List of academic databases and search engines

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This page contains a representative list of major databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in academic journals, repositories, archives, or other collections of scientific and other articles. As the distinction between a database and a search engine is unclear for these complex document retrieval systems, see:

  • the general list of search engines for all-purpose search engines that can be used for academic purposes
  • bibliographic databases for information about databases giving bibliographic information about finding books and journal articles.

Note that "free" or "subscription" can refer both to the availability of the database or of the journal articles included. This has been indicated as precisely as possible in the lists below.

Name Discipline(s) Description Access Cost Provider(s)
Academic Search Multidisciplinary Several versions: Complete, Elite, Premier, and Alumni Edition[1] Subscription EBSCO Publishing[2]
Aerospace & High Technology Database Aerospace, Aeronautics, Astronautics Subscription ProQuest[3]
African Journals OnLine (AJOL) Multidisciplinary Scholarly journals published in Africa[4] Free abstracts; Subscription full-text African Journals OnLine[5]
AgeLine Sociology, Gerontology Includes information on aging-related topics, including economics, public health and policy. Subscription EBSCO Publishing[6]
AGRICOLA: Agricultural Online Access Agriculture Free & Subscription Produced by the United States National Agricultural Library. Free access provided by NAL.[7] Subscription access provided by ProQuest,[8] OVID.[9]
AGRIS: Agricultural database Agriculture Covers agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, aquatic sciences and fisheries, human nutrition, extension literature from over 100 participating countries.

Material includes unique grey literature such as unpublished scientific and technical reports, theses, conference papers, government publications, and more.

Free Produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. AGRIS
Airiti Inc Multidisciplinary China, Taiwan. Subscription Airiti Inc[10]
Analytical Abstracts Chemistry Subscription Royal Society of Chemistry[11]
Analytical sciences digital library Analytical chemistry Free National Science Digital Library and the Analytical Chemistry Division of the American Chemical Society[12]
Anthropological Index Online Anthropology Index only (no abstracts or full-text). Free Royal Anthropological Institute[13]
Anthropological Literature Anthropology Free to Harvard faculty, staff and students. Subscription for non-Harvard access. Maintained by Harvard University. Non-Harvard access provided by OCLC[14]
Arachne Archaeology, Art history German language Free German Archaeological Institute & the University of Cologne[15]
Arnetminer Computer Science Online service used to index and search academic social networks Free Tsinghua University[16]
Arts & Humanities Citation Index Arts, Humanities Part of Web of Science Subscription Thomson Reuters[17]
arXiv Physics, Mathematics, Computer science, Nonlinear sciences, Quantitative biology and Statistics Free Cornell University[18]
Association for Computing Machinery Digital Library Computer Science, Engineering Subscription Association for Computing Machinery[19]
Astrophysics Data System Astrophysics, Geophysics, Physics Free Harvard University[20]
ATLA Religion Database Religious studies Provides information on topics such as biblical studies, world religions, church history, and religion in social issues Subscription [21]
AULIMP: Air University Library's Index to Military Periodicals Military Science Free Air University[22]
BASE: Bielefeld Academic Search Engine Multidisciplinary Free Bielefeld University[23]
Beilstein database Organic chemistry Subscription Available from Elsevier under the product name Reaxys[24]
Biological Abstracts Biology A complete collection of bibliographic references covering life science and biomedical research literature published from more than 4,000 journals internationally. Subscription Available from Thomson Reuters[25]
BioOne Biology, Ecology, and Environmental Science An aggregation of over 78,000 peer-reviewed, full-text articles on current research in Biodiversity Conservation, Biology, Ecology, Plant Sciences, Entomology, Ornithology, and Zoology. Free Abstract & References, Subscription Collections, and an Open Access Collection Available from BioOne[26]
Bioinformatic Harvester Biology, Bioinformatics A meta search engine for 50 major bioinformatic databases and projects. Free Available from Liebel-Lab [3] KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology [4]
Book Review Index Online Book reviews Subscription Thomson Gale[27]
Books In Print Books Subscription R.R. Bowker[28]
CAB Abstracts Applied Life Sciences Bibliographic information service providing access to applied life sciences literature. Subscription CABI[29]
Chemical Abstracts Service Chemistry Subscription American Chemical Society[30]
ChemXSeer Chemistry Free Pennsylvania State University[31]
Chinese Social Science Citation Index Social sciences Subscription Nanjing University[32]
Cochrane Library Medicine, Healthcare Includes reviews of research to promote evidence-based healthcare. Subscription Wiley Interscience[33]
CINAHL: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Nursing, Allied Health Subscription EBSCO[34]
CiNii Multidisciplinary Database of 15 million articles in the Japanese language from 3600 journals. Free abstracts; Subscription full-text National Institute of Informatics[35]
CHBD: Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database Medicine Free University of Calgary[36]
Citebase Search Mathematics, Computer science, Physics Semi-autonomous citation index of free online research Free University of Southampton[37]
CiteULike Computer science Free
CiteSeer Computer Science Replaced by CiteSeerX. Free Pennsylvania State University[38]
CiteSeerX Computer science, Statistics, Mathematics, becoming Multidisciplinary Free Pennsylvania State University[39]
CogPrints: Cognitive Sciences Eprint Archives Science (General) Free University of Southampton[40]
The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies Computer science Free Alf-Christian Achilles[41]
Compendex Engineering Electronic version of Engineering Index. Subscription Elsevier[42]
Current Index to Statistics Statistics Limited free search[43] Subscription American Statistical Association and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics[44]
Current Contents Multidisciplinary Part of Web of Knowledge. Contains 7 discipline-specific subsets. Subscription Thomson Reuters[45]
Directory of Open Access Journals Journals Free Lund University[46]
DBLP Computer science Comprehensive list of papers from major computer science conferences and journals Free University of Trier, Germany
EconBiz Economics EconBiz supports research in and teaching of economics with a central entry point for all kinds of subject-specific information and direct access to full texts. Free Produced by the ZBW- German National Library of Economics– Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (ZBW)[47]
EconLit Economics The American Economic Association's electronic database, the world's foremost source of references to economic literature. Subscription Produced by the American Economic Association.[48] Available from CSA, DIALOG, OCLC, OVID, and AEA.[49]
EMBASE Biomedicine, Pharmacology Biomedical database with a strong focus on drug and pharmaceutical research. Subscription Elsevier[50]
ERIC: Educational Resource Information Center Education Education literature and resources. Provides access to over 1.3 million records dating back to 1966. Free Produced by the United States Department of Education.[51] Also available by subscription from OCLC, CSA.
Food Science and Technology Abstracts Food science, Food technology, Nutrition The world's leading database of information on food science, food technology and nutrition Subscription Produced by the International Food Information Service. Access provided by OVID, Web of Knowledge, Dialog, DataStar and STN International[52]
GENESIS Women's history Descriptions of women's history collections from sources in the UK, as well as women's history websites. Free London Metropolitan University[53]
Global Health Public Health Specialist bibliographic, abstracting and indexing datatabase dedicated to public health research and practice. Subscription CABI[54]
Golm Metabolome Database Mass spectrometry The Golm Metabolome Database (GMD) is a reference mass spectra library of biologically active metabolites quantified using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). Free online search; offline use by subscription Golm Metabolome Database[55]
Google Scholar Multidisciplinary Free Google[56]
GoPubMed Medicine GoPubMed, the first knowledge-based search engine for the life sciences industry. Free Transinsight[57]
HubMed Medicine An alternative interface to the PubMed medical literature database Free Alf Eaton[58]
IEEE Xplore Computer Science, Engineering, Electronics Subscription IEEE[59]
Index Copernicus Multidisciplinary science Scientific journal database – the IC Journal Master List – contains currently over 2,500 journals from all over the world, including 700 journals from Poland. The journals registered in this database underwent rigorous, multidimensional parameterization, proving high quality. The Ministry of Science and Higher Education acknowledged the IC Journal Master List by placing it on the list of scored databases, for being indexed in IC JML journals get additional points in the Ministry’s evaluation process.[60] Free Index Copernicus International[61]
Information Bridge: Department of Energy Scientific and Technical Information Multidisciplinary The Information Bridge: DOE Scientific and Technical Information provides free public access to over 266,000 full-text documents and bibliographic citations of Department of Energy (DOE) research report literature. Documents are primarily from 1991 forward and were produced by DOE, the DOE contractor community, and/or DOE grantees. Legacy documents are added as they become available in electronic format. Free United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information[62]
Informit Multidisciplinary Australasian aggregator of bibliographic databases and journals N/A RMIT Publishing[63]
IngentaConnect Multidisciplinary Free searching; Subscription full-text Ingenta[64]
Indian Citation Index Multidisciplinary Indian Citation Index (ICI) is a home grown abstracts and citation database, with multidisciplinary objective knowledge contents from about 1000 top Indian scholarly journals. It provides powerful search engine to fulfill search and evaluation purposes for researchers, policy makers, decision makers etc. Subscription ICI[65]
Inspec Physics, Engineering, Computer Science The leading bibliographic database providing abstracts and indexing to the world's scientific and technical papers in physics, electrical engineering, electronics, communications, control engineering, computing, information technology, manufacturing, production, and mechanical engineering. Subscription IET[66]
International Directory of Philosophy Philosophy Contains information on university philosophy departments and programs, philosophical societies, research centers, journals, and philosophy publishers in the U.S., Canada, and approximately 130 other countries. Free search; full access by subscription Philosophy Documentation Center[67]
Intute Multidisciplinary Serves students, teachers, and researchers in UK further education and higher education, offering a selection of around 300,000 academic websites which have been hand-picked and described by subject specialists. No longer maintained. Free Intute[68]
JournalSeek Multidisciplinary Open access journals in different language Links to journal's home page and publishers JournalSeek[69]
JSTOR: Journal Storage Multidisciplinary (Historical) Subscription JSTOR[70]
JournalSeek Multidisciplinary Open access journals in different language Links to journal's home page and publishers JournalSeek[69]
Lesson Planet Education (K-12) Over 400,000 teacher-reviewed classroom resources including lesson plans, worksheets, educational videos, and education articles. Free Abstract; Subscription full-text Lesson Planet[71]
LexisNexis Law (general) Electronic database for legal and public-records related information Subscription Reed Elsevier[72]
MathSciNet Mathematics Available in print as Mathematical Reviews Subscription American Mathematical Society[73]
MedlinePlus Medicine Free Produced by the United States National Library of Medicine, the United States National Institutes of Health, and the United States Department of Health and Human Services[74]
Mendeley Multidisciplinary The Mendeley research catalog is a crowdsourced database of research documents. Researchers have uploaded nearly 100M documents into the catalog with additional contributions coming directly from subject repositories like Pubmed Central and or web crawls. Free Mendeley[75]
Merck Index Chemistry, Biology, Pharmacology Also available in print. Subscription Produced by Merck & Co.. Available from CambridgeSoft Corporation, Dialog, Knovel, MedicinesComplete, STN International[76]
Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts Meteorology, Astrophysics, Geology Subscription Produced by the American Meteorological Society. Available from Dialog[77] and CSA.[78]
Microsoft Academic Search Computer Science and a limited extent on information science Provides many innovative ways to explore scientific papers, conferences, journals, and authors[79] Free Microsoft
NBER: National Bureau of Economic Research Economics Free National Bureau of Economic Research[80]
National Criminal Justice Reference Service[81] Criminology, Sociology Abstracts of scholarly journal articles, agency and NGO reports, and conference proceedings Free United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs[82]
National Diet Library Collection Multidisciplinary Japanese. Catalog for the National Library of Japan. N/A National Diet Library[83]
OAIster Multidisciplinary Free OCLC[84]
OpenSIGLE Grey literature Indexes European grey literature. Free Institut de l'information scientifique et technique[85]
Philosophy Documentation Center eCollection Applied ethics, Philosophy, Religious studies Journals, series, conference proceedings, and other works from several countries online. Free abstract & preview; Subscription full-text Philosophy Documentation Center[86]
Philosophy Research Index Philosophy Index of books, journals, disserations, and other documents Subscription Philosophy Documentation Center[86]
PhilPapers Philosophy Free PhilPapers[87]
POIESIS: Philosophy Online Serials Philosophy, applied ethics, religious studies Journals and series, online access for institutions with print Free abstract & preview; Subscription full-text Philosophy Documentation Center[86]
POPLINE Population, Family Planning, Reproductive Health POPLINE® contains the world’s most comprehensive collection of population, family planning and related reproductive health and development literature. An international resource, POPLINE helps program managers, policy makers, and service providers in low- and middle-income countries and in development-supportive agencies and organizations gain access to journal articles and other scientific, technical, and programmatic publications. Free Knowledge for Health, Center for Communication Programs, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health[88]
PsycINFO Psychology The largest resource devoted to peer-reviewed literature in behavioral science and mental health. It contains over 2.6 million citations and summaries dating as far back as the early 19th century. Subscription Produced by the APA.[89] Available from several database vendors.[90]
Psychology's Feminist Voices Psychology An online, multimedia digital archive containing the profiles of 250 feminist psychologists who have shaped and continue to transform the discipline of psychology. Profiles are organized in two sections, "Women Past" and "Feminist Presence." All profiles on the Feminist Presence section contain original interview transcripts and video clips with the psychologist discussing their feminist development and academic career. Free Based at York University, Toronto, Canada.[91]
PubChem Chemistry Free National Center for Biotechnology Information and the U.S. National Library of Medicine[92]
Pubget Multidisciplinary Subscription Pubget
PubMed Biomedical Free National Institutes of Health and the U.S. National Library of Medicine[93]
PubPsych Psychology PubPsych is a free information retrieval system for psychological resources. It offers a comprehensive and balanced selection of resources from a growing number of international databases with a European focus, covering the needs of academic and professional psychologists. Free Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information
Questia: Online Research Library Multidisciplinary (Historical) Subscription Questia[94]
Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature Journals and Magazines Coverage: 1983–present. Subscription H. W. Wilson Company[95]
Reader's Guide Retrospective: 1890–1982 Journals and Magazines Subscription H. W. Wilson Company[96]
RePEc: Research Papers in Economics Economics Free Volunteer Collaboration[97]
Retina medical search Biomedical Biomedical resources with special focus for medical professionals.

searches among physician level standard documents eliminating patient level materials.

Free Retina medical search[98]
Rock's Backpages Music Primary documents from the history of rock and roll Subscription. Limited free access with registration. Backpages Limited[99]
Russian Science Citation Index Scientific journals A bibliographic database of scientific publications in Russian. Free Scientific Electronic Library[100]
SafetyLit Multidisciplinary Citations and abstracts of journal articles and reports from researchers working in the more than 35 distinct professional disciplines (architecture - zoology) relevant to preventing unintentional injuries, violence, and self-harm. Free Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University[101] and the World Health Organization's Department of Violence and Injury Prevention[102] Multidisciplinary SciDiver is an academic paper search engine for the physical sciences.

The service currently maintains an index over arXiv, the preprint service for mathematics, physics, astronomy, computer science, quantitative finance and related disciplines; expansion to additional repositories is expected in the course of the site's continued development.

SciELO Journals SciELO is a bibliographic database and a model for cooperative electronic publishing in developing countries originally from Brazil. It contains 985 scientific journals from different countries in free and universal access, full-text format. Free FAPESP, CNPq and BIREME Multidisciplinary A gateway to government science information and research results. provides a search of over 45 scientific databases and 200 million pages of science information with just one query, and is a gateway to over 2000 scientific Websites. Free Alliance, 18 scientific and technical organizations from 14 federal agencies that contribute to United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information serves as the operating agent for[104]
Science Accelerator Multidisciplinary A gateway to results of DOE research and development and major R&D accomplishments of interest to DOE. Free United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information.[105]
Science Citation Index Science (General) Part of Web of Science Subscription Thomson Reuters[106]
ScienceDirect Multidisciplinary Subscription Elsevier[107]
Scirus Science (General) Free Elsevier[108]
Scopus Multidisciplinary Subscription Elsevier[109]
SearchTeam Multidisciplinary Students search together collaboratively for scholarly articles and resources Free Zakta[110]
Social Science Citation Index Social science Part of Web of Science Subscription Thomson Reuters[111]
Socol@r: Socolar Multidisciplinary Scholarly open access resources in different language Free abstracts; Links to full-text Socolar[112]
SSRN: Social Science Research Network Social science Contains an abstracts database and an electronic paper collection, arranged by discipline. Free Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.[113]
SSRRN: Social Science Research Resources Network Social science Indexes datasets and statistical codes Free Social Science Research Resources Network =[114]
SPIRES-HEP Physics, (High Energy) Free Stanford Linear Accelerator Center & partners[115]
SpringerLink Multidisciplinary Free abstract & preview; Subscription full-text Springer[116]
Ulrich's Periodicals Directory Periodicals Subscription ProQuest[117]
VET-Bib Social Science, Education European vocational education and training (VET) literature Free European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training[118]
Web of Knowledge Multidisciplinary Includes other products, such as Web of Science, Biological Abstracts & The Zoological Record Subscription Thomson Reuters[119]
Web of Science Science (General) Includes other products, such as Social Science Citation Index & Science Citation Index. Subscription Thomson Reuters[120]
WestLaw Law (General) Subscription Thomson Reuters
WorldCat Multidisciplinary Unified catalog of member libraries' catalogs Free & Subscription OCLC[121]
WorldWideScience Multidisciplinary WorldWideScience is a global science gateway composed of national and international scientific databases and portals. WorldWideScience accelerates scientific discovery and progress by providing one-stop searching of databases from around the world. Multilingual WorldWideScience provides real-time searching and translation of globally dispersed multilingual scientific literature. Free The WorldWideScience Alliance, a multilateral partnership, consists of participating member countries and provides the governance structure for WorldWideScience. United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information serves as the operating agent for WorldWideScience.[122]
Zasshi Kiji Sakuin: Japanese Periodicals Index Journals Japanese. N/A National Diet Library's Online Catalog,[123] MagazinePlus,[124] CiNii[125]
Zentralblatt MATH Mathematics First three records free without subscription. Subscription Springer Science+Business Media[126]
The Zoological Record Zoology Unofficial register of scientific names & papers in Zoology. Coverage 1864–present. Subscription Thomson Reuters[127]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ List of EBSCO databases
  2. ^ Academic Search Complete
  3. ^ Aerospace & High Technology Database
  4. ^ Rosenberg, Diana (1 January 2002). "African Journals Online: improving awareness and access". Learned Publishing 15 (1): 51–57. doi:10.1087/095315102753303689. Retrieved 14 November 2011. 
  5. ^ African Journals Online (AJOL)
  6. ^ "AgeLine, EBSCO Publishing". Retrieved 2012-08-26. 
  7. ^ AGRICOLA (NAL Catalog)
  8. ^ AGRICOLA (ProQuest)
  9. ^ AGRICOLA (Ovid)
  10. ^ Airiti Inc
  11. ^ Analytical Abstracts
  12. ^ Analytical Sciences Digital Library
  13. ^ Anthropological Index Online
  14. ^ Anthropological Literature
  15. ^ Arachne
  16. ^
  17. ^ Arts & Humanities Citation Index
  18. ^
  19. ^ Association for Computing Machinery
  20. ^ Astrophysics Data System
  21. ^ ATLA Catalog
  22. ^ AULIMP
  23. ^ BASE
  24. ^ "Information and Support Site". Reaxys. Retrieved 2012-08-26. 
  25. ^ Biological Abstracts at Thomson Reuters
  26. ^
  27. ^ Book Review Index Online
  28. ^ Books In Print
  29. ^ "Publishing home | CAB Abstracts". CABI. Retrieved 2012-08-26. 
  30. ^ Chemical Abstracts Service
  31. ^ ChemXSeer
  32. ^ Chinese Social Science Citation Index (in English)
  33. ^ Cochrane Library
  34. ^ CINAHL
  35. ^ CiNii
  36. ^ Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database
  37. ^ CiteBase
  38. ^ CiteSeer
  39. ^ CiteSeerX
  40. ^ Cogprints
  41. ^ The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies
  42. ^ Compendex
  43. ^ Current Index to Statistics: Limited Free Search
  44. ^ Current Index to Statistics
  45. ^ Current Contents
  46. ^ Directory of Open Access Journals
  47. ^ EconBiz
  48. ^ EconLit
  49. ^ EconLit access providers
  50. ^ EMBASE
  51. ^ ERIC
  52. ^ Food Science and Technology Abstracts
  53. ^ GENESIS
  54. ^ "Publishing home | Global Health". CABI. Retrieved 2012-08-26. 
  55. ^ Hummel J, Strehmel N, Selbig J, Walther D and Kopka J (2010). "Decision tree supported substructure prediction of metabolites from GC-MS profiles". Metabolomics 6 (2): 322–333. doi:10.1007/s11306-010-0198-7. 
  56. ^ Google Scholar
  57. ^ GoPubMed
  58. ^ HubMed
  59. ^ IEEE Xplore
  60. ^ Journal Master List
  61. ^ Index Copernicus
  62. ^ Information Bridge
  63. ^ Informit
  64. ^ IngentaConnect
  65. ^ "Indian Citation Index". Indian Citation Index. Retrieved 2012-08-26. 
  66. ^ INSPEC
  67. ^ "Philosophy Documentation Center". Retrieved 2012-08-26. 
  68. ^ Intute
  69. ^ a b "A Searchable Database of Online Scholarly Journals". JournalSeek. Retrieved 2012-08-26. 
  70. ^ JSTOR
  71. ^ Lesson Planet
  72. ^ LexisNexis Academic
  73. ^ MathSciNet
  74. ^ MedlinePlus
  75. ^ Mendeley Research Catalog
  76. ^ Online versions of the Merck Index
  77. ^ Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts at DIALOG
  78. ^ Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts at CSA
  79. ^ Microsoft Academic Search Help
  80. ^ National Bureau of Economic Research
  81. ^ NCJRS Library
  82. ^ NCJRS
  83. ^ Japanese National Diet Library Collection in English
  84. ^ OAIster
  85. ^ OpenSIGLE
  86. ^ a b c Philosophy Documentation Center
  87. ^ PhilPapers: Philosophy Online
  88. ^ [1]
  89. ^ PsycInfo
  90. ^ PsycINFO vendors list
  91. ^ "Psychology's Feminist Voices". Psychology's Feminist Voices. Retrieved 29 June 2014. 
  92. ^ PubChem
  93. ^ PubMed
  94. ^ Questia
  95. ^ Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature
  96. ^ Reader's Guide Retrospective: 1890–1982
  97. ^ RePEc
  98. ^ [2]
  99. ^ Rock's Backpages
  100. ^
  101. ^ SDSU-GSPH
  102. ^ World health Organization
  103. ^
  104. ^
  105. ^ Science Accelerator
  106. ^ Science Citation Index
  107. ^ ScienceDirect
  108. ^ Scirus
  109. ^ Scopus
  110. ^ "SNew Social Search Engine Lets People Search the Web Together With Friends". Retrieved 11 August 2011. 
  111. ^ Social Science Citation Index
  112. ^ Socolar (Socol@r)
  113. ^ Social Science Research Network
  114. ^ SSRRN: Social Science Research Resources Network
  115. ^ SPIRES-HEP
  116. ^ SpringerLink
  117. ^ Ulrich's Periodicals Directory
  118. ^ Cedefop
  119. ^ Web of Knowledge
  120. ^ Web of Science
  121. ^ WorldCat
  122. ^ WorldWideScience
  123. ^ Zasshi Kiji Sakuin (at NDL)
  124. ^ Zasshi Kiji Sakuin (at MagazinePlus)
  125. ^ Zasshi Kiji Sakuin (at CiNii)
  126. ^ Zentralblatt MATH
  127. ^ Zoological Record