Abu Khalil Qabbani
Abu Khalil Qabbani (Arabic: أبو خليل القباني / ALA-LC: Abū Khalīl al-Qabbānī; 1835–1902) was a Syrian playwright and composer of Turkish origin. He is considered the founder of the short musical play (the operetta) in Arabic theatre. His play Abu al-Hassan al-Mughaffal caused a wave of protest as a result of his mockery of Caliph Harun al-Rashid, and ended with a decree by the Ottoman government to close his theatre and prevent theatrical performances in Syria. Qabbani left for Egypt and produced his plays there until 1900. He returned to Syria and died two years later in 1902. He is considered the "father of Syrian theatre", and has influenced later generations including the famous Duraid Lahham. His brother is the grandfather of Nizar Qabbani.
- Sadgrove, Philip (2010), "Ahmad Abu Khalil al-Qabbani (1833-1902)", in Allen, Roger M. A.; Lowry, Joseph Edmund; Stewart, Devin J. (eds.), Essays in Arabic Literary Biography: 1850-1950, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, p. 267, ISBN 3447061413
- Hamdan, Masud (2006). Poetics, Politics and Protest in Arab Theatre. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 1-84519-106-4.