Acariasis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Acariasis
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 B86, B88.0
ICD-9 133
MeSH D008924

Acariasis is an infestation with mites.[1]

Terminology[edit]

There are several complications with the terminology:

Acariasis is a term for a rash, caused by mites, sometimes with a papillae (pruritic dermatitis), and usually accompanied by severe itching sensations.

The closely related term, mange, is commonly used with domestic animals (pets) and also livestock and wild mammals, whenever hair-loss is involved. Sarcoptes and Demodex species are involved in mange, but both of these genera are also involved in human skin diseases (by convention only, not called mange). Sarcoptes in humans is especially severe symptomatically, and causes the condition known as scabies.

Another genus of mite which causing itching but rarely causes hair loss because it burrows only at the kerratin level, is Cheyletiella. Various species of this genus of mite also affect a wide variety of mammals, including humans.

Mite infestation sometimes implies an ectoparasitic, cutaneous condition such as dermatitis. However, it is possible for mites to invade the gasrointestinal and urinary tracts.[2]

MeSH uses the term "Mite Infestations" as pertaining to Acariformes.[3] However, mites not in this grouping can be associated with human disease. (See "Classification", below.)

The term Acari refers to ticks and mites together, which can cause ambiguity. (Mites are a paraphyletic grouping).

Mites can be associated with disease in at least three different ways: (1) cutaneous dermatitis, (2) production of allergin, and (3) as a vector for parasitic diseases. The language used to describe mite infestation often does not distinguish among these.

Classification[edit]

Most of the mites which cause this affliction to humans are from the order Acari, hence the name Acariasis. The entire taxonomic classification to order would be:

  • Kingdom: Animalia
  • Phylum: Arthropoda
  • Subphylum: Chelicerata
  • Class: Arachnida
  • Order: Acari (At the order level, there is still substantial argument among researchers as to how to categorize Acari. Some call it a subclass, others a superorder, "Acarina".)

Specific species involved include:

Some of these reflect reports existing of human infestation by mites previously believed not to prey on humans.[5]

Diagnosis[edit]

Medical doctors and dermatologists can still misdiagnose this rash as many are unfamiliar with parasitism, not trained in it, or if they do consider it, cannot see the mites.

Different methods for detection are recognized for different acariasis infections. Human acariasis with mites can occur in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, urinary tracts and other organs which not have been well-studied. For intestinal acariasis with symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and phohemefecia (is this hemafecia?), human acariasis is diagnosed by detection of mites in stools.[6] For pulmonary acariasis, the presence of mites in sputum is determined by identifying the presence and number of mites in the sputum of patients with respiratory symptoms. Both physical and chemical methods for liquefaction of sputum have been developed.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Acariasis" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ Li, CP; Cui, YB; Wang, J; Yang, QG; Tian, Y (2003). "Acaroid mite, intestinal and urinary acariasis". World Journal of Gastroenterology 9 (4): 874–7. PMID 12679953. 
  3. ^ Mite infestations at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
  4. ^ Lesna, Izabela; Wolfs, Peter; Faraji, Farid; Roy, Lise; Komdeur, Jan; Sabelis, Maurice W. (2009). "Candidate predators for biological control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae". Experimental and Applied Acarology 48 (1–2): 63–80. doi:10.1007/s10493-009-9239-1. PMID 19184469. 
  5. ^ "Research and Reference Articles"[unreliable source?]
  6. ^ Cui, YB; Ling, YZ; Zhou, Y; Feng, ZW; Xing, YR; Zhang, SW (2006). "An effective indirect fluorescent antibody test for diagnosis of intestinal acariasis". The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 37 (3): 452–5. PMID 17120963. 
  7. ^ Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Woerden, Hugo Cornelis; Ribas-Barceló, Andrés (2007). "Experimental method for isolating and identifying dust mites from sputum in pulmonary acariasis". Experimental and Applied Acarology 42 (1): 55–9. doi:10.1007/s10493-007-9076-z. PMID 17549588. 

External links[edit]