Absolute hot

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Absolute hot is a concept of temperature that postulates the existence of a highest attainable temperature of matter.

The concept has been popularized by the television series Nova.[1][2] In this presentation, absolute hot is assumed to be the high end of a temperature scale starting at absolute zero, which is the temperature at which entropy is minimal and classical thermal energy is zero.

Contemporary models of physical cosmology postulate that the highest possible temperature is the Planck temperature, which has the value 1.416785(71)×1032 kelvin.[3] This value is assumed to be the highest temperature because conventional quantum physics relies on Planck's law which implies a lower limit for the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation. The models of the origin of the universe based on the Big Bang theory assume that the universe has passed through this temperature about 10−42 seconds after the Big Bang as a result of enormous entropy expansion.[3] Above ~1032K, particle energie's become so large that there is no existing scientific theory for the behavior of matter at these energies. Gravitational forces between them would become as strong as other fundamental forces, requiring a hypothetical theory of everything for description.[4]

Another theory of absolute hot is based on the Hagedorn temperature.[2] Instead of temperature rising, at the Hagedorn temperature more and heavier particles are produced by pair production, thus preventing effective further heating, given that only hadrons are produced. However, further heating is possible (with pressure) if the matter undergoes a phase change into a quark–gluon plasma.[citation needed]

Quantum physics formally assumes infinitely positive or negative temperatures in descriptions of spin system undergoing population inversion from the ground state to a higher energy state by excitation with electromagnetic radiation. The temperature function in these systems exhibits a singularity, meaning the temperature tends to positive infinity, before discontinuously switching to negative infinity.[5] However, this applies only to specific degrees of freedom in the system, while others would have normal temperature dependency. If equipartitioning were possible, such formalisms ignore the fact that the spin system would be destroyed by the decomposition of ordinary matter before infinite temperature could be reached uniformly in the sample.[citation needed]

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References[edit]

  1. ^ PBS. "Absolute zero." NOVA. Season 33. Ep. 1.
  2. ^ a b Absolute Hot. NOVA.
  3. ^ a b Tyson, Peter (2007). "Absolute Hot: Is there an opposite to absolute zero?". PBS.org. Archived from the original on 6 August 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 
  4. ^ Hubert Reeves (1991). The Hour of Our Delight. W. H. Freeman Company. p. 117. ISBN 0-7167-2220-8. "The point at which our physical theories run into most serious difficulties is that where matter reaches a temperature of approximately 1032 degrees, also known as Planck's temperature. The extreme density of radiation emitted at this temperature creates a disproportionately intense field of gravity. To go even farther back, a quantum theory of gravity would be necessary, but such a theory has yet to be written." 
  5. ^ C. Kittel, H. Kroemer (1980). Thermal Physics (2 ed.). W. H. Freeman Company. ISBN 0-7167-1088-9.