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An accident or a mishap is an incidental and unplanned event or circumstance, often with lack of intention or necessity. It usually implies a generally negative outcome which might have been avoided or prevented had circumstances leading up to the accident been recognized, and acted upon, prior to its occurrence. Injury prevention refers to activities designed to foresee and avoid accidents.
Accidents of particularly common types (crashing of automobiles, events causing fire, etc.) are investigated to identify how to avoid them in the future. This is sometimes called root cause analysis, but does not generally apply to accidents that cannot be deterministically predicted. A root cause of an uncommon and purely random accident may never be identified, and thus future similar accidents remain "accidental."
Physical and non-physical
Physical examples of accidents include unintended collisions or falls, being injured by touching something sharp, hot, or electrical, or ingesting poison. Non-physical examples are unintentionally revealing a secret or otherwise saying something incorrectly, forgetting an appointment, etc.
- Accidents during the execution of work or arising out of it are called work accidents. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), more than 337 million accidents happen on the job each year, resulting, together with occupational diseases, in more than 2.3 million deaths annually.
- In contrast, leisure-related accidents are mainly sports injuries.
- Aviation accidents
- Bicycle accidents
- Sailing ship accidents
- Traffic collisions
- Train wrecks
- Tram accidents
Most common causes
Traffic accidents and falls are the most common causes of physical traumas or injuries leading to hospital care. According to a 2005 survey of injuries sustained at home, which used data from the National Vital Statistics System of the United States National Center for Health Statistics, falls, poisoning, and fire/burn injuries are the most common causes of death.
The United States also collects statistically valid injury data (sampled from 100 hospitals) through the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System administered by the Consumer Product Safety Commission. This program was revised in 2000 to include all injuries rather than just injuries involving products. Data on emergency room visits is also collected through the National Health Interview Survey. In The U.S. the Bureau of Labor Statistics has available on their website extensive statistics on workplace accidents.
Many models to characterize and analyze accidents have been proposed, listed and referenced in this reference.
Other specific topics
- "ILO Safety and Health at Work". International Labour Organization (ILO)
- Runyan CW, Casteel C, Perkis D et al. (January 2005). "Unintentional injuries in the home in the United States Part I: mortality". Am J Prev Med 28 (1): 73–9. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2004.09.010. PMID 15626560.
- CPSC. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Database query available through: NEISS Injury Data.
- NCHS. Emergency Department Visits. CDC.
- Taylor, G.A., Easter, K.M., Hegney, R.P. (2004). Enhancing Occupational Safety and Health. Elsevier. pp. 241–245, see also pages 140–141 and pages 147–153, also on Kindle. ISBN 0750661976.
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