Acacia pycnantha

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Golden wattle
Acacia pycnantha Golden Wattle.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Mimosaceae
Genus: Acacia
Species: A. pycnantha
Binomial name
Acacia pycnantha
Benth.[1]
Synonyms[1]

Acacia pycnantha, commonly known as the golden wattle, is a tree of the family Mimosaceae native to southern Australia. It grows to a height of 8 m (25 ft) and has sickle-shaped phyllodes instead of true leaves. The profuse fragrant, fluffy, golden flowers appear in late winter and spring, followed by long seed pods. Plants are cross-pollinated by several species of honeyeater and thornbill, which visit nectaries on the phyllodes and brush against flowers, transferring pollen between them.

Explorer Thomas Mitchell collected the type specimen, from which George Bentham wrote the species description in 1842. No subspecies are recognised. Acacia pycnantha has been cultivated commercially for tannin production, and its bark produces more than any other species of wattle. It has been widely grown as an ornamental garden plant and for cut flower production, but has become a weed in South Africa, Tanzania, Italy, Portugal, Sardinia, India, Indonesia, New Zealand, as well as Western Australia, Tasmania and New South Wales. Acacia pycnantha was made the official floral emblem of Australia in 1988.

Description[edit]

Habit

Acacia pycnantha generally grows as a small tree to between 3 and 8 metres (10–25 ft) in height,[2] though trees of up to 12 m high have been reported in Morocco.[3] The bark is generally dark brown to grey—smooth in younger plants though can be furrowed and rough in older plants.[4] Branchlets may be bare and smooth or covered with a white bloom.[2] The mature trees do not have true leaves but have phyllodes that hang down from the branches. Shiny and dark green, these are between 9 and 15 cm long, 1 to 3.5 cm wide and falcate (sickle-shaped) to oblanceolate in shape.[2] New growth has a bronze coloration.[5] Field observations at Hale Conservation Park show the bulk of new growth to take place from October to January.[6] Floral buds are produced year-round on the tips of new growth, but only those initiated between November and May go on to flowering several months later. The later the bud develops in this period, the faster it proceeds, so that flowering peaks over July and August.[7]

Flowering usually takes place from July to November in the golden wattle's native range.[8] The rounded inflorescences are bright yellow and occur in groups of 40 to 80 in axillary 2.5–9 cm-long racemes.[2] Each inflorescence is made up of 50 to 100 tiny flowers.[9] The later developing pods are flattish, straight or slightly curved, 5 to 14 cm long and 0.5 to 0.8 cm wide.[10][11] They are initially bright green, maturing to dark brown and have slight constrictions between the seeds,[12] which are arranged in a line in the pod.[8] The oblong seeds themselves are 5.5 to 6 mm long, black and shiny, with a clavate (club-shaped) aril.[2] They are released once the pods are fully ripe in December and January.[7]

Species similar in appearance include mountain hickory wattle (A. obliquinervia), coast golden wattle (A. leiophylla) and golden wreath wattle (A. saligna).[2] A. obliquinervia has grey-green phyllodes, fewer flowers in its flower heads, and broader (1.25–2.5 cm-wide) seed pods.[13] A. leiophylla has paler phyllodes.[14] A. saligna has longer, narrower phyllodes.[4]

Taxonomy[edit]

Acacia pycnantha was first formally described by botanist George Bentham in the London Journal of Botany in 1842.[15] The type specimen was collected by the explorer Thomas Mitchell in present-day northern Victoria between Pyramid Hill and the Loddon River.[16][1] Bentham thought it was related to A. leiophylla, which he described in the same paper.[15] The specific epithet pycnantha is derived from the Greek words pyknos (dense) and anthos (flowers), a reference to the dense cluster of flowers that make up the globular inflorescences.[17] Queensland botanist Les Pedley reclassified the species as Racosperma pycnanthum in 2003, when he proposed placing almost all Australian members of the genus into the new genus Racosperma.[18] However, this name is treated as a synonym of its original name.[1]

Johann Georg Christian Lehmann described Acacia petiolaris in 1851 from a plant grown at Hamburg Botanic Gardens from seed said to be from the Swan River Colony (Perth). [16] Carl Meissner described A. falcinella from material from Port Lincoln in 1855. Bentham classified both as A. pycnantha in his 1864 Flora Australiensis, though did categorise a possible subspecies angustifolia based on material from Spencer Gulf with narrower phyllodes and fewer inflorescences.[19] However, no subspecies are currently recognised, though an informal classification distinguishes wetland and dryland forms, the latter with narrower phyllodes.[20]

In 1921 Joseph Maiden described Acacia westonii from the northern and western slopes of Mount Jerrabomberra near Queanbeyan in New South Wales. He felt it was similar to, but distinct from, A. pycnantha and was uncertain whether it warranted species rank. His colleague Richard Hind Cambage grew seedlings and reported they had much longer internodes than those of A. pycnantha, and that the phyllodes appeared to have three nectaries rather than the single one of the latter species.[21] It is now regarded as a synonym of A. pycnantha.[1]

Common names recorded include golden wattle, green wattle, black wattle, and broad-leaved wattle.[1] At Ebenezer Mission in the Wergaia country of north-western Victoria the aborigines referred to it as witch.[22][23]

Hybrids of the species are known in nature and cultivation. In the Whipstick forest near Bendigo in Victoria, putative hybrids with Whirrakee wattle (Acacia williamsonii) have been identified; these resemble hakea wattle (Acacia hakeoides).[2] Garden hybrids with Queensland silver wattle (Acacia podalyriifolia) raised in Europe have been given the names Acacia x siebertiana and Acacia x deneufvillei.[1]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Galls formed by Trichilogaster signiventris wasps on a plant in South Africa

Golden wattle occurs in south-eastern Australia from South Australia’s southern Eyre Peninsula across Victoria and northwards into inland areas of southern New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory.[11][24] It is found in the understorey of open eucalypt forests on dry, shallow soils.[10]

The species has become naturalised beyond its original range in Australia. In New South Wales it is especially prevalent around Sydney and the Central Coast region. In Tasmania it has spread in the east of the state and become problematic in bushland near Hobart. In Western Australia, it is found in the Darling Range and western wheatbelt as well as Esperance and Kalgoorlie.[4]

Outside Australia it has become naturalised in South Africa, Tanzania, Italy, Portugal, Sardinia, India, Indonesia and New Zealand.[4] It is present in California as a garden escapee, but is not considered to be naturalised there.[25] In South Africa, where it had been introduced between 1858 and 1865 for dune stabilization and tannin production, it had spread along waterways into forest, mountain and lowland fynbos, and borderline areas between fynbos and karoo.[26] The gall-forming wasp Trichilogaster signiventris has been introduced in South Africa for biological control and has reduced the capacity of trees to reproduce throughout their range.[27] The eggs are laid by adult wasps into buds of flower heads in the summer, before hatching in May and June when the larvae induce the formation of the grape-like galls and prevent flower development. The galls can be so heavy that branches break under their weight.[28] In addition, the introduction in 2001 of the acacia seed weevil Melanterius compactus has also proved effective.[29]

Ecology[edit]

Hoverfly visiting nectary on phyllode

Though plants are usually killed by a severe fire, mature specimens are able to resprout.[30][31] Seeds are able to persist in the soil for more than five years, germinating after fire.[31]

Self-incompatible, Acacia pycnantha requires cross-pollination between plants to set seed.[32] Birds greatly facilitate this and field experiments keeping birds away from flowers greatly reduces seed production. Nectaries are located on phyllodes; those near open flowers become active, producing nectar that birds feed upon just before or during flowering. While feeding, birds brush against the flower heads and dislodge pollen and often visit multiple trees.[6] Several species of honeyeater, including the white-naped, yellow-faced,[9] New Holland,[33] and occasionally white-plumed, crescent,[9] white-naped honeyeaters and Eastern spinebills have been observed foraging. Other bird species include the silvereye, striated, buff-rumped and brown thornbills. As well as eating nectar, birds often pick off insects on the foliage. Honeybees, native bees, ants and flies also visit nectaries, but generally only one or a few and do not come into contact with the flowers during this activity.[6] The presence of Acacia pycnantha is positively correlated with numbers of swift parrots overwintering in box–ironbark forest in central Victoria, though it is not clear that the parrots are feeding on them or some other factor is at play.[34]

The wood serves as food for larvae of the jewel beetle species Agrilus assimilis, A. australasiae and A. hypoleucus.[35] The larvae of a number of butterfly species feed on the foliage including the fiery jewel, icilius blue, lithocroa blue and wattle blue.[36] Trichilogaster wasps form galls in the flowerheads, disrupting seed set[37] and Acizzia acaciaepycnanthae, a psyllid, sucks sap from the leaves.[38] It is a host to rust fungus species in the genus Uromycladium that affect the phyllodes and branches. These include Uromycladium simplex that forms pustules and U. tepperianum that causes large swollen brown to black galls that eventually lead to the death of the host plant.[39][40] Two fungal species have been isolated from leaf spots on Acacia pycnantha: Seimatosporium arbuti, which is found on a wide range of plant hosts, and Monochaetia lutea.[41]

Uses[edit]

Trunk exuding gum

Golden wattle has been grown in temperate regions around the world for the tannin in its bark, as it provides the highest yield of all wattles.[17] Trees can be harvested for tannin from seven to ten years of age.[3] Commercial use of its timber is limited by the small size of trees, but is has high value as a fuel wood.[42] The scented flowers have been used for perfume making,[17] and honey production in humid areas. However, the pollen is too dry to be collected by bees in dry climates.[3] In southern Europe, it is one of several species grown for the cut-flower trade and sold as "mimosa".[43] Like many other species of wattle, Acacia pycnantha exudes gum when stressed.[44] Eaten by indigenous Australians, the gum has been investigated as a possible alternative to gum arabic, commonly used in the food industry.[2][44]

Cultivation[edit]

Golden wattle is cultivated in Australia and was introduced to the northern hemisphere in the mid-1800s. Although it is short lived, it is widely grown for its bright yellow, fragrant flowers.[17] As well as being an ornamental plant, it has been used as a windbreak or in controlling erosion. Trees are sometimes planted with the taller sugar gum (Eucalyptus cladocalyx) to make a two-layered windbreak.[3] One form widely cultivated was originally collected on Mount Arapiles in western Victoria. It is floriferous, with fragrant flowers appearing from April to July.[45] The species has a degree of frost tolerance and is adaptable to a wide range of soil conditions, but it prefers good drainage.[45] It tolerates heavy soils in dry climates,[46] as well as mild soil salinity.[47] It can suffer yellowing (chlorosis) in limestone-based (alkaline) soils.[3] Highly drought-tolerant, it needs 370 to 550 mm winter rainfall for cultivation.[3] It is vulnerable to gall attack in cultivation.[48] Propagation is from seed which has been pre-soaked in hot water to soften the hard seed coating.[17]

Symbolic and cultural references[edit]

Golden wattle in full flower

Although wattles, and in particular the golden wattle, have been the informal floral emblem of Australia for many years, it was not until Australia’s bicentenary in 1988 that the golden wattle was formally adopted as the floral emblem of Australia. This was proclaimed by Governor-General Sir Ninian Stephen in the Government gazette published on 1 September.[49] The day was marked by a ceremony at the Australian National Botanic Gardens which included the planting of a golden wattle by Hazel Hawke, the Prime Minister’s wife. In 1992, 1 September was formally declared "National Wattle Day".[17]

The Australian Coat of Arms includes a wreath of wattle; this does not, however, accurately represent a golden wattle. Similarly, the green and gold colours used by Australian international sporting teams were inspired by the colours of wattles in general, rather than the golden wattle specifically.[17]

The species was depicted on a stamp captioned "wattle" as part of a 1959–60 Australian stamp set featuring Australian native flowers. In 1970, a 5c stamp labelled "Golden Wattle" was issued to complement an earlier set depicting the floral emblems of Australia. To mark Australia Day in 1990, a 41c stamp labelled "Acacia pycnantha" was issued.[17] Another stamp labelled "Golden Wattle", with a value of 70c, was issued in 2014.[50]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Acacia pycnantha Benth.". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Kodela 2001, p. 298.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Baumer, Michel (1983). Notes on Trees and Shrubs in Arid and Semi-arid Regions. Food & Agriculture Org. pp. 38–39. ISBN 9789251013540. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Golden Wattle Acacia pycnantha". Weeds of Australia: Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Queensland Government. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  5. ^ Birkenshaw, Marie; Henley, Claire (2012). Plants of Melbourne's Western Plains: A Gardener's Guide to the Original Flora. Australian Plants Society, Keilor Plains Group. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-909830-65-6. 
  6. ^ a b c Vanstone, Vivien A.; Paton, David C. (1988). "Extrafloral Nectaries and Pollination of Acacia pycnantha Benth by Birds". Australian Journal of Botany 36 (5): 519–31. doi:10.1071/BT9880519. 
  7. ^ a b Buttrose, M.S.; Grant, W.J.R.; Sedgley, M. (1981). "Floral Development in Acacia pycnantha Benth. In Hook". Australian Journal of Botany 29 (4): 385–95. doi:10.1071/BT9810385. 
  8. ^ a b "Acacia pycnantha Benth.". PlantNET – New South Wales Flora Online. Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain Trust, Sydney Australia. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c Ford, Hugh A.; Forde, Neville (1976). "Birds as Possible Pollinators of Acacia pycnantha". Australian Journal of Botany 24 (6): 793–95. doi:10.1071/BT9760793. 
  10. ^ a b Costermans, Leon (1981). Native Trees and Shrubs of South-eastern Australia. Australia: Rigby. p. 317. ISBN 978-0-7270-1403-0. 
  11. ^ a b "Acacia pycnantha". PlantNET – New South Wales Flora Online. Archived from the original on 30 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-28. 
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  13. ^ Kodela 2001, p. 251.
  14. ^ Elliot & Jones 1985, p. 74.
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  16. ^ a b Kodela 2001, p. 297.
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  21. ^ Maiden, Joseph Henry (1921). "Notes on Two Acacias". Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 54: 227–30. 
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  23. ^ Clark, Ian (1995). Scars in the Landscape: Hidden Aboriginal History in Western Victoria. Aboriginal Studies Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-85575-595-9. 
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  27. ^ Muniappan, Rangaswamy; Reddy, Gadi V. P.; Raman, Anantanarayanan (5 March 2009). Biological Control of Tropical Weeds Using Arthropods. Cambridge University Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-521-87791-6. 
  28. ^ Hoffmann,, J.H.; Impson, F.A.C.; Moran, V.C.; Donnelly, D. (2002). "Biological Control of Invasive Golden Wattle Trees (Acacia pycnantha) by a gall wasp, Trichilogaster sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), in South Africa". Biological Control 25 (1): 64–73. 
  29. ^ Cullen, Jim; Julien, Mic; McFadyen, Rachel (2012). Biological Control of Weeds in Australia. CSIRO Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-643-10421-1. 
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  33. ^ Corella. Australian Bird Study Association. 1998. 
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  39. ^ McAlpine, Daniel (1906). The rusts of Australia their structure, nature and classification. Department of Agriculture (Victoria). pp. 6–341. Retrieved 16 September 2014. 
  40. ^ "Uromycladium tepperianum on Acacia spp.". Invasive and Emerging Fungal Pathogens – Diagnostic Fact Sheets. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2 September 2014. 
  41. ^ Swart, H.J.; Griffiths, D.A. (1974). "Australian Leaf-inhabiting Fungi: IV. Two Coelomycetes on Acacia pycnantha". Transactions of the British Mycological Society 62 (1): 151–61. doi:10.1016/S0007-1536(74)80016-1. 
  42. ^ Maslin, B.R.;Thomson, L.A.J.;McDonald. M.W.; Hamilton-Brown, S. (1998). Edible Wattle Seeds of Southern Australia: A Review of Species for Use in Semi-Arid Regions. CSIRO Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-643-10253-8. 
  43. ^ "Wattle uses". World Wide Wattle. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  44. ^ a b Annison, Geoffrey; Trimble Rodney P.; Topping, David L. "Feeding Australian Acacia Gums and Gum Arabic Leads to Non-Starch Polysaccharide Accumulation in the Cecum of Rats". Journal of Nutrition. 
  45. ^ a b Elliot & Jones 1985, p. 103.
  46. ^ Lothian, T.R.N. (1969). "Gardening in the Low Rainfall Regions". Australian Plants 5 (38): 54–55, 80–95 [89]. 
  47. ^ Zwar, J. (1975). "Trees in Dry Areas". Australian Plants 8 (64): 164–67 [165]. 
  48. ^ Holliday, Ivan (1989). A Field Guide to Australian Trees (2nd ed.). Port Melbourne, Victoria: Hamlyn. p. 28. ISBN 0-947334-08-4. 
  49. ^ Stephen, Sir Ninian (1988). "Proclamation of Acacia pycnantha as the Floral Emblem of Australia" (http). Australian National Botanic Gardens. Archived from the original on 11 September 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014. 
  50. ^ "Plant:Acacia pycnantha". Australian Plants on Stamps. Australian National. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 

Cited texts[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to Acacia pycnantha at Wikimedia Commons