In business administration, absorptive capacity has been defined as "a firm's ability to recognize the value of new information, assimilate it, and apply it to commercial ends". It is studied on individual, group, firm, and national levels. Antecedents are prior-based knowledge (knowledge stocks and knowledge flows) and communication. Studies involve a firm's innovation performance, aspiration level, and organizational learning. It has been said that in order to be innovative an organization should develop its absorptive capacity.
Cohen and Levinthal's model
The concept of absorptive capacity was first defined as a firm's "ability to recognize the value of new information, assimilate it, and apply it to commercial ends" by Cohen and Levinthal. For them, absorptive capacity depends greatly on prior related knowledge and diversity of background. Therefore, they’ve put the investments a firm makes in its R&D central to their model of development of absorptive capacity. The absorptive capacity is seen as cumulative, meaning that it is easier for a firm to invest on a constant basis in its absorptive capacity than investing punctually. Efforts put to develop absorptive capacity in one period will make it easier to accumulate it in the next one.
“The cumulativeness of absorptive capacity and its effect on expectation formation suggest an extreme case of path dependence in which once a firm ceases investing in its absorptive capacity in a quickly moving field, it may never assimilate and exploit new information in that field, regardless of the value of that information.”
Absorptive capacity is also said to be a reason for companies to invest in R&D instead of simply purchasing the results post factum (e.g. patents). Internal R&D teams increase the absorptive capacity of a company. A firm’s investment in R&D then impacts directly its absorptive capacity. The more a firm invests in research and development activities, the more it will be able to fully appreciate the value of new external information.
Cohen and Levinthal also stressed that diversity allows individual to make “novel associations and linkages”. They therefore encourage the hiring of diverse teams in order to have a variety of individuals working together and exposing themselves to other ways of looking at things.
Zahra and George's model
Cohen and Levinthal have focused a lot on investments in R&D to develop one’s absorptive capacity, but many other researchers showed later on that several other areas could be explored to develop an organization’s absorptive capacity. This led to a review of the concept by Shaker Zahra and Gerry George and a reformulation of the definition that expanded greatly the concept and further defined it as being made of 2 different absorptive capacities: potential absorptive capacity and realized absorptive capacity. Their new definition of absorptive capacity is: “a set of organizational routines and processes by which firms acquire, assimilate, transforms and exploit knowledge to produce a dynamic organizational capability.”
Potential Absorptive Capacity
Zahra and George presented the potential absorptive capacity is made of 2 elements. First there is knowledge acquisition which “refers to a firm’s capability to identify and acquire externally generated knowledge that is critical to its operations.” Second, there is assimilation capability which “refers to the firm’s routines and processes that allow it to analyze, process, interpret and understand the information obtained from external sources.” “Potential absorptive capacity makes the firm receptive to acquiring and assimilating external knowledge.”
Realized Absorptive Capacity
Realized absorptive capacity is made up of transformation capability on one hand that can be defined as “a firm’s capability to develop and refine the routines that facilitate combining existing knowledge and the newly acquired and assimilated knowledge.” On the other hand realized absorptive capacity is also made of the exploitation capability of a firm which is basically the capacity of a firm to apply the newly acquired knowledge in product or services that it can get financial benefit from. “Realized absorptive capacity is a function of the transformation and exploitation capabilities.”
Zahra and George go on to suggest a series of indicators that can be used to evaluate each element of absorptive capacity.
- Knowledge acquisition capability (the number of years of experience of the R&D department, the amount of R&D investment)
- Assimilation capability (the number of cross-firm patent citations, the number of citations made in a firm’s publications to research developed in other firms)
- Transformation capability (the number of new product ideas, the number of new research projects initiated)
- Exploitation capability (the number of patent, the number of new product announcements, the length of product development cycle)
Other researches on the subject
Researches on subjects related to the development of absorptive capacity have included studies focusing on research and development, knowledge management, organizational structures, human resources, external interactions, social capital, supplier integration, client integration and inter-organizational fit. All those researches provide a better picture of absorptive capacity that makes it possible for any firm to develop its absorptive capacity improving different areas of their organization.
Today the theory involves organizational learning, industrial economics, the resource-based view of the firm and dynamic capabilities. This theory has undergone major refinement, and today a firm's absorptive capacity is mostly conceptualized as a dynamic capability.
Two concepts related to absorptive capacity are:
- Receptivity: The firm's overall ability to be aware of, identify and take effective advantage of technology.
- Innovative Routines: Practiced routines that define a set of competencies the firm is capable of doing confidently and the focus of the firm's innovation efforts.
Notes and references
- Cohen and Levinthal (1990), "Absorptive capacity: A new perspective on learning and innovation", Administrative Science Quarterly, Volume 35, Issue 1 pg. 128-152.
- Cohen and Levinthal (1989), "Innovation and learning: The two faces of R&D", The Economic Journal, Volume 99, September pg. 569-596.
- Zahra and George (2002), "Absorptive Capacity: A Review,Reconceptualization,and Extension", Academy of Management Review,Volume 27, Issue 2,pg.185-203
- CALOGHIROU, Yannis, Ioanna Kastelli et Aggelos Tsakanikas (2004), “Internal capabilities and external knowledge sources: complements or substitutes for innovative performance?”, Technovation, Vol. 24, p. 29-39
- HARHOFF, Dietmar, Joachim Henkel et Eric von Hippel (2003), “Profiting from voluntary information spillovers: how users benefit by freely revealing their informations”, Research Policy, Vol. 32, p. 1753-1769
- LIN, Chinho, Bertram Tan et Shofang Chang (2002), “The critical factors for technology absorptive capacity”, Industrial Management + Data Systems, Vol. 102, No. 5/6, p. 300-308
- STOCK, Gregory N., Noel P. Greis et William A. Fischer (2001), “Absorptive capacity and new product development”, Journal of High Technology Management Research, Vol.12, p. 77-91
- CORSO, Mariano, Antonella Martini, Luisa Pellegrini, Silvia Massa et Stefania Testa (2006), “Managing dispersed workers: the new challenge in Knowledge Management”, Technovation, No. 26, p. 583-594
- LAGERSTRÖM, Katarina et Maria Andersson (2003), “Creating and sharing knowledge within a transnational team – the development of a global business system”, Journal of World Business, Vol. 38, p. 84-95
- LENOX, Michael et Andrew King (2004), “Prospects for developing absorptive capacity through internal information provision”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 25, No. 4 (April), p. 331-345
- VAN DEN BOSCH, Frans AJ, Henk W. Volberda et Michiel de Boer (1999), “Coevolution of firm absorptive capacity and knowledge environment : organizational forms and combinative capabilities”, Organization Science, Vol. 10, No. 5 (September/October), p. 551-568
- FREEL, Mark S. (2005), “Patterns of innovation and skills in small firms”, Technovation, Vol. 25, p. 123-134
- VINDING, Anker Lund (2004), “Human Resources; Absorptive Capacity and Innovative Performance”, Research on Technological Innovation and Management Policy, Vol. 8, p. 155-178
- LANDRY, Réjean, Nabil Amara et Moktar Lamari (2002), “ Does social capital determine innovation? To what extent?”, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, Vol. 69, p. 681-701
- ALBINO, Vito, A. Claudio Garavelli et Giovanni Schiuma (1999), “Knowledge transfer and the inter-firm relationships in industrial districts: the role of the leader firm”, Technovation, Vol. 19, p. 53-63
- MALHOTRA, Arvind, Sanjay Gosain et Omar A. El Sawy (2005), «Absorptive capacity configurations in supply chains: gearing for partner-enabled market knowledge creation», MIS Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 1 (mars), p. 145-187
- SCHIELE, Holger (2006), “How to distinguish innovative suppliers? Identifying innovative suppliers as a new task for purchasing”, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 35, p. 925-935
- JOHNSEN, Rhona E. et David Ford (2006), “Interaction capability development of smaller suppliers in relationships with larger customers”, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 35, p. 1002-1015
- LANE, Peter J. et Micheal Lubatkin (1998), “Relative absorptive capacity and interorganizational learning”, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 19, No. 5 (May), p. 461-477
- Seaton R.A.F. & Cordey-Hayes M., The Development and Application of Interactive Models of Industrial Technology Transfer, Technovation, 13: 45-53, 1993.
- Nelson & Winter (1982), "The Schumpeterian Tradeoff Revisited", The American Economic Review, Volume 72, Issue 1,pg.114-132