Absheron Rayon (Azerbaijani: Abşeron, Russian: Апшерон), also spelled as Apsheron, is a rayon of Azerbaijan demarcated in 1963. Although it shares the same name as the Absheron Peninsula, the area covered by the rayon is not conterminous, being further west and mostly inland.
Absheron was founded in 1963 by the Soviet government to assure enough labour force, highly educated professional staff and necessary provisions is given to enterprises and firms, kolkhozs and collective farms, poultry and agrarian industries, construction centres, scientific-research institutes and laboratories present on the territories of Baku and Sumgait. There are lots of historical monuments on the territory of Absheron. For example, in the village Aşağı Güzdək there are agricultural tools from the 19th century. In Goradile village, there is Abdurrahman mosque pertaining to 19th century which was built by the villager Haji Gurban, mosques from 18th century in Məmmədli built by Garadaglilar family, mosque-madrasa built in 19th century by Haji Safarali in Novxani, Albattin mosque in Fatmai which goes back to 18th century. Aside from religious monuments, there are many monuments pertaining to social life of people in last centuries. For example, hamams built in Middle Ages by Haji Kazim in Qobu village and another one built by Meshadi Imam Baxish in Xirdalan. Ancient wells which provided water supply to people living in this territory are still used in Aşağı Güzdək and Xirdalan. Tombs from 8th - 18th centuries are also preserved: in Fatmai, Digah, Masazir, Hökməli and Saray.
Absheron is situated partially on Absheron Peninsula and partially inland. The basic part of its economy is agricultural production which develops in two directions: plant growing and cattlebreeding. More attention in plant growing is given to gardening and olive growing. In the sheep breeding, raising local stock of "Gala" with semi-hard or hard skin prevails.