Accession of Turkey to the European Union
Turkey's application to accede to the European Economic Community, a predecessor of the European Union (EU), was made on 14 April 1987. Turkey has been an associate member since 1963. After the ten founding members, Turkey was one of the first countries to become a member of the Council of Europe in 1949, and was also a founding member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1961 and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) in 1973. The country has also been an associate member of the Western European Union since 1992, and is a part of the "Western Europe" branch of the Western European and Others Group (WEOG) at the United Nations. Turkey signed a Customs Union agreement with the EU in 1995 and was officially recognised as a candidate for full membership on 12 December 1999, at the Helsinki summit of the European Council. Negotiations were started on 3 October 2005, and the process, should it be in Turkey's favour, is likely to take at least a decade to complete. The membership bid has become a major controversy of the ongoing enlargement of the European Union.
- 1 History
- 2 Negotiation progress
- 3 Turkish membership issues
- 4 Public reactions
- 5 Official points of view
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
After the Ottoman Empire's collapse following World War I, Turkish revolutionaries led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk emerged victorious in the Turkish War of Independence, establishing the modern Turkish Republic as it exists today. Atatürk, President of Turkey, implemented a series of reforms, including secularization and industrialization, intended to "Europeanize" or Westernize the country. During World War II, Turkey remained neutral until February 1945, when it joined the Allies. The country took part in the Marshall Plan of 1947, became a member of the Council of Europe in 1949, and a member of NATO in 1952. During the Cold War, Turkey allied itself with the United States and Western Europe. The Turkish expert Meltem Ahıska outlines the Turkish position vis-à-vis Europe, explaining how “Europe has been an object of desire as well as a source of frustration for Turkish national identity in a long and strained history”.
The country first applied for associate membership in the European Economic Community in 1959, and on 12 September 1963 signed the "Agreement Creating An Association Between The Republic of Turkey and the European Economic Community", also known as the Ankara Agreement. This agreement came into effect the following year on 12 December 1964. The Ankara Agreement sought to integrate Turkey into a customs union with the EEC whilst acknowledging the final goal of membership. In November 1970, a further protocol called the "Additional Protocol" established a timetable for the abolition of tariffs and quotas on goods traded between Turkey and the EEC.
On 14 April 1987, Turkey submitted its application for formal membership into the European Economic Community. The European Commission responded in December 1989 by confirming Ankara’s eventual membership but also by deferring the matter to more favorable times, citing Turkey’s economic and political situation, as well its poor relations with Greece and the conflict with Cyprus as creating an unfavorable environment with which to begin negotiations. This position was confirmed again in the Luxembourg European Council of 1997 in which accession talks were started with central and eastern European states and Cyprus, but not Turkey. During the 1990s, Turkey proceeded with a closer integration with the European Union by agreeing to a customs union in 1995. Moreover, the Helsinki European Council of 1999 proved a milestone as the EU recognised Turkey as a candidate on equal footing with other potential candidates.
The next significant step in Turkey–EU relations came with the December 2002 Copenhagen European Council. According to it, "the EU would open negotiations with Turkey 'without delay' if the European Council in December 2004, on the basis of a report and a recommendation from the Commission, decides that Turkey fulfills the Copenhagen political criteria."
The European Commission recommended that the negotiations should begin in 2005, but also added various precautionary measures. The EU leaders agreed on 16 December 2004 to start accession negotiations with Turkey from 3 October 2005. While Austria and Germany initially wanted to leave open the possibility that negotiations with Turkey would lead to a privileged partnership, less than full membership, accession negotiations were ultimately launched with the "shared objective" of membership.
Turkey's accession talks have since been stalled by a number of domestic and external problems. Both Austria and France have said they would hold a referendum on Turkey's accession. In the case of France, a change in its Constitution was made to impose such a referendum, but later another constitution change has enabled the parliament (if a large majority of its members agrees) to prevent such a referendum. The issue of Cyprus continues to be a major obstacle to negotiations. European officials have commented on the slowdown in Turkish reforms which, combined with the Cyprus problem, led the EU’s Enlargement Commissioner Olli Rehn in March 2007 to warn of an impeding ‘train crash’ in the negotiations. Due to these setbacks, negotiations again came to a halt in December 2006, with the EU freezing talks in 8 of the 35 key areas under negotiation.
In December 2009, the Republic of Cyprus blocked 6 chapters of Turkish accession negotiations, including those on Judiciary and Fundamental Rights, Energy and Education and Culture, arguing that Turkey need to first normalize relations with Cyprus. As a result, no chapter have been opened since June 2010. Hence, there is no chapter Turkey can open other than the difficult and economically detrimental chapters Competition Policy, Social Policy and Employment, and Public Procurement that most candidate countries open at the end of accession as all other chapters are blocked. In February 2013, Turkish Deputy Undersecretary of the Ministry for EU Affairs, Burak Erdenir, claimed that the EU had yet to communicate to Turkey the benchmark criteria for opening chapters 23 and 24, Judiciary & Fundamental Rights and Justice, Freedom & Security, which was to be done after screening of the chapters was completed in 2006, thus making it impossible to comply with them. He also suggested this was a deliberate attempt to slow their accession process.
After over 2 years of no chapter openings, the European Commission set up a "Positive agenda" designed to focus on common EU-Turkey interests. EU Commissioner for expansion Stefan Füle describes that the goal was "to keep the accession process alive and put it properly back on track after a period of stagnation which has been a source of frustration for both sides." The EU Commission mentioned a broad range of areas as the main elements of the Agenda such as “intensified dialogue and cooperation on political reforms”, “visa”, “mobility and migration”, “energy”, “fight against terrorism”, “further participation of Turkey in Community programmes”, “town twinning”, “trade and the Customs Union” and “supporting efforts to align with the acquis, including on chapters where accession negotiations cannot be opened for the time being”. The proposal was considered favorably on the condition that it serves as an instrument in support of and complementary to the negotiation process with the EU.
In the framework of “Positive Agenda”, Working Groups were established on 8 chapters (“3-Right of Establishment and Freedom to Provide Services”, “6-Company Law”, “10-Information Society and Media”, “18-Statistics”, “23-Judiciary and Fundamental Rights”, “24-Justice, Freedom and Security”, “28-Consumer and Health Protection” and “32-Financial Control”). The “Positive Agenda” kick-off meeting was held on 17 May 2012 in Ankara with the participation of Stefan Füle, EU Commissioner for Enlargement and European Neighbourhood Policy. As a result of the Working Groups meetings held so far, a total of four closing benchmarks were confirmed to have been met by Turkey in three chapters. (Company Law, Consumer and Health Protection and Financial Control chapters)
In 2007, Turkey stated that they were aiming to comply with EU law by 2013, but Brussels has refused to back this as a deadline for membership. In 2006 European Commission President José Manuel Barroso said that the accession process will take at least until 2021. In a visit to Germany on 31 October 2012, Turkish Prime Minister R.T. Erdoğan made clear that Turkey was expecting membership in the Union to be realised by 2023, the 100th Anniversary of the Turkish Republic, implying that they could end membership negotiations if the talks had not yielded a positive result by then. Turkish President Abdullah Gül said that upon completing the accession process Turkey will hold a referendum for Turkish membership in the European Union.
On 20 June 2013, in the wake of Ankara's crackdown on mass demonstrations in Taksim Square, Germany blocked the start to new EU accession talks with Turkey. According to the Financial Times, one Turkish official said that such a move could potentially break off political relations with the bloc. "The EU needs Turkey more than Turkey needs the EU," Egemen Bagis, Turkey's EU minister stated. "If we have to, we could tell them, "get lost.'" A Eurobarometer poll in September 2013, which included EU countries and candidate countries as well, showed that 43% of Turks viewed the EU positively, as compared with 60% 6 months previously. In the same poll, 29% of Turks polled expressed support for an EU Constitution, the lowest level of support among EU countries and candidates polled. Germany says that its reservation stems from a technical issue, but Angela Merkel, an opponent of Turkish entry into the EU, has described herself as "shocked" after Ankara's use of overwhelming police force against mostly peaceful demonstrators. France has stated that they will not waive their veto over unfreezing four accession chapters with Turkey until after elections for the European Parliament in June 2014.
Visa liberalisation process
The EU Commissioner of Interior Affairs Cecilia Malmström indicated on 29 September 2011 that visa requirement for Turkish citizens will eventually be discontinued. Visa liberalization will be ushered in several phases. Initial changes were expected in the Fall of 2011, which would include the reduction of visa paperwork, more multi-entry visas, and extended stay periods. In June 2012, the EU authorized the beginning of negotiations with Turkey on visa exemptions for its citizens. Turkish EU Minister Egemen Bağış stated that he expected the process to take 3–4 years. The current visa policy of the EU is a cause of much concern for Turkish businessmen, politicians and Turks with family members in the EU. Egemen Bağış describes the situation as: "Even non-candidate countries such as Russia, Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia are currently negotiating for visa-free travel." In September 2012, Turkish Economy Minister Zafer Çağlayan, during a meeting at the WKÖ, said: "Europe's two-faced and heartless policies and some anti-Turkish Austrian politicians have saddened us." Mentioning Turkish businessmen, Mr. Çağlayan added "we have had a Customs Union for 17 years, and half of our (Turkey's) external trade is with Europe. Our goods can move freely, but a visa is required for the owner of the goods. This is a violation of human rights."
In December 2013, after signing a readmission agreement, the EU launched a visa liberalisation dialogue with Turkey including a "Roadmap towards the visa-free regime".
- 31 July 1959 – Turkey applies for associate membership in the European Economic Community.
- 12 September 1963 – Association Agreement signed, acknowledging the final goal of membership.
- 1 December 1964 – Association Agreement comes into effect.
- 23 November 1970 – Protocol signed providing a timetable for the abolition of tariffs and quotas on goods.
- 1980 – Freeze in relations following the 1980 Turkish coup d'état.
- 1983 – Relations fully restored following elections.
- 14 April 1987 – Application for formal membership into the European Community.
- 18 December 1989 – European Commission refuses to immediately begin accession negotiations, citing Turkey’s economic and political situation, poor relations with Greece and their conflict with Cyprus, but overall reaffirming eventual membership as the goal.
- 6 March 1995 – European Union-Turkey Customs Union is formed.
- 12 December 1999 – European Council recognises Turkey as a candidate on equal footing with other potential candidates.
- 12 December 2002 – European Council states that "the EU would open negotiations with Turkey 'without delay' if Turkey fulfills the Copenhagen criteria."
- 24 April 2004 – Turkey and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus back the Annan Plan for Cyprus.
- 17 December 2004 – European Union agrees to start negotiations.
- 3 October 2005 – Opening of 6 chapters of the Acquis: Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services, Company Law, Financial Services, Information Society & Media, Statistics, and Financial Control.
- 12 June 2006 – Chapter on Science & Research opened and closed.
- 11 December 2006 – Continued dispute over Cyprus prompts the EU to freeze talks on 8 chapters and state that no chapters would be closed until a resolution is found.
- 29 March 2007 – Chapter on Enterprise & Industrial Policy is opened.
- 25 June 2007 – Chapter on Statistics & Financial Control opened, but the opening of the chapter on Economic & Monetary Policy was blocked by French President Nicolas Sarkozy.
- 20 December 2007 – Chapters on Health & Consumer Protection and Trans-European Networks are opened.
- 17 June 2008 – Chapters on Company Law and Intellectual Property Law are opened.
- 19 December 2008 – Chapters on Free Movement of Capital and Information Society & Media are opened.
- 30 June 2009 – Chapter on Taxation is opened.
- 8 December 2009 – Chapter on Environment is opened.
- 30 June 2010 – Chapter on Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy is opened.
- 17 May 2012 – Launch of the "Positive Agenda" with Turkey.
- 1 July 2012 - 31 December 2012 - Turkey froze relations with the European Union for the duration of Republic of Cyprus' rotating presidency.
- 12 February 2013 - France's foreign minister Laurent Fabius announces that France has officially removed its veto over Chapter 22 Regional Policy and Coordination of Structural Instruments, and will assist in the chapter's opening. The veto on Chapter 17 Economic and Monetary Policy may also be removed in the future.
- 25 June 2013 - Chapter on Regional Policy and Coordination of Structural Instruments is opened but negotiations on the chapter will not commence until after the annual Progress Report is published in October, due to Turkey's handling of protesters.
- 5 November 2013 - Chapter on Regional Policy and Coordination of Structural Instruments is opened
To accede to the EU, Turkey must successfully complete negotiations with the European Commission on 33 of the 35 chapters of the acquis communautaire, the total body of EU law. (Two chapters do not require negotiation.) Afterwards, the member states must unanimously agree on granting Turkey membership to the European Union.
|Acquis chapter||EC Assessment At Start||Current Situation||Screening Started||Screening Completed||Chapter Frozen||Chapter Unfrozen||Chapter Opened||Chapter Closed|
|1. Free Movement of Goods||Further efforts needed||Generally aligned with the acquis||16 January 2006||24 February 2006||11 December 2006[C 1]||–||–||–|
|2. Freedom of Movement For Workers||Very hard to adopt||Considerable efforts needed||19 July 2006||11 September 2006||8 December 2009[C 2]||–||–||–|
|3. Right of Establishment For Companies & Freedom To Provide Services||Very hard to adopt||Considerable efforts needed||21 November 2005||20 December 2005||11 December 2006[C 1]||–||–||–|
|4. Free Movement of Capital||Further efforts needed||Further efforts needed||25 November 2005||22 December 2005||–||–||19 December 2008||–|
|5. Public Procurement||Totally incompatible with acquis||Further efforts needed||7 November 2005||28 November 2005||–||–||–||–|
|6. Company Law||Considerable efforts needed||Alignment complete||21 June 2006||20 July 2006||–||–||17 June 2008||–|
|7. Intellectual Property Law||Further efforts needed||Generally aligned with the acquis||6 February 2006||3 March 2006||–||–||17 June 2008||–|
|8. Competition Policy||Very hard to adopt||Further efforts needed||8 November 2005||2 December 2005||–||–||–||–|
|9. Financial Services||Considerable efforts needed||Generally aligned with the acquis||29 March 2006||3 May 2006||11 December 2006[C 1]||–||–||–|
|10. Information Society & Media||Further efforts needed||Further efforts needed||12 June 2006||14 July 2006||–||–||19 December 2008||–|
|11. Agriculture & Rural Development||Very hard to adopt||Further efforts needed||5 December 2005||26 January 2006||11 December 2006[C 1][C 3]||–||–||–|
|12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy||Very hard to adopt||Further efforts needed||9 March 2006||28 April 2006||–||–||30 June 2010||–|
|13. Fisheries||Very hard to adopt||Further efforts needed||24 February 2006||31 March 2006||11 December 2006[C 1]||–||–||–|
|14. Transport Policy||Considerable efforts needed||Further efforts needed||26 June 2006||28 September 2006||11 December 2006[C 1]||–||–||–|
|15. Energy||Considerable efforts needed||Generally aligned with the acquis||15 May 2006||16 June 2006||8 December 2009[C 2]||–||–||–|
|16. Taxation||Considerable efforts needed||Further efforts needed||6 June 2006||12 July 2006||–||–||30 June 2009||–|
|17. Economic & Monetary Policy||Considerable efforts needed||Generally aligned with the acquis||16 February 2006||23 March 2006||25 June 2007[C 3]||–|
|18. Statistics||Considerable efforts needed||Generally aligned with the acquis||19 June 2006||18 July 2006||–||–||25 June 2007||–|
|19. Social Policy & Employment||Considerable efforts needed||Further efforts needed||8 February 2006||22 March 2006||–||–||–|
|20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy||No major difficulties expected||Alignment Complete||27 March 2006||5 May 2006||–||–||29 March 2007||–|
|21. Trans-European Networks||Considerable efforts needed||Generally aligned with the acquis||30 June 2006||29 September 2006||–||–||19 December 2007||–|
|22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments||Considerable efforts needed||Generally aligned with the acquis||11 September 2006||10 October 2006||25 June 2007||12 February 2013||5 November 2013||–|
|23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights||Considerable efforts needed||Further efforts needed||7 September 2006||13 October 2006||8 December 2009[C 2]||2013 (expected)||2013 (expected)||–|
|24. Justice, Freedom & Security||Considerable efforts needed||Further efforts needed||23 January 2006||15 February 2006||8 December 2009[C 2]||–||–||–|
|25. Science & Research||No major difficulties expected||Alignment Complete||20 October 2005||14 November 2005||–||–||12 June 2006||12 June 2006|
|26. Education & Culture||Further efforts needed||Generally aligned with the acquis||26 October 2005||16 November 2005||8 December 2009[C 2]||–||–||–|
|27. Environment and Climate Change||Totally incompatible with acquis||Considerable efforts needed||3 April 2006||2 June 2006||–||–||21 December 2009||–|
|28. Consumer & Health Protection||Further efforts needed||Generally aligned with the acquis||8 June 2006||11 July 2006||–||–||19 December 2007||–|
|29. Customs Union||No major difficulties expected||Generally aligned with the acquis||31 January 2006||14 March 2006||11 December 2006[C 1]||–||–||–|
|30. External Relations||No major difficulties expected||Alignment Complete||10 July 2006||13 September 2006||11 December 2006[C 1]||–||–||–|
|31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy||Further efforts needed||Generally aligned with the acquis||14 September 2006||6 October 2006||8 December 2009[C 2]||–||–||–|
|32. Financial Control||Further efforts needed||Generally aligned with the acquis||18 May 2006||30 June 2006||–||–||26 July 2007||–|
|33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions||No major difficulties expected||Further efforts needed||6 September 2006||4 October 2006||25 June 2007[C 3]||–||–||–|
|34. Institutions||Nothing to adopt||Nothing to adopt||–||–||25 June 2007[C 3]||–||–||–|
|35. Other Issues||Nothing to adopt||Nothing to adopt||–||–||–||–||–||–|
|Progress||33 out of 33||33 out of 33||17 out of 33||1 out of 17||14 out of 35||1 out of 35|
- The EU Council froze the opening of eight chapters over Turkey's rejection to open its ports and airports to traffic from Cyprus in 2006
- Some of the chapters do not proceed to the next stage in the process, because they are blocked by Cyprus.
- Some of the chapters do not proceed to the next stage in the process, because they are blocked by France.
Turkish membership issues
Effect upon the EU
The problem of Turkey's membership of the EU is compounded by conflicting views as to what the EU should ultimately become. This has played a significant role in the debate, due in part to the Eurozone crisis and the fact that as a result of this the eurozone and the EU overall is more federalised on both fiscal, legal and political levels than it was at the time of Turkey's application or at the time that Turkey was accepted as a candidate. Generally those members of the EU who support a rights based free trade bloc do not oppose Turkey as adamantly as those who support a broader political union. The latter, in particular, are concerned that unification would be frustrated and the European project threatened by Turkey's inclusion.
Proponents of Turkey's membership argue that it is a key regional power with a large economy and the second largest military force of NATO after the United States that will enhance the EU's position as a global geostrategic player and its Common Foreign and Security Policy; given Turkey's geographic location and economic, political, cultural and historic ties in regions with large natural resources that are at the immediate vicinity of the EU's geopolitical sphere of influence; such as the East Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts, the Middle East, the Caspian Sea basin and Central Asia.
According to the Swedish foreign minister, Carl Bildt, "the accession of Turkey would give the EU a decisive role for stability in the eastern part of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, which is clearly in the strategic interest of Europe." One of Turkey's key supporters for its bid to join the EU is the United Kingdom.
Upon joining the EU, Turkey's 76 million inhabitants would bestow the second largest number of MEPs in the European Parliament. Demographic projections indicate that Turkey would surpass Germany by 2020. However, as a single country can only hold a maximum of 96 seats in the European Parliament, this would not give Turkey an advantage in the European Parliament.
Turkey's membership would also affect future enlargement plans, especially the number of nations seeking EU membership, grounds on which Valéry Giscard d'Estaing has opposed Turkey's admission. Giscard has suggested that it would lead to demands for accession by Morocco. Morocco's application is already rejected on geographic grounds; Turkey, unlike Morocco, has 3% of its territory in Europe. On the other hand, Cyprus, which is geographically located in Asia, joined the European Union in 2004. Former French President Nicolas Sarkozy stated in January 2007 that "enlarging Europe with no limit risks destroying European political union, and that I do not accept...I want to say that Europe must give itself borders, that not all countries have a vocation to become members of Europe, beginning with Turkey which has no place inside the European Union."
EU member states must unanimously agree on Turkey's membership for the Turkish accession to be successful. In December 2011, a poll showed that as much as 71% of the participants surveyed in Austria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain and the UK were opposed to Turkey's membership in the European Union. A number of nations may oppose it; notably Austria, which historically served as a bulwark for Christian Europe against the Ottoman Empire whose armies twice laid siege to Vienna in 1529 and 1683; German chancellor Angela Merkel has long rejected Turkey's accession bid, and has proposed a "privileged partnership" instead; France, where some are anxious at the prospect of a new wave of Muslim immigrants, given the country's already large Muslim community.
Negotiations to remove the French constitutional requirement for a compulsory referendum on all EU accessions after Croatia resulted in a new proposal to require a compulsory referendum on the accession of any country with a population of more than 5% of the EU's total population; this clause would mainly apply to Turkey and Ukraine. The French Senate, however, blocked the change in the French constitution, in order to maintain good relations with Turkey. The current situation according to the French constitution is as follows: if 3/5 of the delegates (from the Senate and the Parliament) agree to the accession of Turkey, there will be no referendum.
Benefits to Turkey
Upon accession to the EU, Turkey expects to receive economic development aid similar to what Ireland, Greece, Spain and Portugal received. This will accelerate Turkey's rate of economic development. There is also an expectation that there will be an increase in European foreign investment in the Turkish economy, further driving economic growth. Additionally, in times of economic crisis, Turkey could expect economic assistance from the EU, similar to what Ireland and Greece received after the 2008 financial crisis.
Free movement of people across the EU will give many Turkish people the opportunity to easily migrate to other parts of Europe in search of work, or a higher standard of living. The option of migration out of Turkey will inevitably ease tensions in the east of the country, as the prospect of a better standard of living will tend to cool separatist tendencies. Some secularists in Turkey envisage that the accession of Turkey will contribute to the spread of secular western values in Turkey. Conversely, some non-secularists in Turkey envisage that accession will contribute to the further growth and acceptance of Islam in Europe. The EU accession bid has stimulated Turkey's political and legal reforms and intensified the democratization process.
Given Turkey's large and growing population, Turkey will have a correspondingly large representation in the European Parliament. This will give Turkey strong direct influence over EU policies. Membership in the EU will also increase Turkey's prestige regionally and internationally.
Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase its industrial production destined for exports, while at the same time benefiting from EU-origin foreign investment into the country. In 2008, Turkey's exports reached 141.8 billion USD (main export partners: Germany 11.2%, UK 8%, Italy 6.95%, France 5.6%, Spain 4.3%, USA 3.88%; total EU exports 56.5%.) However, larger imports amounting to about 204.8 billion USD threaten the balance of trade (main import partners: Russia 13.8%, Germany 10.3%, China 7.8%, Italy 6%, USA 4.8%, France 4.6%, Iran 3.9%, UK 3.2%; total EU imports 40.4%; total Asia imports 27%).
Turkey's large population would alter the balance of power in the representative European institutions. Upon joining the EU, Turkey's 78 million inhabitants would bestow it the second largest number of MEPs in the European Parliament.[not in citation given] Demographic projections indicate that Turkeys population will surpass Germanys by 2020. This means Turkey would get the maximal number of representatives in the European Parliament, equal to Germanys.[not in citation given][dubious ]
Foreign relations with EU member states
Cyprus was divided when, on 20 July 1974, Turkey occupied a third of the island in response to an Athens-engineered coup aimed at annexing Cyprus to Greece. Since then, Turkey has refused to acknowledge the Republic of Cyprus (an EU member since 2004) as the sole authority on the island, and recognizes the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus since its establishment in 1983. The Turkish invasion in 1974 and the resulting movement of refugees along both sides of the Green Line, and the establishment of the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 1983, form the core issues which surround the ongoing Cyprus dispute.
Turkey and the Turkish Cypriots backed the 2004 Annan Plan for Cyprus aimed at the reunification of the island, but the plan was subsequently rejected by Greek Cypriots on the grounds that it did not meet their needs. According to Greek Cypriots, the latest proposal included maintained residence rights for the many Anatolian Turks who moved to Cyprus after the invasion (and their descendants who were born on the island after 1974), while the Greek Cypriots who lost their property after the Turkish invasion would be granted only a restricted right of return to the north following the island's proposed reunification. Although the outcome received much criticism in the EU as well, the Republic of Cyprus was admitted into the EU a week after the referendum.
The Turkish government has refused to officially recognise the Republic of Cyprus until the removal of the political and economic blockade on the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Turkey's non-recognition of the Republic of Cyprus has led to complications within the Customs Union. Under the customs agreements which Turkey had already signed as a precondition to start EU membership negotiations in 2005, it is obliged to open its ports to Cypriot planes and vessels, but Turkey has not complied so far; refusing to do so until the EU eases the international isolation of Northern Cyprus. In February 2013, Turkish EU Minister Egemen Bağış said of the Republic of Cyprus, "if you truly wants to be saved; truly want peace, then remove your blockage of Ercan Airport to EU member countries and Turkey will open our ports to you."
Turkey’s refusal to implement a trade pact between Turkey and the EU that requires the Turkish government to allow Greek Cypriot vessels to use its air and sea ports has prompted the EU to freeze eight chapters in Turkey's accession talks.
In November 2009, Turkish Deputy Prime Minister Cemil Çiçek declared that, should Turkey be forced to choose between supporting either EU membership or Turkish Cypriots, "[then] Turkey’s choice will forever be to stand next to the Turkish Cypriots. Everybody should understand this."
The issue of Turkish membership, has been contentious in Greece, opinion polls suggest only 25% of Greeks believe Turkey has a place in the European Union. The former Greek Prime Minister Kostas Karamanlis stated that Turkish membership of the EU could only be predicated upon, "full compliance, full accession" in December 2006. In 2005 the European Commission referred to relations between Turkey and Greece as "continuing to develop positively" while also citing a key barrier to progress being Turkey's ongoing claim of casus belli over a dispute about territorial waters boundaries.
Turkey has a secular constitution, with no official state religion. 99% of the Turkish population is Muslim of whom over 70% belong to the Sunni branch of Islam. A minority is affiliated with the Shi'a Alevi branch. The Christians (Eastern Orthodox, Catholic, Gregorian, Syriac, Protestant) and Jews (Sephardic, Ashkenazi) were formerly sizable religious minorities in the country. Turkey would be the first Muslim-majority country to join the European Union.
Official population census polls in Turkey do not include information regarding a person's religious belief or ethnic background due to the regulations set by the Turkish constitution, which defines all citizens of the Republic of Turkey as Turkish in terms of nationality, regardless of faith or race.[dead link]
There is a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey. The state has no official religion nor promotes any, and actively monitors the area between the religions. The constitution recognizes the freedom of religion for individuals, whereas religious communities are placed under the protection of the state; but the constitution explicitly states that they cannot become involved in the political process (by forming a religious party, for instance) or establish faith-based schools. No party can claim that it represents a form of religious belief; nevertheless, religious sensibilities are generally represented through conservative parties. Turkey prohibits by law the wearing of religious headcover and theo-political symbolic garments for both sexes in government buildings, schools, and universities; the law was upheld by the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights as legitimate in the Leyla Şahin v. Turkey case on 10 November 2005. However, in 2010, the prohibition of wearing headscarfs in universities was lifted.
In 2004, the French Foreign Minister Michel Barnier stated that Turkey must recognize the systematic massacres of Armenians in 1915 as a genocide. However, he insisted that although France did not set a precondition for European Union entry regarding the matter, he stated that France would raise the issue during negotiations. The President of the European Parliament, Martin Schulz, stated that it must be a precondition for Turkey to recognize the systematic massacres of Armenians in 1915 as genocide.
The government of Turkey rejects such a precondition for EU membership and does not accept it as a part of the EU membership criteria.
In 2006, the European Parliament voted against a proposal to formally add the issue as a membership criterion for Turkey. A similar proposal by Greek and Greek Cypriot MEPs was also rejected by the European Parliament in 2011.
Article 301 states that "a person who publicly insults the Turkish nation, the State of the Republic of Turkey, or the Grand National Assembly of Turkey, shall be punishable by imprisonment of between six months and two years" and also that "expressions of thought intended to criticise shall not constitute a crime."
The EU was especially critical of this law during the September 2005 trial of novelist Orhan Pamuk over comments that recognized the deaths of thirty thousand Kurds and a million Armenians. Enlargement commissioner Olli Rehn and members of the European Parliament called the case "regrettable", "most unfortunate", and "unacceptable". After the case was dropped three months later, Turkey's Foreign Minister Abdullah Gül indicated that Turkey may abandon or modify Article 301, stating that "there may be need for a new law". In September 2006, the European Parliament called for the abolition of laws, such as Article 301, "which threaten European free speech norms". On 30 April 2008, the law was reformed. According to the reform, it is now a crime to explicitly insult the "Turkish nation" rather than "Turkishness"; opening court cases based on Article 301 require the approval of the Justice Minister; and the maximum punishment has been reduced to two years in jail.
Kemal Kerinçsiz, an ultra-nationalist lawyer, and other members of Büyük Hukukçular Birliği (Great Jurists Union) headed by Kerinçsiz, have been "behind nearly all of [Article 301] trials." In January 2008, Kerinçsiz was arrested for participating in an ultra-nationalist underground organization, Ergenekon, allegedly behind the attacks on the Turkish Council of State and Cumhuriyet newspaper, the assassination of several Christian missionaries and Armenian-Turkish journalist Hrant Dink, as well as allegedly plotting the assassination of Nobel laureate Orhan Pamuk.
Turkey gave women the right to vote in 1930 for municipal elections. In 1934 this right was expanded for the national elections, while women were also given the right for becoming elected as MPs in the Turkish Parliament, or for being appointed as Ministers, Prime Minister, Speaker of the Parliament and President of the Republic. In 1993 Tansu Çiller became the first female Prime Minister of Turkey.
In its second report on women's role in social, economic and political life in Turkey, the European Parliament emphasized that respecting human rights, including women’s rights, is a condition sine qua non for Turkey's membership of the EU. According to the report, Turkey's legal framework on women's rights "has in general been satisfactory, but its substantive implementation remains flawed."
Turkey is one of two states (along with Azerbaijan) among the 47 members of the Council of Europe which refused to recognize the status of conscientious objectors or give them an alternative to military service.
In the EU
Public opinion in EU countries generally opposes Turkish membership, though with varying degrees of intensity. The Eurobarometer September–October 2006 survey shows that 59% of EU-27 citizens are against Turkey joining the EU, while only about 28% are in favour. Nearly all citizens (about 9 in 10) expressed concerns about human rights as the leading cause. In the earlier March–May 2006 Eurobarometer, citizens from the new member states were more in favour of Turkey joining (44% in favour) than the old EU-15 (38% in favour). At the time of the survey, the country whose population most strongly opposed Turkish membership was Austria (con: 81%), while Romania was most in favour of the accession (pro: 66%). On a wider political scope, the highest support comes from the Turkish Cypriot Community (pro: 67%) (which is not recognised as sovereign state and is de facto not EU territory and out of the European institutions). These communities are even more in favour of the accession than the Turkish populace itself (pro: 54%). Opposition in Denmark to Turkish membership was polled at 60% in October 2007, despite the Danish government's support for Turkey's EU bid.
|Wikinews has related news: EU sets date for membership talks with Turkey|
The opening of membership talks with the EU in December 2004 was celebrated by Turkey with much fanfare, but the Turkish populace has become increasingly sceptical as negotiations are delayed based on what it views as lukewarm support for its accession to the EU and alleged double standards in its negotiations particularly with regard to the French and Austrian referendums. A mid-2006 Eurobarometer survey revealed that 43% of Turkish citizens view the EU positively; just 35% trust the EU, 45% support enlargement and just 29% support an EU constitution.
Moreover, Turks are divided on whether to join at all. A 2007 poll put Turkish support for accession to the EU at 41.9% (up from 32% in 2006), with 27.7% opposed and 24.0% indifferent. A 2009 poll showed that support for accession had risen to 48%, even as negative views of the EU had risen from 28% to 32%. A 2013 poll showed Turkish support for the EU bid at one third of the population, and opposition to double that share.
According to the Transatlantic Trends survey for 2012, 53% of Turks have an unfavorable view of the European Union and most Turks believe that working with Asia is more important to their national interests than working with Europe. 44% of Turks believe EU membership could be good for the economy in contrast with 61% for EU citizens. During an interview with Euractiv, EU Minister Egemen Bağış stated that: "This is what Europe needs to do: they need to say that when Turkey fulfills all requirements, Turkey will become a member of the EU on date X. Then, we will regain the Tukish public opinion support in one day."
Official points of view
- In September 2012, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Prime Minister of Turkey, during a CNN interview with Christiane Amanpour was asked if they (Turkey) still wants to join the EU, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan responded by saying: "There are 5 million Turks in Europe and 3 million Turks in Germany alone. We are a natural member of the European Union. Germany invited Turkish workers 50 years ago, however 50 years have passed and we have waited at the European Union's doorstep. No other country has experienced such a thing. We will be patient until a point. However when we cross that point, we will bring light to the situation and decide accordingly." During a trip to Yalta, Erdoğan expressed his stern disappointment regarding the EU Accession process: "I have to mention this of course. We are at the EU's doorstep for 50 years, we are still not a member. We are still an EU negotiating candidate. At such a position, I wish EU accession. Otherwise, such a scenario would affect a large region including Ukraine and Turkey." On 7 June 2013 Turkey’s Undersecretary of the Ministry of EU Affairs Haluk Ilıcak said “The process means more than the accession. Once the necessary levels are achieved, Turkey is big enough to continue its development without the accession. Our aim is to achieve a smooth accession process.” Amid talks between Ukraine and the European Union on a stronger relationship between the Eastern European republic and the EU in Yalta in late September 2013, Turkish Minister for EU Affairs Egemen Bagis said he believed Turkey would never join the EU, but could have a "very closely aligned" relationship similar to Norway with the bloc.
- On 27 July 2010, David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, during a visit to Turkey has promised to "fight" for Turkey's membership of the European Union, saying he is "angry" at the slow pace of negotiations. He added that "a European Union without Turkey at its heart is not stronger but weaker... not more secure but less... not richer but poorer."
- On 4 November 2009, David Miliband, the Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom, during a visit to Turkey underlined the UK government's support for Turkey's bid to join the European Union, saying: "I am very clear that Turkish accession to the EU is important and will be of huge benefit to both Turkey and the EU."
- Former French President, Nicolas Sarkozy, unlike his predecessor, opposed the entrance of Turkey in the European Union, but wished Turkey to remain a partner of Europe. He also often mentioned geographical reasons to justify his position, thus saying "I do not believe that Turkey belongs to Europe, and for a simple reason: because it is in Asia Minor. What I wish to offer Turkey is a true partnership with Europe, but not integration into Europe".
- German Chancellor Angela Merkel has repeatedly opposed full membership of Turkey to the EU on German-Turkish summits, advocating instead a privileged partnership. In September 2011, on the occasion of the visit of the Turkish president Gül, Merkel said: "We don't want the full membership of Turkey. But we don't want to lose Turkey as an important country", referring to her idea of a strategic partnership. In 2006, Chancellor Merkel said "Turkey could be in deep, deep trouble when it comes to its aspirations to join the European Union" regarding its refusal to open up its ports to European Union member Cyprus. In February 2013 Merkel said "I believe we have a long negotiation road ahead of us. Although I am skeptical, I am for the continuation of the process and for opening a new chapter." Even some within Merkel's own Christian Democrats back fuller support for Turkey, risking the chancellor becoming more isolated in advocating for a "privileged partnership". EU Energy Commissioner Guenther Oettinger, a CDU member, said "I'd like to bet that within the next decade, a German chancellor along with their colleagues from France will go begging on their knees to Ankara saying 'friends come to us'". Ruprecht Polenz, head of the CDU's parliamentary foreign affairs committee, said: "it is clear to most people in my party that the idea of 'privileged partnership' is defunct." Guido Westerwelle said "We need to get new momentum in the negotiating process. If we aren't careful, the day will come when Europe's interest in Turkey is greater than Turkey's interest in Europe."
- On 3 July at an election rally of Christian Democrat Party in Duesseldorf, German Finance Minister Wolfgang Schäuble stated that Turkey should not join the European Union as it is not part of Europe.
- On 5 April 2009, Spanish Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero stated that "Spain firmly supports Turkey’s candidature to enter the EU, provided it meets the necessary requisites." Zapatero told Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan that "Spain’s position is 'firm, clear and solid' in favour of Turkey’s candidature to enter the European Union." "We must 'open the door' for Turkey to enter 'the EU peace and cooperation project', provided it meets the necessary requisites for integration," Zapatero added; before remarking that "Turkey’s entrance is good both for Turkey and for the EU."
- On 13 November 2008, the Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi urged the EU to "accelerate Turkey's membership bid" and pledged to "help Ankara gain accession." Berlusconi pledged to "try and win over those EU members resistant to Turkey’s application." "Regarding the opposition shown by certain countries – some of which are important countries – I am confident we will be able to convince them of the strategic importance of Turkey, within the European framework, as a country bordering the Middle East," Berlusconi declared.
- On 5 November 2008, the Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini declared that "the Italian government will support the inclusion of Turkey in the European Union with all its strength." He indicated that "the Italian Parliament will give a 'clear word' when necessary with the 'enormous majority' of the Berlusconi government, but also with 'the opposition' which it knows it can count on." "Turkey's inclusion will not be a problem, but it will be part of the solution for strengthening Europe in relations with other countries, such as the Caucasus region" he added.
- On 29 May 2009, the French President Nicolas Sarkozy cancelled a visit to Sweden scheduled for 2 June 2009, in order to avoid a clash on the question of Turkey's EU membership just a few days before the European elections and a month before Stockholm took over the EU's rotating presidency. The French President, who is an outspoken opponent of Turkey's entry to the European Union, did not want to highlight the strong divergence of views on this topic with Swedish Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt, the French newspaper Le Monde reported on 28 May 2009. Sweden favours further EU enlargement, including to Turkey. Swedish Foreign Minister Carl Bildt told the French newspaper Le Figaro that "the EU has 'a strategic interest' in Turkey's EU integration and warned against 'closing the door' to Ankara." "If we judge Cyprus to be in Europe, although it is an island along Syria's shores, it is hard not to consider that Turkey is in Europe," Mr Bildt said, referring to Mr Sarkozy's repeated statements that Turkey is not a European country and does not belong to Europe. In the Le Figaro interview, Mr Bildt said: "My vision of Europe is not as defensive as I observe it with other people." The French president's trip to Sweden was cancelled the day after the interview was published. "Nicolas Sarkozy cancelled his visit because of the Carl Bildt interview," one French minister told Le Monde. "The president wanted to avoid a clash on Turkey and did not want that his visit to Sweden interferes with the elections [five days later]."
- On 28 June 2007, Portuguese State Secretary for European Affairs Manuel Lobo Antunes affirmed that "Turkey should join the EU once it has successfully completed membership talks, which are likely to run for at least a decade." "We think it is important and fundamental that Turkey joins the European Union once it fulfils all the conditions and all the criteria," he said, adding that "Portugal aims in the next six months to 'put the process on track'."
- Czech Republic Prime Minister Petr Nečas said: "We continue to believe that Turkey should be given the chance to become a full-fledged member of the European Union after it meets all accession criteria". He described Turkey as an important partner to the EU and praised the constructive role it plays in the Middle East region.
- European Commission President José Manuel Barroso said that Turkey is not ready to join the EU "tomorrow nor the day after tomorrow", but its membership negotiations should continue. He also called on France and other member states to honour the decision to continue accession talks, describing it as a matter of credibility for the Union.
- The EU Progress Report from 9 November 2005 stated that:
"On 29 July 2005, Turkey signed the Additional Protocol adapting the EC Turkey Association Agreement to the accession of 10 new countries on 1 May 2004. At the same time, Turkey issued a declaration stating that signature of the Additional Protocol did not amount to recognition of the Republic of Cyprus. On 21 September, the EU adopted a counter-declaration indicating that Turkey’s declaration was unilateral, did not form part of the Protocol and had no legal effect on Turkey’s obligations under the Protocol. The EU declaration stressed that recognition of all Member States was a necessary component of the accession process. It also underlined the need for supporting the efforts of the Secretary General of the UN to bring about a comprehensive settlement of the Cyprus problem which would contribute to peace, stability and harmonious relations in the region."
- In November 2006, the European Commission members decided to suspend parts of the talks with Turkey regarding accession, as Turkish officials said that they will not open Turkish ports to traffic from Republic of Cyprus until the EU eases its embargo on Turkish-controlled northern Cyprus.
- In November 2009 Greek President Karolos Papoulias stated that he would not support Turkey's accession "as long as Ankara behaves as an occupying force in Cyprus."
- In a 2010 meeting with the Austrian Foreign Minister, United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton said “With respect to Turkey, the United States, along with many other countries in Europe, support the membership of Turkey inside the EU. I know that it is an issue that divides the European Union. We don’t have a vote, but if we were a member, we would be strongly in favor of it.”
- Foreign relations of the European Union
- Independent Commission on Turkey
- Turks in Europe
- The World Bank: World Development Indicators Database. Gross Domestic Product 2012, PPP. Last revised on 23 September 2013.
- "EU-Turkey relations". European Information on Enlargement & Neighbours. EurActiv.com. 23 September 2004. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
- In 1948, Turkey became one of the original 18 members of 'Organization for European Economic Co-operation' OEEC which became OECD in 1961 OECD convention
- "Interview with European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso on BBC Sunday AM" (PDF). European Commission. 15 October 2006. Archived from the original on 21 November 2006. Retrieved 17 December 2006.
- "Fifty Years On, Turkey Still Pines to Become European". TIME. 8 September 2009. Retrieved 8 September 2009.
- "Turkey and EU". Embassy of the Republic of Turkey (Washington, DC). Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- "Turkey and the Council of Europe". Council of Europe. 27 October 2006. Archived from the original on 7 December 2006. Retrieved 30 October 2006.
- "Greece and Turkey accede to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization". NATO Media Library. NATO. 18 February 1952. Archived from the original on 1 November 2006. Retrieved 30 October 2006.
- Ahıska, Meltem (2003) “Occidentalism: The Historical Fantasy of the Modern” South Atlantic Quarterly 102/2-3, Spring-Summer 2003 (Special Issue on Turkey: “Relocating the Fault Lines. Turkey Beyond the East-West Divide”), pp. 351–379.
- "About Turkey and the EU". Embassy of the Republic of Turkey in London. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- European Council: EU would open accession negotiations with Turkey
- Independent Commission on Turkey
- Today's Zaman: Turkey Starts Full Membership Negotiations with EU
- Turkey, with eye on EU, says determined to reform, EUbusiness, 15 March 2009
- EUobserver: Cyprus threatens to block EU deal on Turkey talks
- "The ins and outs: The EU's most effective foreign-policy instrument has been enlargement. But how far can it go?". The Economist. 17 March 2007. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- The Independent: EU freezes talks on Turkey membership
- Cyprus won't open EU accession chapters for Turkey (PSEKA)
- Fule urges Turkey to implement Additional Protocol
- Turkey tells EU it may postpone competition chapter if needed - Today's Zaman, your gateway to Turkish daily news
- Turkey sees bleak future for EU accession talks in 2012 - Today's Zaman, your gateway to Turkish daily news
- "Turkey: EU political benchmarks 'were never given to us'". eurActiv. 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-02-09.
- EU Commissioner Fule: Positive Agenda to put EU process back on track Anadolu Agency
- Turkey-EU Relations / Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- Bağış: 'Dört fasılda kapanış kriterlerini yerine getirdiğimizin teyidini aldık' | AB ve Türkiye | EurActiv.com.tr – Türkiye’nin online AB Gazetesi
- Kubosova, Lucia (30 March 2007). "Turkey targets 2013 for EU legal compliance". EUobserver. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
- Kubosova, Lucia (17 April 2007). "Brussels declines to endorse 2013 date for Turkey's EU entry". EUobserver. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
- "Interview with European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso on BBC Sunday AM" (PDF). Retrieved 13 April 2007.
- Coskun, Orhan; Hudson, Alexandra (31 October 2012). "Merkel reassures Turkey on EU talks, Erdogan raps Cyprus". Reuters. Retrieved 2012-11-04.
- Gül: 'Biz de AB üyeliğini referanduma götüreceğiz' | AB ve Türkiye | EurActiv.com.tr – Türkiye’nin online AB Gazetesi
- Dombey, Daniel, James Fontanella-Khan, and Quentin Peel (21 June 2013). "Germany blocks Turkey's bid to join EU". Financial Times. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "New Eurobarometer poll results show a drop in Turkish support for the EU". Hürriyet. Retrieved 2013-09-23.
- "Turkey welcomes new chapter in EU talks, wants more progress". Today's Zaman. 2011-11-05. Retrieved 2013-11-10.
- EU prepares road map to remove visa for Turks Hürriyet Daily News and Economic Review (29 September 2011)
- "Visa exemption in 3–4 years, says EU minister". Anatolia News Agency. Retrieved 25 July 2012.
- Çağlayan'dan vize uygulamasına tepki: 'AB insanlık suçu işliyor' | AB ve Türkiye | EurActiv.com.tr – Türkiye’nin online AB Gazetesi
- Dış Politika Enstitüsü
- EUobserver.com / Opinion / Being fair to Turkey is in the EU's interest
- ‘EU visa policy on Turkey is illegal,’ German-based advocacy group says - Today's Zaman, your gateway to Turkish daily news
- Visa restrictions are shutting Turkey out of the EU | Egemen Bağış | Comment is free | theguardian.com
- "Cecilia Malmström signs the Readmission Agreement and launches the Visa Liberalisation Dialogue with Turkey". European Commission. 2013-11-`6. Retrieved 2014-01-05.
- EU resumes Turkey accession talks, BBC News, 29 March 2007. Retrieved 29 March 2007.
- EU-Turkey to re-start entry talks, EUPolitix.com, 29 March 2007. Retrieved 29 March 2007.
- Turkish Entry Into Europe Slowed by Sarkozy Move, New York Times, 25 June 2007. Retrieved 25 June 2007.
- Defying France, EU opens two more chapters for accession, Zaman, 20 December 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2007.
- Future enlargements - Policy - Homepage - Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation
- EUobserver.com / Enlargement / Turkey takes small step forward in EU membership talks
- EUobserver.com / Enlargement / Cyprus fails to block EU step for Turkey
- Turkey to freeze EU ties if Cyprus gets EU presidency | Reuters
- Ve Fransa ilk adımı attı - Hürriyet PLANET
- EUROPE - France to assist Turkey in opening EU chapter
- Müzakerelerde 2.5 yıllık tıkanma sona eriyor: Fransa, 22. fasıldaki blokajı kaldıracak | AB ve Türkiye | EurActiv.com.tr – Türkiye’nin online AB Gazetesi
- "EU delays Turkey membership talks after German pressure". BBC. 2013-06-25. Retrieved 2013-06-25.
- including anti-discrimination and equal opportunities for women and men.
- "New EU chapter promises regional development in Turkey". Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "EU-Turkey membership talks in Brussels". Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "EU, Turkey restart membership talks". Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- Excluding Chapters 34 (Institutions) and 35 (Other Issues) since these are not legislation chapters.
- "Turkey and the European Union, Just Another Enlargement?", by Kirsty Hughes
- The future of the European Union, The Economist Magazine, May 26 2012
- Van Rompuy, "Turkey will never be part of Europe", by Leigh Phillips 18 November 2009
- Stratfor: "Turkey and Russia on the Rise", by Reva Bhalla, Lauren Goodrich and Peter Zeihan. 17 March 2009.
- Stratfor: "The Geopolitics of Turkey", by George Friedman. 31 July 2007.
- Öymen, Onur (29 June 1999). "Turkey". My Country & NATO. NATO. Archived from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
- "Growing worries in the West over the risk of losing Turkey". Economist: Turkey, America and Europe. 28 September 2006. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- Mango, Andrew (2000). Ataturk. Overlook. ISBN 1-58567-011-1.[page needed]
- Shaw, Stanford Jay; Kural Shaw, Ezel (1977). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29163-1.[page needed]
- Ekman, Ivar (11 December 2006). "Top Swedish official backs Turkey for EU". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 3 July 2007.
- "Britain's Queen Elizabeth's visit to Turkey continues". Hürriyet. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
- "Turkey has no place in EU: Sarkozy". Retrieved 13 April 2007.
- Europeans against Turkey in EU: Poll
- Germany's Merkel Opposed to Turkey's Full EU Membership
- Islam is the religion of 5% to 10% of French citizens, however the majority of the prisoners are Muslims; see for instance this article from the Washington Post
- EurActiv.com – French Parliament strikes blow to Turkish EU bid | EU – European Information on Enlargement & Neighbours
- French Senate ends Sarkozy plan to block Turkey « The Turko File
- Kubilay Yado Arin: The AKP's Foreign Policy. Turkey's Reorientation from the West to the East? Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Berlin, Berlin 2013, pp. 57-84.
- The World Bank: World Development Indicators Database. Gross Domestic Product 2012. Last revised on 1 July 2013.
- Kaminski, Bartolomiej; Ng, Francis (1 May 2006). "Turkey's evolving trade integration into Pan-European markets" (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved 27 December 2006.
- CIA World Factbook: Turkey
- "2006–2007 Seçilmiş Ülkeler İstatistikleri" (in Turkish). Gümrükler Genel Müdürlüğü. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
- "Turkey puts 2008 export target at 125 bln dollars". Xinhua (People's Daily Online). 2 January 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2008.
- "Turkey unhappy at EU talks delay". BBC News. 26 June 2007. Archived from the original on 16 July 2007. Retrieved 3 July 2007.
- "Turkey at a glance" (PDF). World Bank. 13 August 2006. Archived from the original on 10 December 2006. Retrieved 10 December 2006.
- "Data and Statistics for Turkey". World Bank. 2005. Retrieved 10 December 2006.
- "Turkey – Population and Demographics". Intute. July 2006. Retrieved 10 December 2006.
- The Economist: "Turkey, America and Europe: Who is losing Turkey?"
- Cook, Chris; Diccon Bewes (1997). What Happened Where: A Guide to Places and Events in Twentieth-century History. Routledge. p. 65. ISBN 1-85728-533-6.
- Mallinson, William (30 June 2005). Cyprus: A Modern History. I. B. Tauris. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-85043-580-8.
- "Greece calls on Turkey to pull out of Cyprus". Daily Telegraph. 9 September 2010.
- BBC Analysis: EU views on Turkish bid
- Panagopoulis, A. (18 December 2006). "Karamanlis Hails EU's 'Historic' Decision to Admit Bulgaria, Romania". Greek News. Retrieved 13 April 2007.
- "Turkey – 2005 Progress Report" (PDF) (Press release). European Commission. 11 August 2005. Archived from the original on 30 June 2007. Retrieved 6 July 2007.
- O'Toole, Pam (29 October 2003). "Headscarf row goes to Turkey's roots". BBC News. Archived from the original on 28 August 2008. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
- Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs – Background Note: Turkey
- "Turkey". International Religious Freedom Report. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. U.S. State Dept. 15 September 2006. Archived from the original on 13 August 2008. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- Shankland, David (2003). The Alevis in Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7007-1606-8.[page needed]
- "Kosovo – Towards European integration". 6 October 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- "Social values, Science and Technology" (PDF). Eurobarometer. June 2005. Archived from the original on 14 January 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2006.
- Duzel, Nese (10 October 2005). "Alevilik İslamiyet'in içinde değil". Radikal (in Turkish). Retrieved 26 August 2008.
- O'Toole, Pam (29 October 2003). "Headscarf row goes to Turkey's roots". BBC News. Archived from the original on 18 November 2006. Retrieved 13 December 2006.
- "The Islamic veil across Europe". BBC News. 17 November 2006. Retrieved 13 December 2006.
- Registrar (10 November 2005). "Leyla Şahin v. Turkey" (Press release). European Court of Human Rights. Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- "Turkey 'must admit Armenia dead'". British Broadcasting Network (BBC). 13 December 2004. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "Genocide Recognition Precondition to Turkey’s EU Bid, Says Euro-Parliament President". Asbarez. September 18, 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- European Parliament critical of slowdown in Turkey's reform process
- Spain Says No: Genocide bill rejected
- Dymond, Jonny (13 September 2005). "EU blasts Turkish author's trial". BBC News. Retrieved 6 July 2007.
- "Turkey insult law 'may be dumped'". BBC News. 28 December 2005. Retrieved 6 July 2007.
- "New EU warning on Turkey reforms". BBC News. 27 September 2006. Retrieved 8 July 2007.
- BBC: EU hails Turkey free speech move. 30 April 2008.
- "In Turkey, ultra-nationalist lawyer wins supporters as enthusiasm for the EU falls". International Herald Tribune. Associated Press. 5 September 2006. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
- Akyol, Mustafa (26 January 2008). "The Turkish Leviathan under arrest?". Turkish Daily News. Archived from the original on 5 April 2008. Retrieved 22 April 2008.
- Sabrina Tavernise (28 January 2008). 13 Arrested in Push to Stifle Turkish Ultranationalists Suspected in Political Killings. New York Times.
- Plot to kill Orhan Pamuk foiled. Times of India. 25 January 2008
- Lea, Richard (28 January 2008). "'Plot to kill' Nobel laureate". Guardian: Books. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- "Women's rights in Turkey: MEPs say improvements still needed" (Press release). European Parliament. 13 February 2007. Retrieved 13 April 2007.
- Popham, Peter (7 June 2006). "Leading Turkish writer faces jail after incurring wrath of military". Independent. Retrieved 13 April 2007.
- "European Commission: Eurobarometer 66 – Public Opinion in the European Union, Sep–Oct 2006, p.223" (PDF). Retrieved 1 September 2007.
- "European Commission: Special Eurobarometer 255 – Attitudes towards EU Enlargement., July 2006, p. 72" (PDF). Archived from the original on 23 August 2006. Retrieved 5 September 2006.
- "Disagreement over Turkish EU membership". Copenhagen Post. 22 October 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2007.[dead link]
- "The ever lengthening road". Economist. 7 December 2006. Retrieved 4 July 2007.
- "New Eurobarometer poll results show a drop in Turkish support for the EU". Hurriyet. Retrieved 13 April 2007.
- "Support for EU Accession Increases in Turkey". Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- "Türkler AB'ye rağmen AB'yi istiyor". Radikal. Retrieved 18 May 2013.
- "Turkey losing appetite for EU bid, says survey". January 26, 2013. Retrieved August 18, 2013.
- Transatlantic Trends | Key Findings
- Transatlantic Trends | Key Findings
- Transatlantic Trends | Key Findings
- Bağış: Fransa'nın tutumunda değişimin başladığını görüyoruz | AB ve Türkiye | EurActiv.com.tr – Türkiye’nin online AB Gazetesi
- Erdoğan: 'AB konusunda bir yere kadar sabredeceğiz' | AB ve Türkiye | EurActiv.com.tr – Türkiye’nin online AB Gazetesi
- Erdoğan: 'AB'nin güçsüz düşmesi geniş bir coğrafyayı olumsuz etkiler' | AB ve Türkiye | EurActiv.com.tr – Türkiye’nin online AB Gazetesi
- POLITICS - Turkey’s EU process an end in itself, says Turkish diplomat
- "Turkey 'will probably never be EU member'". Telegraph. 21 September 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
- "Cameron 'anger' at slow pace of Turkish EU negotiations". BBC News. 27 July 2010.
- David Miliband is visiting Turkey on 4 and 5 November
- Sarkozy : La France et l’Asie mineure - Turquie Européenne
- FAZ: Kanzlerin in Ankara: Merkel lehnt EU-Beitritt der Türkei weiter ab, 29 March 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2011
- Die Welt: Vor Treffen mit Gül: Merkel lehnt EU-Mitgliedschaft der Türkei ab, 20 September 2011. Retrieved 22 September 2011
- Merkel Worried about Turkey: Situation Is "Very, Very Serious" - SPIEGEL ONLINE
- Merkel Calls for New Talks With Turkey on EU Role - WSJ.com
- Merkel backs new EU talks for Turkey but has doubts | Reuters
- EUROPE - German minister’s EU remarks on Turkey ‘unacceptable’
- German finance minister says Turkey is not part of Europe | Reuters
- La Moncloa – Spanish Government: Spain supports Turkey’s candidature to the EU
- Euronews: Italy urges EU to speed up Turkey's application
- ANSAmed: ITALY-TURKEY: FRATTINI, WE STRONGLY SUPPORT EU MEMBERSHIP
- EUobserver: Sarkozy cancels Sweden visit over Turkey
- EUbusiness: Portugal rejects major EU debate on Turkey this year
- Business between Czech companies and Turkey on the rise | Government of the Czech Republic
- "Barroso says Turkey not ready for EU membership, urges continued negotiations". Zaman, Javno.hr, DPA, Reuters (Southeast European Times). 22 July 2007.[unreliable source?]
- "Final Progress Report for Turkey" (PDF). Retrieved 13 April 2007.
- "EU urged to freeze Turkey talks". BBC News. 29 November 2006. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
- State Department Website: Remarks with Austrian Foreign Minister Michael Spindelegger After Their Meeting, November 16, 2010
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Republic of Turkey Secretariat General for EU Affairs
- Myths and Facts about Enlargement, European Commission.
- Turkey: key documents, European Commission.
- Turkey's Chief Negotiator for the EU Egemen Bağış: "We Perceive Europe as a Union of Values"
- 2012 Progress Report