Achievement (video gaming)
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In video gaming parlance, an achievement, also sometimes known as a trophy, badge, award, stamp, medal or challenge, is a meta-goal defined outside of a game's parameters. Unlike the systems of quests or levels that usually define the goals of a video game and have a direct effect on further gameplay, the management of achievements usually takes place outside the confines of the game environment and architecture.
Purpose and motivation
Achievements are included within games to extend the title's longevity and provide players with the impetus to more than simply complete the game but find all of its secrets. They are effectively arbitrary challenges laid out by the developer to be met by the player. These achievements may coincide with the inherent goals of the game itself, such as completing a level, with secondary goals such as finding secret power-ups or levels, or may also be independent of the game's primary or secondary goals, such as playing a certain number of times, viewing a video, beating a certain number of online opponents or completing a level in a certain amount of time. Certain achievements may refer to other achievements - many games have one achievement that require the player to have gained every other achievement.
Unlike secrets, which traditionally provided some kind of direct benefit to the player in the form of easier gameplay (such as the warp pipe in Super Mario Bros.) or additional gameplay features (such as hidden weapons or levels in first-person shooters like Doom) even though they might have criteria similar to achievements in order to unlock, the narrative-independent nature of achievements allows them to be fulfilled without needing to provide the player with any benefit or additional feature. In addition, the achievements used in gaming are usually visible outside the game environment (for example, on the Internet) and form part of the online profile for the player (Gamertag for Microsoft's Live Anywhere network, for both Xbox 360 titles and Games for Windows - Live supported PC Games, PSN ID for PlayStation Network (PSN)) or a particular character (Achievement Points in World of Warcraft). The motivation for the player to gain achievements lies in maximizing their own general cross-title score (known as Gamerscore on LIVE and Trophy Level on PSN) and obtaining recognition for their performance due to the publication of their achievement/trophy profiles. Some players pursue the unlocking of achievements as a goal in itself, without especially seeking to enjoy the game that awards them.
Some implementations use a system of achievements that provide direct benefits to the gameplay, although the award is usually not congruent with the achievement itself. One example of such an implementation are "challenges" found in the multiplayer portions of the later Call of Duty titles. Challenges here may include a certain number of headshots or kills and are rewarded not only with the completion of the achievement but also a bonus item that can be equipped. Team Fortress 2 features 3 milestones for each of the nine classes. When a milestone is reached by doing an specific amount of achievements for each class, the player will be awarded a non-tradable weapon unique to that class.
Although individual games on various platforms had implemented systems of achievements, the original implementation of the achievements system as popularized is widely considered to be Microsoft's Xbox 360 Gamerscore system, introduced in 2005. Microsoft extended Gamerscore support to the Games for Windows - LIVE scheme in 2007 by including support for achievements in Halo 2. In 2008, Sony and Valve followed suit by offering PSN Trophies for the PlayStation 3 and Steam Achievements for some PC titles respectively. To date, Nintendo has not developed any kind of central achievements system for the Wii or Nintendo DS, but a few selected games such as Metroid Prime 3: Corruption and Wii Sports Resort do implement their own systems of achievements. There is also no Trophy support for the PlayStation Portable, even though the device does have PSN connection capability. However, at least three games on the PlayStation Portable has a similar system, that being Silent Hill: Origins, Modnation Racers and Pinball Heroes. Though one PlayStation Portable game - LittleBigPlanet - declares Trophy support on the back of the box, it proved to be a typo and Sony confirmed that there was no Trophy system on the PlayStation Portable version of LittleBigPlanet or on the console in general. However, the successor to the PlayStation Portable, the PlayStation Vita, and all PlayStation Vita games do support the PSN Trophy system.
A number of mainly Windows-based games, such as World of Warcraft, implement their own system of achievements, which may or may not be publicized on the internet.
The game E-Motion on the Amiga from 1990 was one of the earliest games that had some form of achievements, which the game called "secret bonuses". The game had five such bonuses, for achievements such as completing a level without rotating to the right, or completely failing certain levels.
Kongregate, a Flash games hosting site, features Badges, which earn the user points, similar to the Xbox 360's Gamerscore and PlayStation 3's trophy system. Much like PSN trophies, points work towards increasing a player's level. The site FAQ explains, "Your level will automatically rise as you earn points. We're still working out the details of what kind of privileges and potential prizes that points and levels could be used to unlock." 
The advent of achievement-driven gaming was satirized in the Flash game Achievement Unlocked. The game is a simple platformer; it takes place on a single non-scrolling screen, and has only simple walking and jumping controls. It has no clearly-defined victory condition aside from earning all 100 achievements, from the trivial ("move left", "click the play field") to the complex ("touch every square", "find and travel to three particular locations in order"). The game spawned two sequels.
- "Hamari, J., & Eranti, V. (2011). Framework for Designing and Evaluating Game Achievements. Proceedings of Digra 2011 Conference: Think Design Play, Hilversum, Netherlands, September 14-17, 2011.".
- "Lemon Amiga E-Motion cheat". Lemonamiga.com. Retrieved 2012-09-21.
- "Achievement Unlocked: The Game: You Have To Unlock The Achievement | Kotaku Australia". Kotaku.com.au. 2008-12-20. Retrieved 2012-09-21.