Acer campestre

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Acer campestre
Acer campestre in Appennino2.jpg
Field maple foliage and fruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Sapindaceae[1]
Genus: Acer
Species: A. campestre
Binomial name
Acer campestre
L.

Acer campestre, common name field maple,[2] is a maple native to much of Europe, north to southern Scotland (where it is the only native maple), Denmark, Poland and Belarus, and also southwest Asia from Turkey to the Caucasus, and north Africa in the Atlas Mountains.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] In North America it is known as hedge maple[10][11] and in Australia, it is sometimes called common maple.[12]

Description[edit]

It is a deciduous tree reaching 15–25 metres (49–82 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) in diameter, with finely fissured, often somewhat corky bark. The shoots are brown, with dark brown winter buds. The leaves are in opposite pairs, 5–16 centimetres (2.0–6.3 in) long (including the 3–9 centimetres (1.2–3.5 in) petiole) and 5–10 centimetres (2.0–3.9 in) broad, with five blunt, rounded lobes with a smooth margin. Usually monoecious, the flowers are produced in spring at the same time as the leaves open, yellow-green, in erect clusters 4–6 centimetres (1.6–2.4 in) across, and are insect-pollinated. The fruit is a samara with two winged achenes aligned at 180°, each achene is 8–10 millimetres (0.31–0.39 in) wide, flat, with a 2 centimetres (0.79 in) wing.[6][7]

The two varieties, not accepted as distinct by all authorities, are:[4][6]

  • A. campestre var. campestre - downy fruit
  • A. campestre var. leiocarpum (Opiz) Wallr. (syn. A. campestre subsp. leiocarpum) - hairless fruit

The closely related Acer miyabei replaces it in eastern Asia.[6]

Ecology[edit]

Field maple is an intermediate species in the ecological succession of disturbed areas; it typically is not among the first trees to colonise a freshly disturbed area, but instead seeds in under the existing vegetation. It is very shade-tolerant during the initial stages of its life, but it has higher light requirements during its seed-bearing years. It exhibits rapid growth initially, but is eventually overtaken and replaced by other trees as the forest matures. It is most commonly found on neutral to alkaline soils, but more rarely on acidic soil.[9]

Diseases include a leaf spot fungus Didymosporina aceris, a mildew Uncinula bicornis, a canker Nectria galligena, and verticillium wilt Verticillium alboatrum. The leaves are also sometimes damaged by gall mites in the genus Aceria, and the aphid Periphyllus villosus.[13]

Cultivation[edit]

The field maple is widely grown as an ornamental tree in parks and large gardens. The wood is white, hard and strong, and used for furniture, flooring, wood turning and musical instruments,[14] though the small size of the tree and its relatively slow growth make it an unimportant wood.[6]

It is locally naturalised in parts of the United States[10] and more rarely in New Zealand.[15] The hybrid maple Acer × zoeschense has A. campestre as one of its parents.[7]

The tree has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[16]

Cultivars[edit]

Over 30 cultivars of Acer campestre are known, selected for their foliage or habit, or occasionally both; several have been lost to cultivation.[17]

Bonsai[edit]

A. campestre (and the similar A. monspessulanum) are popular among bonsai enthusiasts. The dwarf cultivar 'Microphyllum' is especially useful in this regard. A. campestre bonsai have an appearance distinct from those selected from some other maples such as A. palmatum with more frilly, translucent, leaves. The shrubby habit and smallish leaves of A. campestre respond well to techniques encouraging ramification and leaf reduction.[18][19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website Version 9, June 2008 [and more or less continuously updated since].
  2. ^ L., Leinemann; Bendixen, Kathrin (1999). "Inheritance of isozyme variants in field maple (Acer campestre L.).". Forest Genetics 6: 73–77. 
  3. ^ "Acer campestre". Flora Europaea. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  4. ^ a b Euro+Med Plantbase Project: Acer campestre
  5. ^ Flora of NW Europe: Acer campestre
  6. ^ a b c d e Rushforth, K. (1999). Trees of Britain and Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
  7. ^ a b c Mitchell, A. F. (1974). A Field Guide to the Trees of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins ISBN 0-00-212035-6
  8. ^ Den virtuella floran: Acer campestre distribution map
  9. ^ a b Nagy, L. & Ducci, F. (2004). EUFORGEN Technical guidelines for genetic conservation and use. Field maple Acer campestre. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute. Rome, Italy. Available online (pdf file).
  10. ^ a b "Acer campestre". USDA Plants Profile. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  11. ^ "Acer campestre". Ohio State University. Retrieved August 29, 2007. 
  12. ^ Department of Agriculture, Western Australia: Pests and Diseases Image Library
  13. ^ Field maple images and diseases
  14. ^ "Field maple_Woodland Trust". 
  15. ^ Trans. and Proc. Roy. Soc. New Zealand 36: 203-225 Plants naturalised in the County of Ashburton
  16. ^ RHS Plant Selector Acer campestre AGM / RHS Gardening
  17. ^ van Gelderen, C.J. & van Gelderen, D.M. (1999). Maples for Gardens: A Color Encyclopedia. 
  18. ^ "A. campestre". Bonsai Club International. Retrieved November 26, 2006. 
  19. ^ D'Cruz, Mark. "Ma-Ke Bonsai Care Guide for Acer campestre". Ma-Ke Bonsai. Retrieved April 15, 2011. 

External links[edit]