Accolade

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King John II of France in a ceremony of "adoubement", early 15th century miniature

In the Middle Ages, the accolade (also known as dubbing or adoubement) was the central act in the rite of passage ceremonies conferring knighthood.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

Ceremony[edit]

The accolade is a ceremony to confer knighthood that may take many forms including, for example, the tapping of the flat side of a sword on the shoulders of a candidate[1][8] or an embrace about the neck. In the first example, the "knight-elect" kneels in front of the monarch on a knighting-stool when the ceremony is performed.[1] First, the monarch lays the side of the sword's blade onto the accolade's right shoulder.[1] They then raise the sword gently just up over the apprentice's head and places it then on his left shoulder.[1] The new knight then stands up after being promoted, and the King or Queen presents him with the insignia of his new order.[1] Contrary to popular belief, the phrase "Arise, Sir ..." is not used.[9]

There is some disagreement amongst historians on the actual ceremony and in what time period certain methods could have been used. It could have been an embrace or a slight blow on the neck or cheek. Gregory of Tours wrote that the early kings of France, in conferring the gilt shoulder-belt, kissed the knights on the left cheek. In knighting his son Henry, with the ceremony of the accolade, history records that William the Conqueror used the blow.[4]

The blow, or colée, when first utilized was given with a naked fist. It was a forceful box on the ear or neck that one would remember. This was later substituted for by a gentle stroke with the flat part of the sword against the side of the neck. This then developed into the custom of tapping on either the right or left shoulder or both, which is still the tradition in Great Britain today.[4]

An early Germanic coming-of-age ceremony, of presenting a youth with a weapon that was buckled on him, was elaborated in the 10th and 11th centuries as a sign that the minor had come of age. Initially this was a simple rite often performed on the battlefield, where writers of Romance enjoyed placing it. A panel in the Bayeux Tapestry shows the knighting of Harold by William of Normandy, but the specific gesture is not clearly represented. Another military knight (commander of an army), sufficiently impressed by a warrior's loyalty, would strike a fighting soldier on the head or his back and shoulder with his hand and announce that he was now an official knight.[1] Some words that might be spoken at that moment were Advances Chevalier au nom de Dieu.[1]

In medieval France, early ceremonies of the adoubement were purely secular and indicated a young noble gaining the right to govern a fief. Around 1200, these ceremonies began to include elements of Christian ritual (such as a night spent in prayers, prior to the rite ).[10]

The increasingly impressive ceremonies surrounding adoubement figured largely in the Romance literature, both in French and in Middle English, particularly those set in the Trojan War or around the legendary personage of Alexander the Great.[11]

In the Netherlands the knights in the exclusive Military Order of William (the Dutch "Victoria Cross") are struck on both shoulders with the palm of the hand, first by the Dutch monarch (if present) then by the other knights. The new knight does not kneel.[12]

King George VI knights General Sir Oliver Leese in the field, 1944.

Promotion steps[edit]

The process of becoming a knight generally included these stages:

  • Page — A child started training at about the age of seven or eight, learning obedience, manners, and other skills.[5]
  • Squire — At 12 to 14 the young man would observe and help other knights (comparable to an apprenticeship). He would learn fighting techniques by handing them their arrows and watching how they fought. He would also go hunting with other knights to learn how to use weapons.[5] He would go into recruit training to learn how to become a military fighter. At age 21, if worthy, he was bestowed the accolade of knighthood.[5]
  • Knight — A special kind of trained soldier, often cavalry, serving a lord (nobleman or royalty). Knights had particular status in feudal society.[5]

Other meanings[edit]

Accolade was first used in 1611 and is French, from the Occitan acolada. This, in turn, came from the Latin ad ("to") + collum ("neck") and in Occitan originally meant "embrace".[8][13]

Accolade is akin to "dubbing" or "to dub" [1] since the tap on the shoulder with the sword is accepted to be the point at which the title is awarded.[8][14]

Clergy receiving a knighthood are not dubbed. The use of a sword in this kind of a ceremony is believed to be inappropriate.[1]

From about 1852, the meaning of "accolade" was extended to mean "praise" or "award" or "honor."[8][13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Royal insights". Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  2. ^ "Knighthood, Chivalry & Tournament -Glossary of Terms (letter "A")". Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  3. ^ "Knighthood, Chivalry & Tournament -Glossary of Terms (letter "K")". Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  4. ^ a b c  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Accolade". Encyclopædia Britannica 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 121. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Castle Life - The International History Project". Archived from the original on 22 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  6. ^ "Knighthood and the Knightly Orders". Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  7. ^ "Page, Squire, and Knight". Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  8. ^ a b c d "Dictionary online reference". Archived from the original on 19 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-18. 
  9. ^ "Queen and Honours: Knighthoods". The British Monarchy. Retrieved 2011-12-31. 
  10. ^ Dominique Barthélemy, L'Ordre seigneurial: XIe - XIIe siècle, Collection: Nouvelle histoire de la France moderne, vol. 3, Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1990, p.190. ISBN 2-02-011554-9
  11. ^ Ackerman, Robert W. "The Knighting Ceremonies in the Middle English Romances." Speculum 19(3): July 1944, 285-313, compared the abbreviated historical accounts with the sometimes fancifully elaborated episodes in the romances.
  12. ^ Moed en Trouw door J. Van Zelm van Eldik
  13. ^ a b "Accolade etymology". Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  14. ^ Dobson, Richard Barrie (2000). Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. ISBN 978-1-57958-282-1. Retrieved 2008-05-19. 
  • Bloch, Marc: Feudal Society, tr. Manyon. London: Routledge, Keagn Paul (1965)
  • Boulton, D'Arcy Jonathan Dacre. The Knights of the Crown: the Monarchical Orders of Knighthood in Later Medieval Europe, 1325-1520. 2d revised ed. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 2000.
  • Keen, Maurice; Chivalry, Yale University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-300-03150-5
  • Robards, Brooks; The Medieval Knight at War, UK: Tiger Books, 1997, ISBN 1-85501-919-1

External links[edit]