Acenaphthene

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Acenaphthene
Skeletal formula
Ball-and-stick model
Names
IUPAC name
1,2-Dihydroacenaphthylene
Other names
1,8-Ethylenenaphthalene
peri-Ethylenenaphthalene
Naphthyleneethylene
Tricyclo[6.3.1.04,12]dodecapentaene
Identifiers
83-32-9 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:22154 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL1797271 N
ChemSpider 6478 YesY
EC number 201-469-6
Jmol-3D images Image
Image
KEGG C19312 N
PubChem 6734
RTECS number AB1000000
UNII V8UT1GAC5Y YesY
UN number 3077
Properties
C12H10
Molar mass 154.21 g·mol−1
Appearance White or pale yellow crystalline powder
Density 1.024 g/cm3
Melting point 93.4 °C (200.1 °F; 366.5 K)
Boiling point 279 °C (534 °F; 552 K)
0.4 mg/100 ml
Solubility in ethanol slight
Solubility in chloroform slight
Solubility in benzene very soluble
Solubility in acetic acid soluble
Hazards
MSDS ICSC 1674
EU Index Not listed
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oil Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calcium Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 135 °C (275 °F; 408 K)
450 °C (842 °F; 723 K)
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N verify (what isYesY/N?)
Infobox references

Acenaphthene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) consisting of naphthalene with an ethylene bridge connecting positions 1 and 8. It is a colourless solid. Coal tar consists of about 0.3% of this compound.[1]

Production and reactions[edit]

Acenaphthene was prepared the first time from coal tar by Marcellin Berthelot. Later Berthelot and Bardy synthesized the compound by cyclization of α-ethylnaphthalene. Industrially, it is still obtained from coal tar together with its derivative acenaphthylene (and many other compounds).

Like other arenes, acenaphthene forms complexes with low valent metal centers. One example is (η6-acenaphthene)Mn(CO)3]+.[2] Chemical reduction affords the radical anion sodium acenaphthylenide, which is used as a strong reductant (E = -1.75 V vs NHE).[3]

Uses[edit]

It is used on a large scale to prepare naphthalene dicarboxylic anhydride, which is a precursor to dyes and optical brighteners.[1] Naphthalene dicarboxylic anhydride is the precursor to perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride, precursor to several commercial pigments and dyes.[4][5]

Pig29route.png

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Karl Griesbaum, Arno Behr, Dieter Biedenkapp, Heinz-Werner Voges, Dorothea Garbe, Christian Paetz, Gerd Collin, Dieter Mayer, Hartmut Höke “Hydrocarbons” in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2002 Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a13_227
  2. ^ S. B. Kim, S. Lotz, S. Sun, Y. K. Chung, R. D. Pike, D. A. Sweigart "Manganese Tricarbonyl Transfer (MTT) Agents" Inorganic Syntheses, 2010, Vol. 35, 109–128, . doi:10.1002/9780470651568.ch6
  3. ^ N. G. Connelly and W. E. Geiger, "Chemical Redox Agents for Organometallic Chemistry", Chem. Rev. 1996, 96, 877-910. doi:10.1021/cr940053x
  4. ^ K. Hunger. W. Herbst "Pigments, Organic" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2012. doi:10.1002/14356007.a20_371
  5. ^ Greene, M. "Perylene Pigments" in High Performance Pigments, 2009, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. pp. 261-274.doi:10.1002/9783527626915.ch16

External links[edit]