Abul Hasan Qutb Shah

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Abul Hasan Tana Shah
The Eighth Sultan of Qutb Shahi dynasty
Portrait of Abu'l Hasan,.jpg
Reign Fourteen years
Coronation 140
Born 8 October 1600
Birthplace Hyderabad
(now in Andhra Pradesh, India)
Died 1699
Place of death Daulatabad
(now in Maharashtra, India)
Predecessor Abdullah Qutb Shah
Successor Mirza Nizamuddin
Consort Shah Raju Katal Hussaini
Royal house Qutb Shahis
Royal anthem labyek ya hussain
Father Shah Raju Katal
Mother syedah

Abul Hasan Qutb Shah (Abul Hasan Tana Shah) (Urdu: ابوالحسن قطب شاہ) was the eighth and last ruler of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, who ruled the kingdom of Golconda in south India. He ruled from 1672 to 1687.

Title of 'Tana Shah'[edit]

Visit of Sufi-singer Shir Muhammad to Abul Hasan Qutb Shah, ca. 1720, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris.

His real name was Abul Hasan and nicknamed as 'Tana Shah' even before he was contender to the throne of Golconda by his teacher, a Sufi saint called Hazrat Syed Shah Raziuddin, popularly known as Hazrat Shah Raju Qattal. Hazrat Shah Raju was eighth in the lineage of the Sufi saint Hazrat Syedna Khwaja Banda Nawaz Gesu daraz of Gulbarga. Abul Hassan had a good voice and sang well. He also had a certain innocence about him. Shah Raju, therefore, gave him the nickname of `Tana Shah' which means a child saint.[1] He was also known as Tani Shah, meaning "benevolent ruler".

He is remembered as a popular statesman who did not discriminate against those of another ethnicity or religion. He hired Brahmins as his ministers and generals. For example Madanna and Akkanna, Brahmin brothers from Hanamkonda, were his most important ministers. Tana Shah gained a place in Telugu literature due to Kancharla Gopanna, nephew of Madanna. Kancharla Gopanna is famously known as "Ramadasu". Ramadasu lived in Nelakondapalli village in Palvancha taluk. Tani Shah hired him as "Tehsildar" (head of the revenue department) of Palvancha taluk. Ramadasu diverted the public funds to construct a Rama temple in Bhadrachalam and for the jewelry for the idols of Rama, Sita and Lakshmana. Tana Shah found Ramadasu guilty of misappropriation of public funds and put him in jail.

Earlier Tana Shah's father-in-law Abdullah Qutb Shah was forced by Aurangzeb to acknowledge the suzerainty of Shah Jahan. And his daughter was wed to Aurangzeb's son Sultan Muhammad.

About the year 1683, Abul Hasan Qutb Shah appears to have become irregular in payments of taxes to the Mughals and his relations with Sikandar Adil Shah also caused concern among the Mughals. Abul Hasan Qutb Shah consequently refused to be a vassal of the Mughal Empire and prompted Aurangzeb to initiate a campaign to assert the rule of Mughals on Golconda. He attacked Golconda. With his able commanders Nawab Khwaja Abid Siddiqi (Qilich Khan) and Qaziuddin Khan Siddiqi father and grand father of Nizam I (Asaf Jah I). Tana Shah defended the fort for eight months, but Aurangazeb succeeded in capturing Golconda at the end in September 1687. Abul Hasan Qutb Shah surrendered and handed over the Nur-Ul-Ain Diamond, the Hope Diamond, the Wittelsbach Diamond and the Regent Diamond, making the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb the richest monarch in the world.

Tana Shan was taken as a prisoner and was imprisoned in the Daulatabad fort (near Aurangabad) where he died in prison after 12 years of captivity. When the Sultan died, he was not buried alongside his ancestors and other Qutub Shahi kings but in a modest grave at Khuldabad near Aurangabad.

With the defeat of Abul Hasan Qutub Shah, the Qutb Shahi dynasty ended and a new Nizam dynasty began in Hyderabad under the control of the Mughal Dynasty.

After the fall of Golconda on September 22, 1687, it became a part of the six Mughal provinces in the Deccan. Mahabat Khan, who was initially the commander of the Qutb Shahi army and had switched loyalty to the Mughals, was appointed the governor of Golconda, laying the foundations for the Hyderabad State under the Nizams by Aurangzeb.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Narendra Luther Archives-Strange life of Tana Shah

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Abdullah Qutb Shah
Qutb Shahi dynasty
1518–1687
Succeeded by
none