|Native name: ابوموسی|
Abu Musa Island in Persian Gulf
|Major islands||Abu Musa|
|Area||12 km2 (4.6 sq mi)|
|Largest city||Abu Musa (pop. 1,953)|
|Population||2,131 (as of 2012)|
Abu Musa (Persian: ابوموسی) is a 12.8 km² Iranian island in the eastern Persian Gulf, which is part of Hormozgan province. It is part of a six-island archipelago near the entrance to the Strait of Hormuz. Due to the depth of sea, oil tankers and big ships, have to pass between Abu Musa and Greater and Lesser Tunbs; this makes these islands one of the most strategic points in the Persian Gulf.
- "Boum-Ouw" (Persian: بوماوو) or "Boum-Ouf" (Persian: بوماوف) which in Persian means "Waterland".
- "Boum-Souz" (Persian: بومسوز) or "Boum-Sou"/"Boum-Souw" (Persian: بومسو) or "Gap-Sabzou" (Persian: گپسبزو) which in Persian means "Green Land".
Most of residents of the island speak "Bandari dialect" of Persian.
Abu Musa island is 75 km from Bandar Lengeh and 16 km from Strait of Hormuz. It is the farthest island (out of 14 islands of Hormozgan) from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf. It's 46 m above the sea. The highest place is the 110-meter Halva mountain. Abu Musa city is the center of the island. The weather in Abu Musa is warm and humid, although, compared to the place in the Persian Gulf, Abu Musa has a better climate and the most diverse ecosystem, but it lacks suitable soil and water for farming leaving fishing as the main industry for locals. It is one of the main ports for exporting oil from Iran.
The memorandum of understanding 
Letter of 26 November 1971 from British Foreign Secretary to the Iranian Foreign Minister informing him that Iran’s conditions and warnings had been conveyed to the Ruler of Sharjah. (It was agreed that an absence of reply from the Ruler of Sharjah to this letter would amount to his acceptance of Iran’s conditions and warnings.)
The sovereignty of Iran on Abu Musa has been disputed by UAE.   The dispute between Iran and UAE started in 1974, three years after the latter's establishment. The island had been under Persian control until the early 20th century. In 1906, Iran awarded a concession for the iron oxide deposits of Abu Musa to Wonckhaus, a German enterprise. However, the concession was canceled in 1907 because of British opposition, resulting in an international incident. After 1908, the UK controlled the island along with the other British-held islands in the Persian Gulf, including what is today the UAE. In the late 1960s, Britain transferred administration of the island to the British-appointed Sharjah, one of the seven sheikdoms that would later form the UAE.
After Britain announced in 1968 that it would end its administrative and military positions in the Persian Gulf, Iran moved to reattach the island politically to the mainland. On November 30, 1971 (two days before the official establishment of UAE), Iran and Sharjah signed a Memorandum of Understanding. They agreed to allow Sharjah to have a local police station and Iran to station troops on the island according to the map attached to the Memorandum of Understanding. The agreement also divided the island's energy resources between the two signatories. "By agreeing to the pact, the tiny emirate prevented an invasion by Iran, which two days earlier had taken two other disputed islands, Greater and Lesser Tunb, which were even smaller and uninhabited." 
The UAE took its sovereignty claim over Abu Musa and the two Tunb islands to the 9 December 1971 meeting of the United Nations Security Council. At that meeting, it was decided to “defer consideration of this matter to a later date”. Iraq (Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr era), Kuwait, Algeria, South Yemen and Libya held the view that the territory rightfully belongs to the UAE. Since that time, the UAE has consistently called in public statements for either bilateral negotiations or by referring the issue to the International Court of Justice (or another form of international arbitration).
Saddam Hussein attempted to justify the Iran-Iraq War by claiming that one of the objectives was to "liberate" Abu Musa and Greater and Lesser Tunbs in Persian Gulf. In 1992, Iran expelled foreign workers who operated the UAE-sponsored school, medical clinic, and power-generating station. The Island dispute has also caused serious friction between the UAE Ras Khaimah and Sharjah. Since Ras Khaimah advocates tough measures against Iran. Dubai, on the other hand, believes that the conflict is unnecessary. Indeed, the present ruler of Dubai, Sheikh Muhammad, has stated publicly that "he believes the tensions over the islands have been fabricated by the United States".
In 2012 a visit to the island by Iranian president Ahmedinejad provoked a diplomatic incident. Iran's historical claim to ownership over the islands roots back to the Parthian and Sassanid Empires, among others. Iran considers the island to have been occupied by the UK and refers to the agreement between Iran and emirate of Sharjah at 1971.
See also 
- Seizure of Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs
- Iran–United Arab Emirates relations
- Sir Abu Nu’ayr
- Iranian Islands of Tunbs and Abu Musa
- Documents on the Persian Gulf's name: the eternal heritage of ancient time Author:Ajam, Muḥammad.
- عجم، مجمد. «اسناد نام خلیج فارس میراثی کهن و جاودان». تهران: اوين، ۱۳۸۸
- World Gazetteer
- World Gazetteer
- Mojtahedzadeh, Pirouz (July, 1995). THE ISLANDS OF TUNB AND Abu Musa. UNIVERSITY OF LONDON.
- ""Abu Musa and The Tumbs: The Dispute That Won't Go Away, Part Two," July 28, 2001, in The Estimate, vol. XIII, no. 3". Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-06.
- ""Iran, its territorial integrity in the Persian gulf region," 20 December 2007". Archived from the original on 25 December 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-06.[dead link]
- ""Unwanted Guest: The Gulf Summit and Iran," 7 December 2007". Retrieved 2008-01-06.
- Mojtahedzadeh, Pirouz (1993). Countries and boundaries in the geopolitical region of the Persian Gulf (in Persian). The Institute for Political and International Studies. OCLC 651081387.
- Issawi, Charles (2007). "16". In Peter Avery et al. The Cambridge History of Iran. Volume 7 (Third ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 605. ISBN 978-0-521-20095-0.
- Erdbrink, Thomas (April 30, 2012). "A Tiny Island Is Where Iran Makes a Stand". New York Times.
- Mojtahedzadeh, Pirouz (1999). Security and territoriality in the Persian Gulf. London: RoutledgeCurzon. p. 214. ISBN 0-7007-1098-1.
- Mattair, Thomas (2005). The Three Occupied Islands of the UAE: The Tunbs and Abu Musa. Abu Dhabi: Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research. ISBN 9948-00-765-4.
- United Nations (1971). "Twenty-sixth Year, Supplement for October, November and December 1971". Official Records of the Security Council.
- United Nations Security Council (1972). Letter dated 72/07/17 from the representatives of Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait , Lebanon, the Libyan Arab Republic, Morocco, Oman, the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Sudan, The Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen to the President of the Security Council. New York: United Nations Supplement, Official Record. UNDOC:S/10740.
- United Nations Security Council (1992). Letter dated 92/09/14 from the Permanent Representative of Kuwait to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General. New York: United Nations Annexes, Official Record. UNDOC: A/47/441.
- United Nations Security Council (1971). Letter dated 71/12/03 from the representatives of Algeria, Iraq, the Libyan Arab Republic and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen to the President of the Security Council. New York: United Nations Supplement, Official Record. UNDOC:S/10409.
- United Nations Security Council (December 1994). Letter dated 94/12/22 from the Permanent Representative of Bahrain to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General. New York: United Nations Annexes, Official Record. UNDOC: A/49/815.
- United Nations Security Council (1993). Letter dated 93/10/13 from the representative of Saudi Arabia to the United Nations addressed to the President of the General Assembly. New York: United Nations Annexes, Official Record. UNDOC: A/48/519.
- United Nations Security Council (September 1994). Letter dated 94/09/20 from the Permanent Representative of Saudi Arabia to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General. New York: United Nations Annexes, Official Record. UN DOC: A/49/412 S/1994/1078.
- United Nations Security Council (June 1995). Letter dated 95/06/21 from the Permanent Representative of Bahrain to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General. New York: United Nations Annexes, Official Record.
- United Nations Security Council (October 1992). Letter dated 92/10/06 from the Permanent Representative of Oman to the United Nations addressed to the President of the General Assembly. New York: United Nations Annexes, Official Record. UNDOC: A/47/516.
- United Nations (17 September 1997). "Letter dated 16 September 1997 from the Permanent Representative of the United Arab Emirates to the United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General". United Nations General Assembly. Oceans and the Law of the Sea. 52nd Session.
- Mattair, Thomas (2005). The Three Occupied Islands of the UAE: The Tunbs and Abu Musa. Abu Dhabi: Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research. pp. 165–166. ISBN 9948-00-765-4.
- GlobalSecurity.org about Abu Musa
- Rubin, Barry M. (2002). Crises in the Contemporary Persian Gulf. Routledge. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-0-7146-5267-2.
- Ahmadinejad's visit to island prompts UAE to recall Iran ambassador, CNN April 12, 2012
- . الكوخردى ، محمد ، بن يوسف، (كُوخِرد حَاضِرَة اِسلامِيةَ عَلي ضِفافِ نَهر مِهران) الطبعة الثالثة ،دبى: سنة 199۷ للميلاد Mohammed Kookherdi (1997) Kookherd, an Islamic civil at Mehran river, third edition: Dubai
- . کامله،القاسمی، بنت شیخ عبدالله، (تاریخ لنجة) مکتبة دبي للتوزیع، الامارات: الطبعة الثانية عام ۱۹۹۳ للمیلاد
- . الوحیدی الخنجی، حسین بن علی بن احمد، «تاریخ لنجه» ، الطبعة الثانية دبی: دار الأمة للنشر والتوزیع، ۱۹۸۸ للمیلاد
- . اطلس گیتاشناسی استانهای ایران [Atlas Gitashenasi Ostanhai Iran] (Gitashenasi Province Atlas of Iran)
- Haghshenas, Seyyed Ali, Iran Historical Sovereignty over the Tunbs and BuMusa Islands . Published in 2010, Iran, Tehran.
- History, description, map of Abu Musa and nearby islands (Archived 2009-10-24)
- History of Abu Musa and The Tunbs
- UAE Interact Abu Musa News
- Abu Musa's military garrison
- Dispute between Iran and Sharjah
- Maritime Boundaries in the Persian Gulf: the case of Tunb and Abu Musa Islands
- Report of the International symposium on Modern Boundaries of Iran - Problems and practices of Iranian boundaries, Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh, 10/15/02
Further reading 
- Schofield, Richard (2003). Unfinished Business: Iran, the Uae, Abu Musa and the Tunbs. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs. ISBN 0-905031-90-3.