Abul Hasan Qutb Shah
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|Abul Hasan Tana Shah|
|The Eighth Sultan of Qutb Shahi dynasty|
|Born||8 October 1600|
(now in Andhra Pradesh, India)
|Place of death||Daulatabad
(now in Maharashtra, India)
|Predecessor||Abdullah Qutb Shah|
|Consort||Shah Raju Katal Hussaini|
|Royal House||Qutb Shahis|
|Royal anthem||labyek ya hussain|
|Father||Shah Raju Katal|
Abul Hasan Qutb Shah (Abul Hasan Tana Shah) (Urdu: ابوالحسن قطب شاہ) was the eighth and last ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, who ruled the kingdom of Golconda in south India. He ruled from 1672 to 1687.
Title of 'Tana Shah'
His real name was Abul Hasan and nicknamed as 'Tana Shah' even before he was contender to the throne of Golconda by his teacher, a Sufi saint called Hazrat Syed Shah Raziuddin, popularly known as Hazrat Shah Raju Qattal. Hazrat Shah Raju was eighth in the lineage of the Sufi saint Hazrat Syedna Khwaja Banda Nawaz Gesu daraz of Gulbarga. Abul Hassan had a good voice and sang well. He also had a certain innocence about him. Shah Raju, therefore, gave him the nickname of `Tana Shah' which means a child saint. He was also known as Tani Shah, meaning "benevolent ruler".
He is remembered as a popular statesman who did not discriminate against those of another ethnicity or religion. He hired Brahmins as his ministers and generals. For example Madanna and Akkanna, Brahmin brothers from Hanamkonda, were his most important ministers. Tana Shah gained a place in Telugu literature due to Kancharla Gopanna, nephew of Madanna. Kancharla Gopanna is famously known as "Ramadasu". Ramadasu lived in Nelakondapalli village in Palvancha taluk. Tani Shah hired him as "Tehsildar" (head of the revenue department) of Palvancha taluk. Ramadasu diverted the public funds to construct a Rama temple in Bhadrachalam and for the jewelry for the idols of Rama, Sita and Lakshmana. Tana Shah found Ramadasu guilty of misappropriation of public funds and put him in jail.
About the year 1683, Abul Hasan Qutb Shah appears to have become irregular in payments of taxes to the Mughals and his relations with Sikandar Adil Shah also caused concern among the Mughals. Abul Hasan Qutb Shah consequently refused to be a vassal of the Mughal Empire and prompted Aurangzeb to initiate a campaign to assert the rule of Mughals on Golconda. He attacked Golconda. With his able commanders Nawab Khwaja Abid Siddiqi (Qilich Khan) and Qaziuddin Khan Siddiqi father and grand father of Nizam I (Asaf Jah I). Tana Shah defended the fort for eight months, but Aurangazeb succeeded in capturing Golconda at the end in September 1687. Abul Hasan Qutb Shah surrendered and handed over the Nur-Ul-Ain Diamond, the Hope Diamond, the Wittelsbach Diamond and the Regent Diamond, making the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb the richest monarch in the world.
Tana Shan was taken as a prisoner and was imprisoned in the Daulatabad fort (near Aurangabad) where he died in prison after 12 years of captivity. When the Sultan died, he was not buried alongside his ancestors and other Qutub Shahi kings but in a modest grave at Khuldabad near Aurangabad.
After the fall of Golconda on September 22, 1687, it became a part of the six Mughal provinces in the Deccan. Mahabat Khan, who was initially the commander of the Qutb Shahi army and had switched loyalty to the Mughals, was appointed the governor of Golconda, laying the foundations for the Hyderabad State under the Nizams by Aurangzeb.
'Tana Shahi' a synonym for authoritarian rule or tyranny, which became acceptable and common as Urdu and Hindi idiom is derived from Tana Shah. It is reflective of the infamy and myths propagated by his detractors and supporters of Mughal rule against him.
- Narendra Luther Archives-Strange life of Tana Shah
Abdullah Qutb Shah
|Qutb Shahi dynasty