Temporal range: Eocene-Recent, 47–0Ma
|Red-tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis|
The Accipitriformes is an order that has been proposed to include most of the diurnal birds of prey: hawks, eagles, vultures, and many others, about 225 species in all. For a long time, the majority view has been to include them with the falcons in the Falconiformes, but some authorities have recognized a separate Accipitriformes. A recent DNA study has indicated that falcons are not closely related to the Accipitriformes, being instead related to parrots and passerines. Since then the split (but not the placement of the falcons next to the parrots or passerines) has been adopted by the American Ornithologists' Union's South American Classification Committee (SACC), its North American Classification Committee (NACC), and the International Ornithological Congress (IOC).
The DNA-based proposal and the NACC and IOC classifications include the New World vultures in the Accipitriformes, an approach followed in this article. The SACC classifies the New World vultures as a separate order. The placement of the New World vultures has been unclear since the early 1990s.
Falcons unlike other birds of prey never build nests of their own. They simply uses old bird nests instead, or lay their eggs at a cliff or construction without preparation. Falcons also have a jack in their beak (sometimes referred to as "a tooth"), which is absent in other birds of prey.
Accipitriformes are known from the Middle Eocene (the possibly basal genus Masillaraptor from the Messel Pit) and typically have a sharply hooked beak with a cere (soft mass) on the proximodorsal surface, housing the nostrils. Their wings are long and fairly broad, suitable for soaring flight, with the outer 4–6 primaries emarginated.
Accipitriformes have strong legs and feet with raptorial claws and an opposable hind claw. Almost all Accipitriformes are carnivorous, hunting by sight during the day or at twilight. They are exceptionally long-lived, and most have low reproductive rates.
The young have a long, very fast-growing fledgling stage, followed by 3–8 weeks of nest care after first flight, and 1 to 3 years as sexually immature adults. The sexes have conspicuously different sizes and sometimes a female is more than twice as heavy as her mate. This sexual dimorphism is sometimes most extreme in specialized bird-eaters, such as the Accipiter hawks, and borders on non-existent among the vultures. Monogamy is the general rule, although an alternative mate is often selected if one dies.
The Accipitriformes are among the most diverse orders in size, from the small sparrowhawks to the biggest Old World vultures, and the somewhat bigger Andean Condor (possibly the largest flying bird extant) if the Cathartidae are included.
- Accipitridae (buzzards, eagles, harriers, hawks, kites, Old World vultures)
- Cathartidae (New World vultures including condors)
- Pandionidae (Osprey)
- Sagittariidae (Secretary Bird)
- Voous 1973.
- Cramp 1980, pp. 3, 277.
- Ferguson-Lees & Christie 2001, p. 69.
- Christidis & Boles 2008, pp. 50–51.
- Hackett et al 2008.
- Remsen, Cadena & Jaramillo Nores.
- Chesser et al. 2010.
- Gill Donsker.
- Hackett et al. 2008.
- Well known. But f.i. Swedish digital encyclopedia "NE2000", article "falkar" This article states in a picture text "Falkar bygger inte själva något bo.." English "Falcons do not build any nests themselves.."
- Chesser, R. T.; Banks, R. C.; Barker, F. K.; Cicero, C.; Dunn, J. L.; Kratter, A. W.; Lovette, I. J.; Rasmussen, P. C.; Remsen, Jr, J. V.; Rising, J. D.; Stotz, D. F.; Winker, K. (2010). "Fifty-First Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds" (pdf). The Auk 127 (3): 726–744. doi:10.1525/auk.2010.127.3.726. Retrieved 2011-05-26.
- Christidis, Les; Boles, Walter E. (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 0-643-06511-3. Retrieved 2010-01-14. Includes a review of recent literature on the controversy.
- Cramp, Stanley (1980). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palearctic – Hawks to Bustards. Oxford University Press. pp. 3, 277. ISBN 0-19-857505-X.
- Ferguson-Lees, James; Christie, David A. (2001). Raptors of the World. Illustrated by Kim Franklin, David Mead, and Philip Burton. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-618-12762-7. Retrieved 2011-05-26.
- Gill, Frank; Donsker, D. "IOC World Bird List (version 2.4)". Worldbirdnames.org. Archived from the original on 24 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-12.
- Hackett, S. J.; Kimball, R. T.; Reddy, S.; Bowie, R. C. K.; Braun, E. L.; Braun, M. J.; Chojnowski, J. L.; Cox, W. A.; Han, K. -L.; Harshman, J.; Huddleston, C. J.; Marks, B. D.; Miglia, K. J.; Moore, W. S.; Sheldon, F. H.; Steadman, D. W.; Witt, C. C.; Yuri, T. (2008). "A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their Evolutionary History". Science 320 (5884): 1763–1768. doi:10.1126/science.1157704. PMID 18583609. Retrieved 2011-05-26.
- Remsen, J. V., Jr.; Cadena, C. D.; Jaramillo, A.; Nores, M.; J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, T. S. Schulenberg, F. G. Stiles, D. F. Stotz, and K. J. Zimmer. "A classification of the bird species of South America (section "ACCIPITRIDAE (HAWKS) 3" note 1)". Version 11 December 2008. American Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
- Voous, K. H. (1973). "List of Recent Holarctic Bird Species Non-Passerines". Ibis 115 (4): 612–638. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1973.tb02004.x.