", Africa Digest 4 (Africa Publications Trust, 1957):197.
  321. ^ Newsweek 49, Part 2 (1957):56.
  322. ^ Africa Bureau (London, England), "Damages Awarded to American Citizen", Africa Digest 5 (Africa Publications Trust, 1957):66.
  323. ^ South Africa Supreme Court, Southern Rhodesia High Court, Zimbabwe High Court, Southwest Africa High Court, Namibia Supreme Court, The South African Law Reports: Decisions of the Supreme Courts of South Africa, Vol. 2 (Juta and Co., 1958):152-158.
  324. ^ G.A. Natesan, The Indian Review 58 (Natesan & Co., 1957):287).
  325. ^ George H. Favre, "White Complacency Seen in South Africa: Inroads on Civil Rights Summary Arrests Hit Africans Befriended Threat of Violence Looms", The Christian Science Monitor (June 28, 1957):2.
  326. ^ See, for example, Mary-Louise Hooper interviewed by Byron Bryant, Radio KPFA (Los Angeles, California, September 1957), see "The Continuing Struggle in South Africa", http://africanactivist.msu.edu/audio.php?objectid=32-12E-D
  327. ^ See, for example, William Winter, "Interview with Mary-Louise Hooper", on ABC television show William Winter Maps the News (San Francisco, CA: June, 1959), http://africanactivist.msu.edu/audio.php?objectid=32-12E-B
  328. ^ American Committee on Africa, Africa Today 7-8 (Indiana University Press, 1960):15, 50.
  329. ^ C. J. Driver and Anthony Sampson, Patrick Duncan: South African and Pan-African (James Currey Publishers, 2000):157.
  330. ^ Scott Thomas, The Diplomacy of Liberation: The Foreign Relations of the African National Congress since 1960 (I.B.Tauris, 1996):45.
  331. ^ George M. Houser, "At Cairo - The Third All-African Peoples' Conference", Africa Today *:4 (April 1961):11.
  332. ^ The Sun (Baltimore, MD) (December 19, 1962):33.
  333. ^ William Minter and Sylvia Hill,"Anti-Apartheid Solidarity in United States-South Africa Relations: From the Margins to the Mainstream", in The Road to Democracy in South Africa, Vol. 3: International Solidarity, Part II, 758, 766, http://www.noeasyvictories.org/research/sadet_usa.pdf
  334. ^ "Quaker Will Talk on Africa", Los Angeles Times (January 19, 1963):17.
  335. ^ See for example, Mary-Louise Hooper, "We Shall Not Ride: The Johannesburg Bus Boycott", Africa Today 4:6 (November–December 1957):13-16; Mary-Louise Hooper, "Luthuli, Man of Peace", in Woman's Peace Party, Four Lights: An Adventure in Internationalism 21-22 (Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, 1961); Mary-Louise Hooper, "The African Struggle for Freedom" (1959), cited in Algernon David Black, The Young Citizens: The Story of the Encampment for Citizenship (Ungar, 1962); Mary-Louise Hooper, "The Ax Falls on the Whites" (1964), and Mary-Louise Hooper, "South Africa: ANC Leaders Hanged", in Africa Today Associates, American Committee on Africa, University of Denver Center on International Race Relations, Africa Today, (1964):10-11 (Indiana University Press, 1969); Mary-Louise Hooper, "Gestapo-Afrikaner Style" (1964).
  336. ^ George M. Houser, No One Can Stop the Rain: Glimpses of Africa's Liberation Struggle (Pilgrim Press, 1989):276.
  337. ^ Marie Louise Hooper, "Testimony of Mrs. Marie Louise Hooper before the Ad Hoc Working Group of Experts of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights", (29 May 1967, New York), http://www.anc.org.za/4928?t=ES%20Reddy
  338. ^ William R. Frye, In Whitest Africa: The Dynamics of Apartheid (Prentice-Hall, 1968):57.
  339. ^ David Hostetter, "'An International Alliance of People of All Nations Against Racism': Nonviolence and Solidarity in the Antiapartheid Activism of the American Committee on Africa, 1952–1965", Peace & Change 32:2 (April 2007):134-152.
  340. ^ Lewis V. Baldwin, Toward the Beloved Community: Martin Luther King Jr. and South Africa (Pilgrim Press, 1995):48, 210-211.
  341. ^ Mary-Louise Hooper, Refugee Algerian Students, (Africa Defense and Aid Fund, American Committee on Africa, 1960).
  342. ^ Ancestry.com. Social Security Death Index. Number: 111-36-7902;Issue State: New York;Issue Date: 1962.
  343. ^ Ancestry.com. Oregon Death Index, 1903-98. County: Klamath Death Date: 14 Aug 1987 Certificate: 87-15495.
  344. ^ One source indicates his last residence was at 33940 Naples, Collier, Florida. See Ancestry.com. Social Security Death Index. Number: 147-07-2972; Issue State: New Jersey; Issue Date: Before 1951.
  345. ^ a b c d e "WILLIS C. FITKIN, 72, WAS EXECUTIVE WITH VT.'S GREEN MOUNTAIN POWER CO.", Boston Globe (November 13, 1980):1.
  346. ^ "Car and Truck in Collision", Red Bank Register (July 30, 1924):10.
  347. ^ "To Wed Next Week", Red Bank Register(October 12, 1927):10.
  348. ^ "Fitkin -- Shubert", Special to The New York Times (October 22, 1927):9.
  349. ^ Ancestry.com. Social Security Death Index. Number: 075-09-8102; Issue State: New York.
  350. ^ Ancestry.com. 1930 United States Federal Census. Census Place: Interlaken, Monmouth, New Jersey; Roll: 1371; Page: 2A; Enumeration District: 49; Image: 69.0.
  351. ^ Ancestry.com. Social Security Death Index. Number: 151-18-7858; Issue State: New Jersey.
  352. ^ "SALLY M'MANUS FIANCEE; Honolulu Girl Will Be Married to A. Edward Fitkin", The New York Times (January 14, 1951); "SALLY L. M'MANUS A HONOLULU BRIDE; Central Union Church Scene of Marriage to A.E. Fitkin 2d, Miami University Alumnus", Special to THE NEW YORK TIMES (June 21, 1951):30.
  353. ^ Tenth census of the state of Florida, 1935.
  354. ^ "Karen E. Fitkin Becomes Bride of JB; Draper; Former Briarcliff and Miami Students Wed in Meredith, N.H.", The New York Times (August 16, 1959):88.
  355. ^ "Michigan Gas Utilities Elects Fitkin President, Chairman", Wall Street Journal (April 23, 1953); "President and Chairman Elected by Michigan Gas", The New York Times (April 23, 1953).
  356. ^ Gene Smith, "Personality: Willis C. Fitkin, Down to a Mere $128 Million; Son of A.E., Carries On in Utilities", The New York Times (January 20, 1957):141.
  357. ^ "RALPH M'F. FITKIN, 50, ASSISTED HOSPITALS", The New York Times (July 18, 1962).
  358. ^ a b c George Ferguson Mitchell Nellist, Pan-Pacific Who's Who, (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 1941):223.
  359. ^ The New York Times (July 19, 1962).
  360. ^ Ancestry.com. U.S. Public Records Index, Vol. 1.
  361. ^ Paul Alred Pratte, "Ke Alaka 'I: The Role of the Honolulu Star-Bulletin in the Hawaiian Statehood Movement", University of Hawaii, Ph.D. dissertation (December 1976):172, scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/.../uhm_phd_7714603_r.pdf
  362. ^ "RALPH M'F. FITKIN, 50, ASSISTED HOSPITALS", The New York Times (July 18, 1962).
  363. ^ a b "New Radio Company's President is Son of Man Fabulous in U. S. Finance", Honolulu Star-Bulletin (1946), from http://www.whodaguyhawaii.com/rj55.htm
  364. ^ a b Paradise of the Pacific 58 (Christmas 1946):14.
  365. ^ All About Hawaii: The Recognized Book of Authentic Information on Hawaii, Combined with Thrum's Hawaiian Annual and Standard Guide (Honolulu Star-Bulletin, 1946):149.
  366. ^ Hawaii Case Law. McCAW & KEATING v. TAX COM'R FASE, 40 Haw. 121 (1953)NO. 2898. Decided May 14, 1953.
  367. ^ David Ricquish, "Art of Radio Hawaii", http://www.radioheritage.net/Story94.asp
  368. ^ Broadcasting Yearbook, Part 3 (Publisher Broadcasting Publications, 1952):13.
  369. ^ Connecticut Department of Health. Connecticut Death Index, 1949-2001.
  370. ^ Ancestry.com. Florida Death Index, 1877-1998
  371. ^ "Mrs A.E. Fitkin, 81, Missionary, Writer", The New York Times (October 20, 1951).

Further reading[edit]

  • Burrow, Gerard N. A History of Yale's School of Medicine: Passing Torches to Others. Yale University Press, 2002.
  • Cooley, Steven D. "The Call of Susan Fitkin." Herald of Holiness 74:20 (15 October 1985):9.
  • Fitkin, Susan N. Grace Much More Abounding: A Story of the Triumphs of Redeeming Grace During Two Score Years in the Master's Service. Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House, [ca. 1930]. Holiness Data Ministry, 1997.
  • Fitkin, Susan N. Holiness and Missions. 1940.
  • Fitkin, S. N. A Trip to Africa. New York, 1927.
  • Ingersol, Stan. "Mother of Missions: The Evangelistic Vision of Susan Norris Fitkin." Herald of Holiness 80:1 (January 1991):44.
  • Ingersol, Stan. Wesleyan/Holiness Women Clergy: Our Mission "Susan Norris Fitkin: Mother of Missions".
  • Laird, Rebecca. "Susan Norris Fitkin", 72-83. In Ordained Women in the Church of the Nazarene. Kansas City, MO: Nazarene, 1993.
  • Miller, Basil. Susan N. Fitkin: For God and Missions. Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House, 1949. Digital ed. Holiness Data Ministry, 2006.
  • Parker, J. Fred. Mission to the World: A History of Missions in the Church of the Nazarene Through 1985. Nazarene Publishing House, 1988. Traces origins and growth of the Raleigh Fitkin Memorial Hospital in Swaziland.
  • Perkins, Phyllis. Women in Nazarene Missions: Embracing the Legacy. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House, 1994.
  • Pinchot, Gifford. Power Monopoly: Its Make-Up and Its Menace. Milford, PA, 1928.
  • Smith, Timothy L. Called Unto Holiness: The Story of The Nazarenes: The Formative Years. Kansas City, MO: Nazarene Publishing House, 1962. Digital Edition (Holiness Data Ministry, 2006).
  • York, Mark A. The Girl Who Wanted to Be a Missionary: The Susan N. Fitkin Story. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House, 1985.

External links[edit]