Academic grading in India
At the school level percentages of 80-90 are considered excellent while above 90 is exceptional. At the university level however percentages between 69-79 are considered excellent and are quite difficult to obtain. The direct comparison of the percentage of marks obtained at one university with that at another is difficult. Indeed, the differential between universities in terms of marking scale can be as much as 20%, with some requiring an 85% plus for the award of Distinction, an approximate equivalent of the Latin honor summa-cum-laude, while yet others would award Distinction at above of 70%.
In some instances, a score close to 90% is very rare and is virtually impossible. Much of this can be reconciled in the backdrop of the minimum pass score. In a university with a 90% plus for Distinction, 60% may be the minimum passing mark. The university awarding distinction at 70% may have a passing mark of 45%. Thus the comparison of GPA is quite difficult for Indian students elsewhere. A student having 95% will be close to 3.9 on the GPA scale, as would a student with a 75% from a 70% cut-off-for-distinction institution.
University of Mumbai is one such example of a tough scoring system where a 40% is required for passing while 70% is the required cut-off for Distinction. The University of Delhi and affiliated institutions are another example of this type of marking which give distinction above 75%. Most old Indian government universities have a yardstick of 75% as their distinction cutoff. For such a university, the measure of a student's performance can be done against the rest of the class in the university. The best yardstick seems to be, apart from the base passing mark, the very classification of the awarding university as to where a given range would fall (distinction, first class, second, or fail). Attempts are being made to move to a GPA-based system by most modern universities, but older ones tend to continue to rely on the percentage of marks.
GPA Grading (Alternated version 2011 School year)
In India, many universities and institutes rank their students in percentage of marks they get from the examinations and credits. Many universities have their ranking on point system. Though there are exceptions to standard system such as MBA Courses, the following table will summarize the grading system and conversions for normal graduation and post graduation in universities and institutes, unless otherwise declared by the institute.
- ** Some institutes with difficult curriculum and tough scoring give 70% scoring as Distinction
- ** Universities like the Jamia Millia University have different CPI system of evaluating B.Tech degree students. They have and give First Division at 60% Marks and Distinction / Honors at 75%.
University of Mumbai follows Percentage system but is moving towards Grade Point Average (GPA). Credential evaluator World Education Services provides U.S. Grade Point Equivalent for Percentages scored in Indian Universities.
|Percentage||Classification/ Division||U.S. Grade Point Equivalent||U.S. Grade Equivalent|
|70% and above||Distinction / Outstanding||3.5 - 4.0||A|
|60% and above but below 70%||First class||3.5 - 4.0||A|
|50% and above but below 60%||Second Class||2.5 - 3.49||B+/B|
|40% and above but below 50%||Pass Class||1.5 - 2.49||C+/C|
|Below 40%||Fail||0 - 1.49||F|
|Letter Grade||Marks||Grade Point|
|0||70 and above||7|
|A||60 to 69.99||6|
|B||55 to 59.99||5|
|C||50 to 54.99||4|
|D||45 to 49.99||3|
|E||40 to 44.99||2|
|F (Fail)||39.99 and below||1|
The Indian Institutes of Technology are under control of the Government of India and therefore have strict rules for grades. Depending on the course the evaluation is based on participation in class, attendance, quiz, exam and/or paper. Continuous evaluation is done by course instructors. The Evaluation System of IIT Madras is the Cumulative Grade Point Average with a scale from 0 to 10 which is converted to letters:
|Letter Grade||Grade Points||in Words|
|S||9-10||Excellent (top students)|
|E||3-4||Not Sufficient (not passed)|
|U||0||Unfair Behavior (cheating)|
CGPA then gets calculated as the cumulative credit-weighted average of the grade points: CGPA = (Σ Ci • GPi) / (Σ Ci) where: N is the number of courses Ci is credits for the ith course GPi is grade points for the ith course CGPA is the cumulative grade point average
The CGPA is not the same as the American one. In India some credits might be awarded during Bachelor studies for Co-curricular and Extra-curricular Activities, while during the Master Programme this is not allowed. Through agreements with numerous international organisations, IIT grades are accepted from many international organisations like NTU, NUS and DAAD.
International Grade Conversion
|Percentage||Grade Point||U.S. Grade Equiv||Classification/ Division|
|60 to 100||3.5 - 4.0||A or (O)||First class/ Distinction / Outstanding|
|55 to 59||3.15 - 3.46||B+||Second Class|
|50 to 54||2.5 - 3.14||B||Second Class|
|43 to 49||2.15 - 2.49||C+||Third Division|
|35*-42||1.5 - 2.14||C||Fail/Third Division|
|0-34||0 - 1.49||F||Fail|
* At selected institutions, a lower grade may be considered passing.
|By Division||U.S. Grade Equiv|
|I (First Division)||A|
|II (Second Division)||B/B+|
- "Ranking in University". Ashland.edu. Archived from the original on 10 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- [http:.com/apply/gpa.htm "Role of GPA in Indian System"]. Achieverspoint.com. Archived from the original on 21 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-.
- "ashland.edu =asedu". Archived from the original on 10 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- "Academic Grading in India". Scribd.com. 2009-11-13. Retrieved 2010-09-01.
- "CPI to Percentage for JMI Students".
- Select India in dropdown box "WES Grade Conversion Guide". www.wes.org. 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2013-12-24.
- "Evaluation System of IIT Madras". IIT Madras. 2012-01-01. Retrieved 2013-05-01.