|Traded as||LSE: ACID TWSE: 2353|
|Founded||1976 (as Multitech)|
|Founder(s)||Stan Shih et al.|
|Headquarters||Xizhi, New Taipei, Taiwan|
|Key people||Stan Shih
(Chairman and President)
|Products||Desktops, laptops, netbooks, servers, smartphones, tablet computers, storage, handhelds, monitors, televisions, video projectors, e-business|
|Revenue||US$16.18 billion (2011)|
|Net income||US$-225.3 million (2011)|
|Subsidiaries||Acer America Corporation
Acer Computer Australia
Acer Inc. (//; Chinese: 宏碁股份有限公司; pinyin: Hóngqi Gǔfèn Yǒuxiàn Gōngsī, lit. Hongji Corporation) is a Taiwanese multinational hardware and electronics corporation headquartered in Xizhi, New Taipei City, Taiwan. Acer's products include inexpensive desktop and laptop PCs, tablet computers, servers, storage devices, displays, smartphones and peripherals. It also provides e-business services to businesses, governments and consumers. In 2012 Acer was the fourth largest personal computer vendor in the world.
In the early 2000s, Acer implemented a new business model, shifting from a manufacturer to a designer, marketer and distributor of products, while performing production processes via contract manufacturers.
- 1 History
- 2 Acquisitions
- 3 Figures
- 4 Operations
- 5 Linux
- 6 Products
- 6.1 Business desktops
- 6.2 Business notebooks
- 6.3 Chromebooks
- 6.4 Computer displays
- 6.5 Consumer desktops
- 6.6 Consumer notebooks
- 6.7 Home network solutions
- 6.8 Mobile phones
- 6.9 Netbooks
- 6.10 Nettops
- 6.11 Projectors
- 6.12 Servers and storage
- 6.13 Tablets
- 6.14 Television
- 6.15 Other (discontinued devices)
- 7 Brands
- 8 Environmental record
- 9 Sponsorships
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
It began with eleven employees and US$25,000 in capital. Initially, it was primarily a distributor of electronic parts and a consultant in the use of microprocessor technologies. It produced the Micro-Professor MPF-I training kit, then two Apple II clones; the Microprofessor II and III before joining the emerging IBM PC compatible market, and becoming a significant PC manufacturer. The company was renamed Acer in 1989.
In 1989, Shih hired Leonard Liu away from a 20-year career with IBM, making him president of the Acer group and chairman and chief executive officer of Acer America Corp. Liu's managerial style reflected his experience at "Big Blue": in contrast with Shih's traditionally progressive corporate culture, Liu tried to centralize control of Acer. At the same time, the computer industry quickly matured, shifting from a high profit margin business to a low margin commodity practically overnight. Price wars pushed component prices down so rapidly, and a strong New Taiwan dollar made the country's goods so expensive, that it became difficult to make a profit on the finished product.
1990s: creating multinational brand
In the early 1990s Acer experienced a decline in sales and profit. The US operations in particular were at loss due in particular to price war in this market dominated by Compaq, IBM, and HP. The autonomous management of US executives made things worse. Stan Shih undertook a series of immediate restructuring initiatives such as downsizing non-profitable operations, laying-off low performers, and tightening internal cost control. But in addition he redesigned completely the global organizational structure around three major business units and three managerial innovations.
Instead of creating a series of centrally controlled foreign subsidiaries, Acer established a network of virtually autonomous affiliates, much like a fast food franchise system. Each of these affiliates was managed by a group of locals who determined product configurations, pricing strategies, and promotional programs based on national or regional preferences. The affiliate would usually have just one Taiwanese person on staff to facilitate interorganizational communications. Sales & Marketing Management characterized the system as a "revolutionary departure from the traditional hierarchical model of worldwide branches and subsidiaries reporting to a head office". Instead, it was "a commonwealth of independent companies, united only in their commitment to a common brand name and logo".
In 1993, Acer posted record profits of $75 million; 43 percent of that year's net was generated by the DRAM joint venture, considered "the most efficient in the DRAM industry" by some observers. Total sales grew to $3.2 billion in 1994, and net income increased to $205 million, as Acer America turned its first annual profit in the 1990s. From 1994 to 1995, Acer advanced from 14th to ninth among the world's largest computer manufacturers, surpassing Hewlett-Packard, Dell, and Toshiba.
In 1994, Shih unveiled a plan to "deconstruct" Acer into 21 publicly traded business units by the end of the 20th century. Acer Inc. would continue to own anywhere from 19 percent to 40 percent of the firms' stock, but Shih hoped that their independent status would enable the individual units to compete more effectively by facilitating entrepreneurship, inspiring research and development, and allowing for corporate fundraising through stock and bond offerings.
In 1995, the Aspire PC was unveiled. In 1996, Acer expanded into consumer electronics, introducing many new, inexpensive videodisc players, video telephones, and other devices to boost global market share, and in 1997 extended its laptop efforts by buying Texas Instruments' mobile PC division.
Considering two consecutive quarters of net losses in Q2+Q3 2011 and realization they are selling too many products; 101 individual notebook, netbook and chromebook SKUs in the United States alone, Acer will cut product lines by two thirds beginning in 2012.
|Acer Inc. logo history|
In 1998, Acer reorganized into five groups: Acer International Service Group, Acer Sertek Service Group, Acer Semiconductor Group, Acer Information Products Group, and Acer Peripherals Group. Two years later that corporate restructuring did not appear to have made a significant impact on the company overall, and stock prices were falling. Shih restructured again. To dispel complaints from clients that Acer competed with its own products and to alleviate the competitive nature of the branded sales vs. contract manufacturing businesses, Shih spun off the contract business, renaming it Wistron Corporation. The restructuring resulted in two primary units: brand name sales and contract manufacturing. The restructuring also resulted in Acer breaking off several of its smaller operations, including semiconductor design, consumer electronics, and liquid-crystal displays.
Already starting in 1999 the Company took a series of cost-cutting measures: workforce was reduced, US Operations were downsized. But J.T Wang initiated a profound re-structuring. He introduced a more centrally integrated approach based on 3 global principles: "One Global Company", "One Global Brand" and "One Global Team".
Early signs indicated that the spinoff strategy had worked well, especially in Europe, where Acer became a popular PC brand. The global business model behind this restructuring was to transform Acer from a high technology, hardware-focused company to a customer-centric service-oriented company. On the strategic front, contrary to others PCs vendors who tried to emulate Dell by adopting the direct-sales model, Acer decided to rely on third party channels. By getting rid of all manufacturing functions Acer was free to source all hardware from multiple suppliers. The supply chain model was to direct the flow of goods directly from suppliers to distributors through a headquarters’ centralised enterprise resource planning system (ERP) fed by information coming from local subsidiaries.
In 2003, company sales increased 48 percent to $4.6 billion, and helped Acer surpass Japan's Toshiba and NEC, making it the world's fifth largest maker of PCs. In 2005, Acer has successfully implemented the Channel Business Model across its worldwide operations. In 2004, Gianfranco Lanci, an Italian, was promoted CEO of Acer Inc. while J.T Wang remained President.
Growth and netbook raise
Acer increased worldwide sales while simultaneously reducing its labor force by identifying and using marketing strategies that best utilized their existing distribution channels. By 2005, Acer employed a scant 7,800 people worldwide. Revenues rose from US$4.9 billion in 2003 to US$11.31 billion in 2006.
Acer's North American market share has slipped over the past few years, while in contrast, the company's European market share has risen.
In the mid-2000s years, consumer notebooks have been almost the sole growth drivers for the PC industry, and Acer's exceptionally low overheads and dedication to the channel had made it one of the main beneficiaries of this trend. Acer grew quickly in Europe in part by embracing the use of more traditional distribution channels targeting retail consumers when some rivals were pursuing online sales and business customers. In 2007 Acer bought Gateway in the USA and Packard Bell in Europe and became the Number 3 world provider of computers and number 2 for notebooks, and achieved significant improvement in profitability. Acer has been striving to become the world`s largest PC vendor, in the belief that the goal can help it achieve economy of scale and garner higher margin. But such a reliance on the high-volume, low-value PC market made Acer exposed when buying habits changed.
2010's sales falling and restructuring
Following the decline in sales, especially of notebooks, the company's president Gianfranco Lanci, the man who was largely responsible for the super-efficient, high-volume channel business model that made Acer the second biggest PC OEM by sales volume was departed due to disagreements with the shareholders. Lanci said that the interests that control Acer were worried that his plan would lead to a de-Taiwanization of the company while he was just trying to make it more global.
On June 2011, Acer re-evaluated its inventory-management strategy in light of worsening economic conditions in Europe, clarifying a large write-down. Acer said the main reason for the disputes was "high inventory" carried by distributors of its products, reflecting an "inappropriate strategy" in its European operations under the current market situation. According to Acer, "Southern Europe's economic situation has been worsening since last year" and the stagnant technology market, particularly in Spain, "influenced Acer's PC sales". Acer discovered the problems through a routine audit, it added.
In efforts to stimulate growth, the company began in strategic restructuring aimed at strengthening Acer as a marketing-oriented company. To energize and strengthen Acer’s global marketing organization, Acer began engaging with Red Peak Group, a global marketing services firm, and appointed Red Peak Chairman Michael Birkin as Acer Chief Marketing Officer. In addition to the marketing organization and personnel changes, Birkin has been assigned to lead a newly established marketing committee as Chairman, responsible for integrating Acer’s global branding and marketing strategy.
In September 2012, chairman Wang declared Acer's top priority as to boost its operating margin. The company plans to sell more ultrabook laptops and touch-enabled Windows 8 devices, and invest more in product research, development and marketing. He said the global economic slowdown and product transition to the new Windows operating system have made business more challenging.
On November 2013 that Chairman and CEO J.T. Wang, and President Jim Wong both resigned due to the company's bad financial performance. Wang had already been reportedly due to leave Acer at year's end to be replaced by Wong. Acer founder Stan Shih has taken over as board chairman and interim president as the company searches for a new candidate to assume the role of presidency. The position of CEO will be eliminated and its responsibilities transferred to the chairman or president, according to Acer in order to improve decision-making efficiency.
In 1990, Acer acquired Altos Computer Corporation
On 27 August 2007, Acer announced plans to acquire its US-based rival Gateway, Inc. for US$710 million. Acer's chairman, Jen-tang Wang, stated that the acquisition "completes Acer's global footprint, by strengthening our United States presence". Included in this acquisition was the eMachines brand.
In August 2010, Acer and Founder Technology signed a memorandum of mutual understanding to strengthen their long term PC business cooperation.
29 April 2010
- Acer announced revenue in Q1 rose 36 percent year-on-year to NT$162.1 billion (US$5.2 billion) and its net profit increased 63 percent to 3.29 billion New Taiwan dollars (US$104.7 million); 27 percent of revenue comes from the U.S.
- Gianfranco Lanci announced that Acer will launch 4 new smartphones by Q3 2010, and a series of "Internet Devices" by the end of May which will run version 4.0 of its Shell user interface.
- According to Gartner and IDC, Acer now ranks No. 1 worldwide in notebook shipments.
Acer America Corporation, headquartered in San Jose, California, is a member of the Acer Group. Acer's R&D, engineering, manufacturing and marketing operations in the United States and Canada are handled by Acer America. In September 1990, Acer acquired Altos Computer Systems, one of the top manufacturers of multi-user and networked Unix computer systems for commercial markets. In February 1997, Acer acquired Texas Instruments Mobile Computing business, including the award-winning TravelMate and Extensa notebook lines, making Acer the fourth-leading notebook manufacturer in the United States. In 2007 Acer acquired PC maker Gateway. The acquisitions marked Acer’s return to the US consumer market that it abandoned in 1999 after losing $45m struggling to build brand awareness. Acer America's Canadian office, in Mississauga, Ontario, handles repair of Acer, Gateway, and E-Machine Notebooks and Desktop PCs for Eastern Canada. Acer has several facilities in Temple, Texas including a repair facility, a parts warehouse, and a call center. In the words of its Chief Executive, J.T. Wang, “Building a brand is very different in the US. The investment at the initial stage has to be very big—otherwise there is almost no impact”.
The Australian subsidiary of Acer is Acer Computer Australia (ACA). The subsidiary was established in 1990, and is currently Australia's third largest personal computer vendor, behind Hewlett-Packard Australia and Dell Australia and New Zealand. Acer Computer Australia has Australia's highest overall market share in notebook PC and tablet PC sales. The company is also Australia's leading PC vendor in government and education markets. Acer Computer Australia has 480 employees as of 2006.
Acer's subsidiary in India is Acer India (Pvt) Limited, and was incorporated as a wholly owned subsidiary of Acer Computer International, Ltd. in 1999. It is a notable vendor in key segments such as education, desktop computers and low profile notebooks for education. The headquarters are in Bangalore, India.
By the early 1990s Acer has gained some valuable experience in emerging markets with operations in Latin America and Asia. President William Lu asked Steve Kuzara if he wanted to give Russia a try and open an Acer representative office in Moscow. Kuzara had expressed an interest in Russia with he first began working in Acer in 1990. Acer set up its office the highly-competitive Russian PC market in 1993. Acer competitors such as Hewlett-Packard, Dell Computers, Digital Equipment Corporation, Apple, and Compaq were already there.
From the late 90's to mid-2000's Acer had computer factories in Europe, too. The business area was the whole EMEA. In the Netherlands under the name of Acer IMS bv there were two factories: Acer laptop factory in Den Bosch and Acer and IBM desktop factory in Tilburg. Acer had also facilities in Germany under the name of IMS in Ahrensburg and Hamburg.
The factory in Tilburg produced also - in limited quantities - various Acer server models and even TV set top boxes. In their prime the monthly production could reach over 40.000 desktop PCs per month, well rivaling the main Acer factories in USA and Taiwan.
In year 2000 Acer extracted its computer production under the branch of Wistron. Also the Dutch branch Acer IMS bv and the German brand IMS were merged with this. Despite the successful production model developed in the Dutch factories both plants were relocated in 2002. The laptop factory was relocated to mainland China and the desktop factory (after ending the IBM desktop production) was relocated Hungary. Soon the Hungarian factory was also moved to mainland China.
Acer has shipped some of their notebooks and more recently netbooks, with various Linux operating system distributions including Ubuntu, Linpus, Android (in a dual boot environment with Windows XP), and Google Chrome OS. They have also launched a line of smartphones and tablets with Android.
- Acer Veriton series
- G Series
- P Series
- H Series
- X Series
- B Series
- V Series
- S Series
- T Series
- D Series
- MO Monitor TV series
Home network solutions
- Acer CloudMobile
- Acer Allegro (WP8)
- Acer Tempo series
- Acer Liquid series
- Acer beTouch
- Acer neoTouch
- Acer Stream
- Acer E110
- Acer DX
- Acer F
- Acer Iconia
- Acer T
- Acer X960
- Professional series
- Home series
- Travel series
- Value series
Servers and storage
- Acer server F1 series
- Tower series: T110 F1, T115 F1, T150 F1, T310 F1, T350 F1;
- Rack series: R160 F1, R180 F1, R320 F1, R360 F1, R380 F1, R385 F1, R585 F1;
- Blade series: B2x285 F1, B2x280 F1, B460 F1;
- Gemini series: B1170 F1, B2170 F1, B2170t, B2175 F1
- Home Server Series: H340, H341, H342, Altos Easystore M2
- Acer storage series
- N500 F1, N1600 F1, HNAS3080, GS2040, AMS2100, AMS2300
- Acer Iconia Tab series
Other (discontinued devices)
In November 2011, Acer was ranked 12th place out of 15 in Greenpeace’s re-launched Guide to Greener Electronics, with the a score of 2.9 points out of 10. The Guide ranks electronics makers according to their policies and practices to reduce their impact on the climate, produce greener products, and make their operations more sustainable.
Greenpeace criticized the company for not setting out targets to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as intended in 2010 and for not providing external verification for the GHG emissions it reports for its operations and business travel. It also scored badly on the Products criteria receiving no points on product life cycle while Greenpeace noted that a higher percentage of its products need to meet or exceed Energy Star standards in order for it to score more points.
It received some praise for launching new products which are free from polyvinyl chloride plastic (PVC) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and the company informed Greenpeace that the majority of its products will be PVC/BFR free in the near future. Acer also scored well on chemical management for lobbying for restrictions on organo-halogens and was commended for reporting on GHG emissions from its first tier suppliers and investigating its second tier.
Acer sponsored the BAR-Honda Formula One racing team in the year 2000. In 2001, Acer provided sponsorship to the Prost Grand Prix Formula One team, and the team's Ferrari engines were badged as Acers.
Acer sponsored the Ferrari Formula 1 team from 2003 up to 2012 (Official Supplier since 2006) and its Top Sponsor of FC Internazionale – Milano (Inter Milan) Football Club. From 2007 to 2009 Acer has been Official Supplier of FC Barcelona. On 19 March 2007, Acer announced it will sponsor the Factory Fiat Yamaha Team for the 2007 MotoGP World Championship season. From 2009, Packard Bell (that it is part of Acer Group) is the sponsor of Yamaha Factory Racing Team. since 2010 Acer support Army United F.C. the Thai football team of the Thai Premier League.
Acer has been Worldwide TOP Partners for both the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games and Singapore Youth Olympic Games. Acer was TOP Partner of the London 2012 Summer Olympics.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Acer computers.|
- Acer Value Line
- Packard Bell
- Gateway, Inc.
- BenQ, formerly Acer CM
- ACC (computer company)
- AOpen, formerly AcerOpen
- List of companies in Taiwan
- Microprofessor I, Acer's first product
- List of computer system manufacturers
- ALi, formerly Acer Laboratories Incorporated
- "Fortune Global 500 #436: Acer". Fortune. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2009.
- Gartner Says Declining Worldwide PC Shipments in Fourth Quarter of 2012 Signal Structural Shift of PC Market
- Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations, Bart Sleb, 2005
- "About Acer – Milestones". Acer. Archived from the original on 8 July 2006. Retrieved 7 July 2007.
- "Acer Inc. History"
- "Acer To Cut Product Lines By Two Thirds In 2012, Bet Heavily On Ultrabooks". Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- Encyclopedia of Business, 2nd ed.
- "Gianfranco Lanci is appointed President of Acer Inc., effective January 2005" (PDF). Acer. 1 September 2004. Archived from the original on 3 April 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2007.
- "PC market surged in 2005, will settle in 2006". cnet. 18 January 2006. Archived from the original on 2 July 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2007.
- "Acer boss throws in the towel"
- "Acer Should Overhaul Its Operation: Stan Shih"
- "Interview: Ousted Acer CEO Gianfranco Lanci Talks About His Departure"
- "Acer Reassesses Inventory Policies", June 2011
- "Acer steps up marketing, engages Red Peak Group and appoints Michael Birkin as Chief Marketing Officer"
- "Acer Eyes Higher Profits With Windows 8, Ultrathin Laptops", Wall Street Journal
- "Acer's president and replacement CEO abruptly resigns as founder takes helm". PC World. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- "Acer's financial woes force exit of CEO, president". Cnet. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- "Struggling PC Maker Acer Brings Back Founder, Without Pay". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- 6:00 p.m. ET (27 August 2007). "Taiwan's Acer to buy PC maker Gateway – World business". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 5 May 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
- "Acer Buys 75 Percent of Packard Bell making it the 2nd largest computer maker in the world". Washington Post. 31 January 2008. Archived from the original on 17 January 2010. Retrieved 7 April 2009.
- Acer to buy cloud computing firm iGware – The Globe and Mail
- Don Reisinger, CNET. "Acer to acquire cloud-service provider iGware." 21 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- Dan Nystedt (29 April 2010). "Acer to Launch Full Line of Mobile Internet Devices in May". PCWorld (IDG News). Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- Tim Culpan (29 April 2010). "Acer Profit Climbs After Overtaking H-P in Laptop Market Share". Businessweek (Bloomberg). Retrieved 17 February 2011.
- quoted in Einhorn, 2009
- Article in Dutch about moving the last German factory to Tilburg http://www.computable.nl/artikel/nieuws/133960/250449/duitse-pcproductie-acer-naar-tilburg.html
- Article in Dutch about the factory in Tilburg http://www.computable.nl/artikel/achtergrond/kanaal/1302793/1277452/acer-centraliseert-productie-in-tilburg.html
- Article in Dutch about the factory closure and move http://www.computable.nl/artikel/nieuws/157908/250449/acer-verplaatst-productie-naar-buitenland.html
- The Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) is a multi-stakeholder process and independent institution whose mission is to develop and disseminate globally applicable Sustainability Reporting Guidelines.
- ISO 14001 was released in 1996 with the intent that companies manage all of the activities, products and services that can significantly impact the environment
- "Guide to Greener Electronics – Greenpeace International". Retrieved 16 November 2011.
- Lezhnev, Sasha; Alex Hellmuth (Aug 2012). "Taking Conflict Out of Consumer Gadgets: Company Rankings on Conflict Minerals 2012" (PDF). Enough Project. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- About Acer – News Release[dead link]
- About Acer – News Release Archived 19 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "02.02.2009 Packard Bell sponsor of Yamaha Factory Racing Team : Changeover of sponsorship from Acer" (PDF). Retrieved 7 April 2009.[dead link]
- http://www.aceresport.com/ Website of Acer e-Sports