Abu Dis

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Abu Dees
Other transcription(s)
 • Arabic أبو ديس
 • Also spelled Abu Dees (official)
Dome of Rock,2001.JPG
Abu Dees is located in the Palestinian territories
Abu Dees
Abu Dees
Location of Abu Dees within the Palestinian territories
Coordinates: 31°45′45″N 35°15′57″E / 31.76250°N 35.26583°E / 31.76250; 35.26583Coordinates: 31°45′45″N 35°15′57″E / 31.76250°N 35.26583°E / 31.76250; 35.26583
Governorate Jerusalem
Government
 • Type City
 • Head of Municipality Adel Salah
Area
 • Jurisdiction 28,332 dunams (28.3 km2 or 10.9 sq mi)
Population (2007)
 • Jurisdiction 10,782
Name meaning Abu Dees (a family name)[1]

Abu Dees or Abu Dis or Abu Deis (Arabic: أبو ديس‎; Hebrew: אַבּוּ דִיס) is a Palestinian town in the Jerusalem Governorate of the Palestinian National Authority bordering Jerusalem. Since the 1995 Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, Abu Dees has been part of "Area B", under joint Israeli and Palestinian control. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) census, Abu Dees had a population of 10,782 in 2007.[2]

History[edit]

Abu Dees is situated on an ancient site, surrounded by deep valleys. Remains have been found of ancient buildings, cisterns, grape presses and caves, one with a columbarium. Ceramics from Late Roman and Byzantine period has also been found.[3]

The French explorer Victor Guérin thought Abu Dis was identical with ancient Bahurim,[4] but this identification is not accepted today.[5]

Ottoman era[edit]

Abu Dees was one of the most populous villages in the Sanjak of Jerusalem during the 16th century, with a population of several hundred. Wheat and barley formed the bulk of cash crops, but were supplemented by grapes, olives, fruit trees, beans, and products from goats and bees. Descendants of Saladin lived in the village and were entrusted one-third of the grain revenue by the Ottoman Empire.[6] The adult males of the village paid a combined 6,250 akçe in annual taxes, a much more lower figure than other villages of the same size in the sanjak such as Beit Jala, Ein Karim, and Deir Dibwan. This could indicate that Abu Dees was less prosperous, alternatively it could be because it had fewer non-Muslims.[6] In October 1553, Shaykh Sa'd al-Din al-Sharafi al-Maliki was appointed as the administrator of the waqf of the village, but was replaced in 1554 by Muhammad al-Fakhuri at the request of three prominent villagers who complained to the qadi of Jerusalem. He remained in this position until 1563.[6] In 1596 Abu Dees appeared in Ottoman tax registers as being in the Nahiya of Quds of the Liwa of Quds. It had a population of 80 Muslim households, and paid taxes on wheat, barley, olive trees, vineyards, fruit trees, goats and/or bee hives.[7]

When Guérin visited the village in 1870 he noted a house larger and higher than the others, which was that of the local sheikh.[4] An official Ottoman village list from about the same year showed that Abu Dis had 52 houses and a population of 326, though the population count included only men.[8]

By the old village mosque, known locally as Maqam Salah ad-Din, there is a grave with a slab of marble, with a poem written in "elegant naskhi script", dated to 1878.[9]

In 1883, the Palestine Exploration Fund's Survey of Western Palestine described it as a "village of moderate size in a conspicuous position on a bare flat ridge, with deep valleys round it. The water-supply is from cisterns. Rock-cut tombs exists to the west.[10]

In the late 19th century, the Sheikh of Abu Dees, Rasheed Erekat, promised to guarantee the safety of European tourists and pilgrims on the journey down to Jericho and the River Jordan.[11] According to a 19th-century traveler, the "only way of accomplishing the journey to the Jordan ...(is) by paying the statutory tribute-money to the Sheikh of Abu Dees. This man has the privilege of extracting some sixteen shillings from each traveller who goes down to Jericho...He will send a man, possibly his own son along with you... arrayed in gorgeous apparel, and armed with sword and revolver."[12]

British Mandate era[edit]

In a census conducted in 1922 by the British Mandate authorities, Abu Diz had a population of 1,029, all Muslims,[13] increasing in the 1931 census to a population of 1,297, still all Muslims, in 272 houses.[14]

In 1945 Abu Dees had a population of 1,940, all Arabs, with 27,896 dunams of land, according to an official land and population survey.[15] Of this, 4,981 dunams were used for cereals,[16] while 158 dunams were built-up land.[17]

Between 1922 and 1947, the population of Abu Dees increased by 110%.[18] The town suffered extensive damage in the 1927 Jericho earthquake. All the homes were damaged and every cistern was cracked. Since Abu Dees depended on rain-water cisterns for its water supply, this caused great hardship. al-Eizariya (Bethany), half a mile away, suffered little damage.[19]

1948-1967[edit]

According to the UN General Assembly Resolution 194 in 1948, Abu Dees was to be the most Eastern part of the corpus separatum Jerusalem area. However, the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and after the 1949 Armistice Agreements, Abu Dees came under Jordanian rule.

After the Six-Day War[edit]

After the Six-Day War in 1967, Abu Dees has been under Israeli occupation. Since the signing of the Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (also known as Oslo 2) in 1995, Abu Dees has been part of Area B, which is under the civil jurisdiction of the Palestinian National Authority but subject to Israeli security control.[20]

Most of the Palestinian Authority's offices responsible for Jerusalem affairs are located in the town.[21] In 2000, the construction of a Parliament Building to possibly house the Palestinian Legislative Council was started in Abu Dees, but the project was never finished. Israeli has suggested to predestine the location as a substitute for East Jerusalem, the Palestinians' claimed capital.[22] The separation wall Israel built in Abu Dees runs just few meters from the location.[23]

West Bank barrier and land disputes[edit]

Israeli West Bank barrier separating Abu Dis from Jerusalem

On January 13, 2004, Israel began constructing the Israeli West Bank Barrier. The route of the barrier between Abu Dees and Jerusalem (East of the Green line) has made it difficult for Abu Dees's residents to access services in Jerusalem without a permit.[21] The barrier will also detach over 6,000 dunums of arable land from the city's total land area of 28,332 dunums.[23] The United Nations humanitarian affairs office charged that the barrier would severely disrupt access to schools, hospitals, and work. Israel says that the route of the barrier is determined by security, not political considerations.[24]

The Cliff Hotel owned by the Ayyad family of Abu Dees has been the focus of a legal dispute in the Israeli courts.[25][26] The owners sued to halt expropriation of the hotel, built in the mid-1950s. The case involves the application of the Absentee Property Law, which allows the State of Israel to expropriate property within its territory when the owner lives in a country that Israel regards as an enemy. A High Court ruling in February 2010 was still unable to decide whether the law applies to property in East Jerusalem belonging to residents of the Palestinian territories.[27][28] The government of Norway has supported the Ayyad family.[29][30][31][32][33] A book about the struggle of the hotel-owner Ali Ayyad and his Norwegian -born wife was published in Norway in 2012.[34][35]

Schools and cultural institutions[edit]

Schools in Abu Dees include Amal Nursery, Abu Dees Elementary School, New Generation Primary School, Special Needs School, Abu Dees Girls Secondary School, Abu Dees Boys Secondary School, UNRWA Mixed School and Arab Institute. Abu Dees is also home to Al-Quds University.

Waste disposal site[edit]

Abu Dees has a waste disposal site that became operational in the early 1980s.[36] Until 2011, the site received about half of the 1,400 tons of garbage produced every day in the Jerusalem District. The landfill site is overflowing and slated to expected to close by 2013.[37]

Twin cities[edit]

  • United Kingdom Camden, a borough of London in the United Kingdom. Since 2005, many Camden residents have visited Abu Dees and many Abu Dees residents have visited Camden. The visits concentrate on children, women and schools. The twinning activities are supported by the Camden Abu Dees Friendship Association (CADFA), a UK registered charity.[38]
  • France Reze

Notable residents[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 278
  2. ^ 2007 PCBS Census. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. p. 116.
  3. ^ Dauphin, 1998, p. 906
  4. ^ a b Guérin, 1874, p. 160 ff
  5. ^ McKenzie, John, Dictionary of the Bible, Simon & Schuster, 1995, p77
  6. ^ a b c Amy Singer (1994). Palestinian peasants and Ottoman officials. Cambridge University Press. pp. 64–69. ISBN 0-521-45238-4. 
  7. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 117
  8. ^ Socin, 1879, p. 142
  9. ^ Sharon, 1997, p. 1-2
  10. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1883, p. 27
  11. ^ Rev James Smith, 'A Pilgrimage to Palestine - An account of a visit to Lower Palestine (1893-1894)
  12. ^ James Kean, 'Among the Holy Places - A Pilgrimage through Palestine.' T. Fisher Unwin, London, Sixth edition 1908. (1st Edition 1891), p. 129-130
  13. ^ J. B. Barron, ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine. Table VII, Sub-district of Jerusalem, p. 14. 
  14. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 37
  15. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970, p. 56
  16. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970, p. 101
  17. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in S. Hadawi, Village Statistics, 1945. PLO Research Center, 1970, p. 151
  18. ^ Transformation in Arab Settlement, Moshe Brawer, in The Land that Became Israel: Studies in Historical Geography, Ruth Kark (ed), Magnes Press, Jerusalem 1989, p.177
  19. ^ Bertha Spafford Vester, 'Our Jerusalem'. Printed in Lebanon, 1950. page 320.
  20. ^ Dr Haim Gvirtzman, Maps of Israeli Interests in Judea and Samaria, Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies (Israel).
  21. ^ a b UNRWA Profile of Abu Dees United Nations Relief and Works Agency. March 2004.
  22. ^ "Palestine denies Arafat's approval of Abu Dees as Palestinian capital". Arabic News. 1998-05-07. Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  23. ^ a b Abu Dees: A Palestinian Town Tarred by the Israeli Wall. ARIJ & LRC, 4 February 2004
  24. ^ Where day to day living has had its heart cut out Guardian 2004-01-20.
  25. ^ An Abu Dees hotel has become a new battleground for the Jerusalem separation fence Haaretz 2004-05-05.
  26. ^ Israel snatches Palestinian hotel for ‘security reasons’: owner Sunday, 17 February 2013, alarabiya.net
  27. ^ The absentee from 6 Molcho St. Haaretz 2010-07-23.
  28. ^ Israel snatches Palestinian hotel for ‘security reasons’ Sunday, 17 February 2013, al Arabiya
  29. ^ Hotellet til Signe Marie og Ali er beslaglagt av Israel. Nå tar Bondevik opp saken Dagbladet
  30. ^ Kampen om hotellet midt i muren NRK
  31. ^ Norske Signe har kjempet i ti år for Cliff Hotel Tv2
  32. ^ Israel konfiskerer norsk-palestinsk hotell 27.apr. 2004
  33. ^ Israels barrière opprører Støre 28 June 2008, Aftenposten
  34. ^ Cliff Hotel. Familien Ayad vs. staten Israel Hamar Dagblad
  35. ^ Ypperlig mikrohistorie for å forstå Palestina-konflikten Dagbladet
  36. ^ Nir Shalev (December 2009). "The Hidden Agenda. The Establishment and Expansion Plans of Ma'ale Adummim and their Human Rights Ramifications". B'Tselem. pp. 31–34. Retrieved 2012-03-25. 
  37. ^ Sharon Udasin (2012-01-04). "Jerusalem to transform waste 'into to resource’". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2012-01-12. 
  38. ^ Camden Abu Dees Friendship Association

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]