|Stylistic origins||Jazz, funk, hip-hop|
|Cultural origins||Late 1980s, southern United Kingdom[dubious ]|
Acid jazz is a musical genre that combines elements of jazz, funk and hip hop, particularly looped beats. It developed in the UK over the 1980s and 1990s and could be seen as tacking the sound of jazz-funk onto electronic dance: jazz-funk musicians such as Roy Ayers, Asha Puthli, Donald Byrd and Grant Green are often credited as forerunners of acid jazz. Acid jazz has also experienced influences from soul, house and disco.
While acid jazz often contains various types of electronic composition (sometimes including sampling or live DJ cutting and scratching), it is just as likely to be played live by musicians, who often showcase jazz interpretation as part of their performance. The compositions of groups such as Jamiroquai, Galliano, Urban Species, The Brand New Heavies and Incognito often feature chord structures usually associated with jazz music.
The acid jazz "movement" is also seen as a revival of jazz-funk or jazz fusion or soul jazz by leading DJs such as Norman Jay or Gilles Peterson or Patrick Forge, also known as "rare groove crate diggers" or "Cataroos".
Origins in the United Kingdom
||This section possibly contains original research. (November 2010)|
The sound and clubs that went with it arose out of Southern England's rare groove scene of the late seventies and early eighties and various other alternative groups, including the London mod scene. It is distinguished from the Northern Soul scene (then popular in the South of England with clubs such as the 100 Club in Oxford Street) but still displayed various similarities.
The name came into common parlance with the Acid Jazz label, but in reality the scene had existed in disparate forms and without a distinguishing name for some time beforehand. Journalists at the time appeared very confused by the genre and made various attempts to connect it to the London mod scene (by links with various former members of that scene, prominently Eddie Piller and the James Taylor Quartet, Taylor having formerly been Hammond Player for sixties garage band The Prisoners).
The scene always had two halves, those who liked the original jazz and soul recordings and those who followed the new bands signed by labels like Acid Jazz. It is the former who still probably support their music, many of the early bands having fallen well by the wayside. Attempts to integrate the music with hip hop and jungle are now regarded by many as misguided attempts to keep the music fresh whilst leading it a long way from its starting point, attempts that were regarded with disdain by many.[weasel words]
An important gauge of the UK scene and the creation of the genre are to be found in the UK's Straight No Chaser magazine. Similarly, clothing labels like Duffer of St George were closely associated with the scene, although the "right outfit" was never essential.
Disc jockeys Gilles Peterson and Chris Bangs are generally credited with coining the term acid jazz at a 1987 'Talkin' Loud Sayin Something' session. At the time, this was Peterson's regular Sunday afternoon club at Dingwalls in Camden, London.
In his Radio 1 biography, Peterson describes how the term acid jazz came about. "We put on this old 7-inch by Mickey and the Soul Generation which was a rare groove record with a mad rock guitar intro and no beat. I started vary speeding it so it sounded all warped. Chris Bangs got on the microphone and said, 'If that was acid house, this is acid jazz'. That's how acid jazz started, just a joke!" 
Notable British acid jazz bands of the 1990s included Brand New Heavies, Galliano, Incognito, James Taylor Quartet, Jamiroquai (also classified as funk and disco) and Urban Species, US3 (also classified as jazz rap), as well as dozens of less commercially successful artists. Later, Repercussions who had a top hit, Promise me nothing. According to the book The Techno Primer, the 1991 album Road to Freedom by Young Disciples was "very influential" in the genre, as the band "set the tone for this movement." Other more recent groups who have produced music in this genre include Mother Earth and Down to the Bone.
In the United States notable acid jazz groups have included Groove Collective, Brooklyn Funk Essentials and Grammy nominated Liquid Soul; although during the 1990s the major contributions from the US to jazz fusion were predominantly in jazz-house (from labels such as 8 Ball Records) and jazz-rap, particularly by artists such as Guru, through his Jazzmatazz series of albums, A Tribe Called Quest, Black Sheep, De La Soul, the Jungle Brothers, and Digable Planets. In Houston, in 1995, a notable acid jazz radio show, Soular Grooves, was started on KPFT by DJ Sun.
From Japan, notable artists included Mondo Grosso, DJ Krush, Gota and United Future Organization who released 'I Love my Baby: My Baby Loves Jazz' as well as a cover of Van Morrison's 'Moondance'; another prominent artist from Japan was the female vocalist and flautist (and daughter of jazz musicians Japanese-American Toshiko Akiyoshi and American Charlie Mariano, and stepdaughter of American Lew Tabackin), Monday Michiru.
Other notable artists
- allmusic on Roy Ayers
- Hindu.Com article on acid jazz and Asha Puthli, (accessed 21 Nov 2012)
- Du Noyer, Paul (2003). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Music (1st ed.). Fulham, London: Flame Tree Publishing. p. 144. ISBN 1-904041-96-5.
- BBC Radio 1 website, Gilles Peterson: Biography, (accessed 21 Mar 07)
- Gridley, Mark C. (2006). Jazz Styles: History and Analysis (9 ed.). Prentice Hall. pp. 330–331. ISBN 0-13-193115-6.
- Verderosa, Tony; Rick Mattingly (2002). The Techno Primer: The Essential Reference for Loop-based Music Styles. Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 34. ISBN 0-634-01788-8.
- Rowland, Hobart. "Here Comes The Sun". The Houston Press. Voice Media Group. Retrieved 21 August 1997.
- Michael Endelman (March 28, 2000). "*** Luke Vibert and BJ Cole STOP THE PANIC (Astralwerks)". Online Magazine (music review). Boston Phoenix. fifth paragraph from top. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- Acid Jazz Portal
- 'What Is Acid Jazz?' feature, 1988 by Chris Hunt
- List Archive
- The Acid Jazz Channel (over 2000 jazz and acid jazz videos that play continuously.)