Absolute threshold

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In neuroscience and psychophysics, an absolute threshold was originally defined as the lowest level of a stimulus —light, sound, touch, etc.—that an organism could detect. Under the influence of signal detection theory, absolute threshold has been redefined as the level at which a stimulus will be detected a specified percentage (often 50%) of the time.[1] The absolute threshold can be influenced by several different factors, such as the subject's motivations and expectations, cognitive processes, and whether the subject is adapted to the stimulus.[2]
The absolute threshold can be compared to the difference threshold, which is the measure of how different two stimuli must be for the subject to notice that they are not the same.[2]

Vision[edit]

A landmark 1942 experiment by Hecht, Shlaer, and Pirenne assessed the absolute threshold for vision. They tried to measure the minimum number of photons the human eye can detect 60% of the time, using the following controls:[3][4][5]

  • Dark adaptation – the participants were completely dark adapted (a process lasting forty minutes) to optimise their visual sensitivity.
  • Location – the stimulus was presented to an area where there is a high density of rod cells, 20 degrees to the left of the point of focus (i.e., 20 degrees to the right of the fovea).
  • Stimulus size – the stimulus had a diameter of 10 minutes of arc (1 minute=1/60th of a degree). Although not explicitly mentioned in the original research paper, this ensured that the light stimulus fell only on rod cells connected to the same nerve fibre (this is called the area of spatial summation).
  • Wavelength – the stimulus wavelength matched the maximum sensitivity of rod cells (510 nm).
  • Stimulus duration – 0.001 second (1 ms).

The researchers found that the emission of only 54-128 photons could elicit visual experience. However, only about half of these entered the retina, due to reflection (from the cornea), absorption, and other factors relating to transmittance of the ocular media. The researchers estimated that 5 to 14 of the estimated 500 rods in the test area would each absorb one photon, with a 4% chance that one rod would absorb two photons.

A second absolute threshold for vision involves the minimum photon flux (photons per second per unit area). In this case the light covers a wide field over an extended period of time instead of being concentrated on one spot on the retina in a short burst. Knowing the pupil diameter and the wavelength of the light, the result can be described in terms of luminance (~0.000001 candela per square meter or 10-6 cd/m2) or retinal illuminance (~0.00002 Trolands). By including estimates for the probability of an average photon being absorbed by an average rod cell, the threshold stimulation for the rods is approximately one photon absorption per second per 5000 rods.[6]

In 1972 Sakitt conducted an experiment that combined elements of signal detection and threshold theory. Two key elements of the study were a high tolerance for false positives and a multiple-choice option on deciding whether or not a light was seen. In the classic studies described above, the tolerance for false positives was so low that threshold was biased upward. Based on statistical analysis of a large number of trials, 6 photons each absorbed by one rod near-simultaneously looked "very bright," 5 photons looked "bright," 4 photons "a moderate light," 3 photons "a dim light." Two observers were able to see 2 photons as "slightly doubtful if a light was seen." One observor saw a single photon as "very doubtful if a light was seen." Zero photons were seen as "did not see anything."[7][8][9]

Hearing[edit]

The absolute threshold of hearing is the minimum sound level of a pure tone that an average ear with normal hearing can hear with no other sound present. The absolute threshold relates to the sound that can just be heard by the organism.[10][11]
The threshold of hearing is generally reported as the RMS sound pressure of 20 µPa (micropascals) = 2×10−5 pascal (Pa). It is approximately the quietest sound a young human with undamaged hearing can detect at 1,000 Hz.[12] The threshold of hearing is frequency dependent and it has been shown that the ear's sensitivity is best at frequencies between 1 kHz and 5 kHz.[12]

Odor[edit]

The odor detection threshold is the lowest concentration of a certain odor compound that is perceivable by the human sense of smell. The thresholds of a chemical compound is determined in part by its shape, polarity, partial charges and molecular mass.[13] The olfactory mechanisms responsible for a compound's different detection threshold is not well understood, as such, these thresholds cannot yet be accurately predicted. Rather, they must be measured through extensive tests using human subjects in laboratory settings.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Colman, Andrew M. (26 February 2009). A Dictionary of Psychology. OUP Oxford. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-19-104768-8. Retrieved 11 October 2014. 
  2. ^ a b " Absolute Threshold." Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. 2001. Retrieved July 14, 2010 from Encyclopedia.com
  3. ^ Fundamentals of Sensation and Perception, Michael Levine. Oxford University Press (3rd Edition). London, 2000.
  4. ^ Visual Perception, Tom Cornsweet. Harcourt Publishing (1970). Chapters 2 and 4.
  5. ^ Hecht, Selig; Shlaer, Simon; Pirenne, Maurice Henri (1942-07-20), J Gen Physiol v.25(6); 1942 Jul 20 "Energy, Quanta, and Vision", Journal of General Physiology (The Rockefeller Press) 25 (6): 819–840, PMC 2142545, retrieved 2014-10-10 
  6. ^ Shevell, Steven K. (11 July 2003). The Science of Color. Elsevier. pp. 45–6. ISBN 978-0-08-052322-4. Retrieved 11 October 2014. 
  7. ^ Uttal, William R. (27 June 2014). A Taxonomy of Visual Processes. Psychology Press. p. 389. ISBN 978-1-317-66895-4. Retrieved 11 October 2014. 
  8. ^ Reike, Fred (19 April 2000). Vertebrae Phototransduction and the Visual Cycle. Academic Press. p. 186. ISBN 978-0-08-049673-3. Retrieved 11 October 2014. 
  9. ^ Bialek, William (4 November 2012). Biophysics: Searching for Principles. Princeton University Press. p. 40. ISBN 1-4008-4557-2. Retrieved 11 October 2014. 
  10. ^ Durrant J D., Lovrinic J H. 1984. Bases of Hearing Sciences. Second Edition. United States of America: Williams & Wilkins
  11. ^ Gelfand S A., 2004. Hearing an Introduction to Psychological and Physiological Acoustics. Fourth edition. United States of America: Marcel Dekker
  12. ^ a b Gelfand, S A., 1990. Hearing: An introduction to psychological and physiological acoustics. 2nd edition. New York and Basel: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
  13. ^ Visakh, P. M.; Iturriaga, Laura B.; Ribotta, Pablo Daniel (17 December 2013). Advances in Food Science and Nutrition. Wiley. p. 280. ISBN 978-1-118-86553-8. Retrieved 12 October 2014. 
  14. ^ Rhoades, Rodney A.; Bell, David R. (18 January 2012). Medical Phisiology: Principles for Clinical Medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-60913-427-3. Retrieved 12 October 2014. 

See also[edit]