Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis

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Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis
EBPR FISH Floc.jpg
Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (blue cells)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Betaproteobacteria
Order: Unclassified
Family: Candidatus Accumulibacter

Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (CAP) is an unclassified Betaproteobacteria that is a common bacterial community member of wastewater treatment plants performing Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR)[1] and is a Polyphosphate-accumulating organisms. The role of CAP in EBPR was elucidated using culture-independent approaches such as 16S rRNA clone banks that showed that the Betaproteobacteria dominated lab-scale EBPR reactors.[2] Further work using clone banks and Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) identified a group of bacteria, closely related to Rhodocyclus as the dominant member of lab-scale communities.[3][4]

Phylogeny[edit]

There are currently no cultured isolates of CAP and so the phylogeny of CAP strains is based purely of molecular biology techniques. To date the polyphosphate kinase (ppk1)[5] and the PHA synthase (phaC) [6] genes have been used to characterise CAP populations at a higher resolution that 16S rRNA. The ppk1 phylogeny is more frequently used and groups CAP into two major divisions: Type I and Type II. Each of these types has a number of clades that are given a letter designation, e.g. IA, IIA, IIB, IIC. An environmental survey of wastewater treatment plants and natural waterways in California and Wisconsin in the USA revealed that there were at least five CAP I (IA .. IE) clades and seven CAP II (IIA .. IIG) clades.[7]

Metabolism[edit]

CAP is yet to be cultured, however the ability to enrich lab-scale EBPR communities with up to 80% CAP [8] has enabled research into its metabolism using meta-omic approaches.[9][10][11] EBPR is generally associated with three stages: anaerobic, aerobic and settling. For CAP to dominate in EBPR reactors, they must be able to thrive under these conditions. During the anaerobic phase CAP can take up volatile fatty acids and store this simple carbon source intracellularly as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA). At the same time intracellular polyphosphate is degraded to form ATP, releasing phosphate into the media. During the subsequent aerobic phase PHA is used for energy production and phosphate is taken up from the media to form polyphosphate.[1][12] Genomic reconstruction from an EBPR reactor enriched with CAP IIA revealed that it contains two different types of phosphate transporters, the high affinity Pst and low affinity Pit transporters and well as utilising the Embden Meyerhof (EM) glycogen degradation pathway.[9] Furthermore the CAP IIA genome contains nitrogen and CO2 fixation genes, which indicate that CAP has adapted to environments limited in carbon and nitrogen. One interesting discrepancy between the genomic data and reactor performance data was the lack of a functional respiratory nitrate reductase gene. Previous work had shown that CAP could use nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor [13] however the genomic data indicated that the periplasmic nitrate reductase gene could not function in the electron transport chain as it lacked the necessary quinol reductase subunit. To resolve these issues lab-scale EBPR reactors enriched with CAP IA and CAP IIA were tested for their nitrate reduction capabilities.[14] Interestingly, CAP IA was able to couple nitrate reduction to phosphate uptake while the genomically characterised CAP IIA could not.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Seviour RJ, Mino T, Onuki M (April 2003). "The microbiology of biological phosphorus removal in activated sludge systems.". FEMS Microbiol Rev. 27 (1): 99–127. doi:10.1016/s0168-6445(03)00021-4. PMID 12697344. 
  2. ^ Bond PL, Hugenholtz P, Keller J, Blackall LL (1995). "Bacterial community structures of phosphate-removing and non-phosphate-removing activated sludges from sequencing batch reactors". Appl Environ Microbiol. 61 (5): 1910–1916. PMC 167453. PMID 7544094. 
  3. ^ Hesselmann RP, Werlen C, Hahn D, van der Meer JR, Zehnder AJ (September 1999). "Enrichment, phylogenetic analysis and detection of a bacterium that performs enhanced biological phosphate removal in activated sludge". Syst Appl Microbiol. 22 (3): 454–465. doi:10.1016/s0723-2020(99)80055-1. PMID 10553298. 
  4. ^ Crocetti GR, Hugenholtz P, Bond PL, Schuler A, Keller J, Jenkins D, Blackall LL (2000). "Identification of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms and design of 16S rRNA-directed probes for their detection and quantitation". Appl Environ Microbiol. 66 (3): 1175–1182. doi:10.1128/aem.66.3.1175-1182.2000. PMC 91959. PMID 10698788. 
  5. ^ He S, Gall DL, McMahon KD (2007). ""Candidatus Accumulibacter" population structure in enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludges as revealed by polyphosphate kinase genes". Appl Environ Microbiol. 73 (18): 5865–5874. doi:10.1128/AEM.01207-07. PMC 2074919. PMID 17675445. 
  6. ^ Wang Q, Shao Y, Huong VT, Park WJ, Park JM, Jeon CO (2008). "Fine-scale population structure of Accumulibacter phosphatis in enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludge". J Microbiol Biotechnol. 18 (7): 1290–1297. PMID 18667859. 
  7. ^ Peterson SB, Warnecke F, Madejska J, McMahon KD, Hugenholtz P (2008). "Environmental distribution and population biology of Candidatus Accumulibacter, a primary agent of biological phosphorus removal". Environ Microbiol. 10 (10): 2692–2703. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2008.01690.x. PMC 2561248. PMID 18643843. 
  8. ^ Lu H, Oehmen A, Virdis B, Keller J, Yuan Z (2006). "Obtaining highly enriched cultures of Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphates through alternating carbon sources". Water Res. 40 (20): 3838–3848. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2006.09.004. PMID 17070894. 
  9. ^ a b García Martín H, Ivanova N, Kunin V, Warnecke F, Barry KW, McHardy AC, Yeates C, He S, Salamov AA, Szeto E, Dalin E, Putnam NH, Shapiro HJ, Pangilinan JL, Rigoutsos I, Kyrpides NC, Blackall LL, McMahon KD, Hugenholtz P (2006). "Metagenomic analysis of two enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) sludge communities". Nat Biotechnol. 24 (10): 1263–1269. doi:10.1038/nbt1247. PMID 16998472. 
  10. ^ Wilmes P, Wexler M, Bond PL (2008). "Metaproteomics provides functional insight into activated sludge wastewater treatment". PLoS ONE 3 (3): e1778. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001778. PMC 2289847. PMID 18392150. 
  11. ^ He S, Kunin V, Haynes M, Martin HG, Ivanova N, Rohwer F, Hugenholtz P, McMahon KD (2010). "Metatranscriptomic array analysis of 'Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis'-enriched enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludge". Environ Microbiol. 12 (5): 1205–1217. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2010.02163.x. PMID 20148930. 
  12. ^ Oehmen A, Lemos PC, Carvalho G, Yuan Z, Keller J, Blackall LL, Reis MA (June 2007). "Advances in enhanced biological phosphorus removal: from micro to macro scale". Water Res. 41 (11): 2271–2300. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2007.02.030. PMID 17434562. 
  13. ^ Kong Y, Nielsen JL, Nielsen PH (2004). "Microautoradiographic study of Rhodocyclus-related polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria in full-scale enhanced biological phosphorus removal plants". Appl Environ Microbiol. 70 (9): 5383–5390. doi:10.1128/AEM.70.9.5383-5390.2004. PMC 520863. PMID 15345424. 
  14. ^ Flowers JJ, He S, Yilmaz S, Noguera DR, McMahon KD (2009). "Denitrification capabilities of two biological phosphorus removal sludges dominated by different "Candidatus Accumulibacter" clades". Environ Microbiol Rep. 1 (6): 583–588. doi:10.1111/j.1758-2229.2009.00090.x. PMC 2929836. PMID 20808723.