Acknowledgment (creative arts and sciences)
Receiving credit by way of acknowledgment rather than authorship indicates that the person or organization did not have a direct hand in producing the work in question, but may have contributed funding, criticism, or encouragement to the author(s). Various schemes exist for classifying acknowledgments; Cronin et al.give the following six categories:
- moral support
- financial support
- editorial support
- presentational support
- instrumental/technical support
- conceptual support, or peer interactive communication (PIC)
Apart from citation, which is not usually considered to be an acknowledgment, acknowledgment of conceptual support is widely considered to be the most important for identifying intellectual debt. Some acknowledgments of financial support, on the other hand, may simply be legal formalities imposed by the granting institution.
There have been some attempts to extract bibliometric indices from the acknowledgments section (also called "acknowledgments paratext") of research papers in order to evaluate the impact of the acknowledged individuals, sponsors and funding agencies. 
Libraries and Archival Collections
Another important category of acknowledgment is support provided by libraries, librarians, archives, and archivists. A few examples: Alvin Josephy M. Jr., author of the 1975 monograph The Nez Perce Indians and the Opening of the Northwest, acknowledged over two dozen library and archival collections and individuals who contributed to his authorship. Paul Horgan's monograph,Lamy of Santa Fe: His Life and Times. acknowledged over thirty libraries and archival collections. In the acknowledgement to Gilbert Chase's 1955 work,America’s Music: From the Pilgrims to the Present he noted, "“In all the places where I worked on this book I had occasion to appreciate the combination of friendliness and efficiency that characterizes the American librarian.” In her 2005 biography, Clarence Darrow: In Defense of the American Dream, Phyllis Vine observed:“Scores of librarians and archivists have answered requests" 
- Acknowledgment index
- Billing (filmmaking)
- Closing credits
- Credit (creative arts)
- Opening credits
- Possessory credit
- Title sequence
- WGA screenwriting credit system
- Cronin, Blaise; McKenzie, Gail; Stiffler, Michael (1992). "Patterns of acknowledgement". Journal of Documentation 48 (2): 107–122. doi:10.1108/eb026893.
- Salager-Meyer, Françoise; Alcaraz Ariza, María Ángeles; Pabón Berbesí, Maryelis (2009). ""Backstage solidarity" in Spanish- and English-written medical research papers: Publication context and the acknowledgment paratext". Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 60 (2): 307–317. doi:10.1002/asi.20981.
- C. Lee Giles and Isaac G. Councill. Who gets acknowledged: Measuring scientific contributions through automatic acknowledgment indexing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101(51): 17599–17604, 21 December 2004
- Isaac G. Councill, C. Lee Giles, Hui Han, and Eren Manavoglu. Automatic Acknowledgment Indexing: Expanding the Semantics of Contribution in the CiteSeer Digital Library. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Knowledge Capture (K-CAP 2005). ACM Press, New York, NY, 19–26. ISBN 1-59593-163-5.
- Josephy, Alvin M. Jr. The Nez Perce Indians and the Opening of the Northwest Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. 1965:Washington State University Library: Mrs. Emmett Avery Bancroft Library, University of California at Berkeley: George B. Hammond, Robert H. Becker, John Barr Tompkins; British Museum: R.A.Skelton, Helen Wallis; Oregon State Library: David C. Duniway, State Archivist; Yale University Library, Western Americana Collection: Archibald Hanna and staff; Huntington Library: Robert O. Dougan, Haidee Noya, Lyle H. Wright and colleagues; Idaho Historical Society; Provincial Archives of British Columbia; Kansas State Historical Society: Nyle H. Miller and Robert W. Richmond; Public Archives of Canada: W. Kaye Lamb; Washington State Historical Society: Bruce LeRoy; Missouri Historical Society: George R. Brooks, Frances H. Stadler, and associates; Montana Historical Society: Michael Kennedy, Mary K. Dempsey, Vivian A. Paladin; National Archives: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Herman R. Friis, Jane Smith, Elizabeth Drewery, Carmelita Ryan, Victor Gondos, Jr.; Oregon Historical Society: Thomas Vaughan, Barbara Elkins, Priscilla Knuth; Royal Ontario Museum, University of Toronto: Eugene S. Rogers; Smithsonian Institution: John C. Ewers, Margaret C. Blaker, Edgar M. Howell; Archives of Ontario: G. W. Spragge; Chicago Historical Society; Library of Congress; New York Public Library; Spokane, WA, Public Library; Idaho Historical Society.
- Horgan, Paul. Lamy of Santa Fe: His Life and Times. McGraw Hill, New York, 1975:The Vatican, Archives of the Propaganda Fide: Anton Debevec, archivist; Notre Dame University Library Archives: Fr. Thomas McAvoy, Fr. Thomas E. Blantz; Ecole Massillon, Clermont-Ferrand, France (archive): Abbe Garnaud; Monastere de la Visitation de la Sainte Marie (archive): Mother Therese; Library of Congress; St. Charles Borromeo Seminary: Fr. Edmund Halsey, archivist; Catherine Reese, librarian; Larry Taylor, archivist; Loretto Motherhouse: Sister Mathilda Barrett, archivist; Archdiocese of Baltimore: Msgr. Joseph Gallagher; Msgr. P. Francis Murphy, archivist; Diocese of Tucson: Fr. Frederick D. McAninch, archivist; Wesleyan University Library; Arizona Pioneers Historical Society; University of Arizona Library, Special Collections: P. Ball; Georgetown University Library: George Barringer, Jan Beyer; Yale University, Beinecke Rare Books and Manuscripts Library: Herman Liebert, Louis Martz, Donald Gallup, Archibald Hanna; Newberry Library, Ruth Lapham Butler; Cincinnati Historical Society: Mrs. Jordan Colorado State Historical Society; Museum of New Mexico, History Division: Stephany Eger, librarian; Colorado State Museum: Bruce Ellis; Laura A. Ekstrom, librarian; El Paso Public Library: Virginia P. Hoke; New Mexico State Archives and Records Library, Dr. Myra Jenkins; Kansas State Historical Society: Frank Miller, Nyle Miller, Joseph Snell, Don Wilson;New Mexico Historical Society; Museum of New Mexico Historical Archives; Museum of New Mexico Library; New Mexico State Archives and Records Library; New Orleans Public Library; Rosenberg Library, Galveston: Robert Park; St. Louis University, Saint Pius X Library;New Mexico Records Center and Archives: Richard Salazar; Catholic University of America, Mullen Library: Thomas V. Schmidt.
- Chase, Gilbert.America’s Music: From the Pilgrims to the PresentMcGraw-Hill, New York, 1955, p.x
- Vine, Phyllis. Clarence Darrow: In Defense of the American Dream.Amistad/Harper Collins, New York, 2005, p. 306.