Acknowledgment (creative arts and sciences)
Receiving credit by way of acknowledgment rather than authorship indicates that the person or organization did not have a direct hand in producing the work in question, but may have contributed funding, criticism, or encouragement to the author(s). Various schemes exist for classifying acknowledgments; Cronin et al.give the following six categories:
- moral support
- financial support
- editorial support
- presentational support
- instrumental/technical support
- conceptual support, or peer interactive communication (PIC)
Apart from citation, which is not usually considered to be an acknowledgment, acknowledgment of conceptual support is widely considered to be the most important for identifying intellectual debt. Some acknowledgments of financial support, on the other hand, may simply be legal formalities imposed by the granting institution.
There have been some attempts to extract bibliometric indices from the acknowledgments section (also called "acknowledgments paratext") of research papers in order to evaluate the impact of the acknowledged individuals, sponsors and funding agencies. 
- Acknowledgment index
- Billing (filmmaking)
- Closing credits
- Credit (creative arts)
- Opening credits
- Possessory credit
- Title sequence
- WGA screenwriting credit system
- Cronin, Blaise; McKenzie, Gail; Stiffler, Michael (1992). "Patterns of acknowledgement". Journal of Documentation 48 (2): 107–122. doi:10.1108/eb026893.
- Salager-Meyer, Françoise; Alcaraz Ariza, María Ángeles; Pabón Berbesí, Maryelis (2009). ""Backstage solidarity" in Spanish- and English-written medical research papers: Publication context and the acknowledgment paratext". Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 60 (2): 307–317. doi:10.1002/asi.20981.
- C. Lee Giles and Isaac G. Councill. Who gets acknowledged: Measuring scientific contributions through automatic acknowledgment indexing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101(51): 17599–17604, 21 December 2004
- Isaac G. Councill, C. Lee Giles, Hui Han, and Eren Manavoglu. Automatic Acknowledgment Indexing: Expanding the Semantics of Contribution in the CiteSeer Digital Library. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Knowledge Capture (K-CAP 2005). ACM Press, New York, NY, 19–26. ISBN 1-59593-163-5.