Abu Sufyan ibn Harb
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|Abu Sufyan ibn Harb
صخر بن حرب
|Born||Sakhr ibn Harb
1 September 560
|Died||2 September 652
|Known for||Chieftain of the Quraish of Mecca.|
Sakhr ibn Harb (Arabic: صخر بن حرب), more commonly known as Abu Sufyan (1 September 560 - 1 August 652), was the leader of the Quraish tribe of Mecca. He was a staunch opponent of the Islamic prophet Muhammad before accepting Islam and becoming a Muslim warrior later in his life. His mother, Safia, is the paternal aunt of Maymuna bint al-Harith.
Opposition to Islam
Abu Sufyan was the chief of the Banu Abd-Shams clan of the Quraish tribe, which made him one of the most powerful in Mecca. At first Abu Sufyan opposed Islam and the Prophet Muhammad's message, however he later accepted Islam and became a warrior and soldier in the Muslim army.
Abu Sufyan's brother Musab was among several Muslims who migrated to Abyssinia to escape persecution in Mecca.
Military conflict with Muhammad
After Muhammed and other Muslims had migrated to Medina in 622, the Quraish confiscated the belongings they had left behind. During that period of time, caravans were accompanied by military escorts of varying strength.
Due to the hospitality Muhammad received in Medina, the Meccans feared the growing influence of the Muslims and thus were contriving to safeguard their trade routes by eliminating the religion of Islam. The Muslims of Medina were aware of such activities and began to make preparations for self-defense.
In 624, Abu Sufyan was the appointed leader of a large merchant caravan carrying a fortune of the Quraysh's goods to Syria for trade. The caravan was escorted by a force of around 40 or 50 soldiers. Muhammad had learned that the caravan was passing close to Medina en route to Syria and organized a Muslim force of 300 men to intercept it and repossess the goods that the Quraysh had stolen from the Muslims due to their absence in Mecca. Around this time, it is related that God revealed to Muhammad that his people were now given permission to go after those who had oppressed them, driven them from their homes (in Mecca) and confiscated their property (some of which the Quraish put on this same caravan). However, the Muslim contingent Muhammad had assembled failed to intercept the caravan. They arrived after the caravan had already passed by Medina. Abu Sufyan had learned of the Muslims plan from scouts he had deployed, and in response, sent a crier to Mecca to rally the Quraish to arms against the Muslims. The Muslims ended up engaging this Meccan army, a force of around 1000 men, at the plains of Badr several days after they had failed to intercept the caravan. This conflict, the Battle of Badr, ultimately resulted in a Muslim victory. The death of most Quraish leaders in the battle not only left Abu Sufyan the leader of Mecca, but also marked the fulfillment of the Qur'anic prophecy in verse 30:2-4.
Eventually the two parties agreed to an armistice, the Treaty of Hudaybiyya in 628, which allowed Muslims to make the pilgrimage to the Kaaba.
Muslim conquest of Mecca
When the armistice was violated in 630 by allies of the Quraish, Muhammad moved towards liberating Mecca from non-Muslim authority. Abu Sufyan, seeing that the balance had tilted in Muhammad's favour and that the Quraish were not strong enough to hinder the Muslims from conquering the city, travelled to Medina, trying to restore the treaty. No agreement was reached between the two parties and Abu Sufyan returned to Mecca empty handed. These efforts ultimately ensured that the conquest occurred without battle or bloodshed. Muhammad forgave Abu Sufyan's wife, Hind bint Utbah, who had allegedly chewed the liver of Muhammad's uncle, Hamza ibn ‘Abd al-Muttalib, during the Battle of Uhud.
Abu Sufyan travelled back and forth between Mecca and Madina, still trying to reach a settlement. According to the sources, he found assistance in Muhammad's uncle al-Abbas, though some scholars consider that historians writing under the rule of Abbas's descendants, the Abbasid dynasty, had exaggerated Abbas's role and downplayed the role of Sufyan, who was the ancestor of the Abbasids' enemies.
After the conquest of Mecca, Abu Sufyan fought as one of Muhammad's commanders in the subsequent wars. During the Siege of Taif, he lost an eye.
Abu Sufyan also fought in the Battle of Yarmouk in 636, in which he lost his second eye. He played a very important role in the war, being the naqeeb (chief of staff) of the Muslim army. He fought under command of his son Yazid bin Abu Sufyan. Abu Sufyan died at the age of ninety in 650 at Medina. His kinsman Uthman Ibn Affan, who had become the third Caliph in 644, led the prayer over his grave.
Wives and children
- Ṣāfiyah (Sufayah) bint Abi'l-As.
- Ramlah (Umm Ḥabībah). She first married Ubayd-Allah ibn Jahsh, by whom she had one daughter, Ḥabībah bint Ubayd-Allah. After Ubayd-Allah's death, she married Muhammad.
- Umayna. She first married Huwaytib ibn Abduluzza, by whom she had one son, Abu Sufyan ibn Huwaytib. Her second husband was Safwan ibn Umayya, by whom she had one son, Abdurrahman ibn Safwan.
- Zaynab bint Nawfal of the Kinana.
- Hind bint Utbah.
- Hanzalah (killed in the Battle of Badr). Hind refers to Hanzalah as her "firstborn".
- Muawiyah I.
- Juwayriya. Her first husband was As-Saayib ibn Abi Hubaysh. Her second husband was Abdurrahman ibn Al-Harith.
- Umm Hakam. She married Abdullah ibn Uthman al-Thaqifi, by whom she had one son, Abdurrahman ibn Umm Al-Hakam.
- Utbah. He is said to have been born "in the time of the Prophet," i.e., after 610. He had a son named Walīd.
- Safiya bint Abi 'Amr ibn 'Umayyah.
- Lubaba bint Abi'l-As.
- Atiqa bint Abi Uzayhir.
- Umayma bint Saad.
- Mirza Bashir-ud Din Mahmud Ahmad, Life of Muhammad, Islam International Publications 2003, p. 46-47.
- Glubb, John (2001). The Life and Times of Muhammad. Cooper Square Press. pp. 304–310. ISBN 0815411766.
- Abu Al-Abbas Ahmad Bin Jaber Al-Baladhuri, The people of the Islamic State (translated by Philip Khuri Hitti), p. 107.
- Ibn al-Athir, Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh
- "Abu Sufyan Ibn Harb: An Eye Now or an Eye in Heaven?". Francisco Burzi. Retrieved 6 October 2012.[dead link]
- Ibn Saad, Tabaqat vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina, p. 169. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
- Ibn Hajar. Al-Isaba vol. 6 p. 658 #9271.
- Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume, pp. 313, 337, 385.
- Ibn Saad/Bewley vol. 8 p. 169.
- Ibn Hajar. Al-Isaba vol. 5 p. 60 #6248.
- Ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasulallah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad, p. 313. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 589.
- Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 189.
- Muhammad ibn Umar al-Waqidi, Kitab al-Maghazi. Translated by Faizer, R., Ismail, A., & Tayob, A. (2011). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Routledge.
- Nasa'i vol. 2 #1814.
- Ibn Ishaq/Guillaume p. 214.
- Muslim 8:3413.
- Muawiyah I bio
- Abu Sufyan ibn Harb approaches Muhammad's uncle