|Classification and external resources|
Acne of a 14-year-old male during puberty
Acne vulgaris (or simply acne) is a common human skin disease, characterized by areas of skin with seborrhea (scaly red skin), comedones (blackheads and whiteheads), papules (pinheads), nodules (large papules), pimples, and possibly scarring. Acne affects mostly skin with the densest population of sebaceous follicles; these areas include the face, the upper part of the chest, and the back. Severe acne is inflammatory, but acne can also manifest in noninflammatory forms. The lesions are caused by changes in pilosebaceous units, skin structures consisting of a hair follicle and its associated sebaceous gland, changes that require androgen stimulation.
Acne occurs most commonly during adolescence, affecting an estimated 80-90% of teenagers in the Western world. Lower rates are reported in some rural societies. In adolescence, acne is usually caused by an increase in androgens such as testosterone, which occurs during puberty, regardless of sex. For most people, acne diminishes over time and tends to disappear — or at the very least decreases — by age 25. There is, however, no way to predict how long it will take to disappear entirely, and some individuals will carry this condition well into their thirties, forties, and beyond.
Some of the large nodules were previously called "cysts" and the term nodulocystic has been used to describe severe cases of inflammatory acne. The "cysts", or boils that accompany cystic acne, can appear on the buttocks, groin, and armpit area, and anywhere else where sweat collects in hair follicles and perspiration ducts. Cystic acne affects deeper skin tissue than does common acne.
Aside from scarring, its main effects are psychological, such as reduced self-esteem and in very extreme cases, depression or suicide. One study has estimated the incidence of suicidal ideation in patients with acne as 7.1%. Acne usually appears during adolescence, when people already tend to be most socially insecure. Early and aggressive treatment is therefore advocated by some to lessen the overall long-term impact to individuals.
- 1 Terminology
- 2 Signs and symptoms
- 3 Cause
- 4 Diagnosis
- 5 Management
- 6 Prognosis
- 7 Epidemiology
- 8 History
- 9 Research
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The term acne comes from ἀκνή, a scribal error for the Greek ἀκμή (akmē), literally "point, edge", but in the sense of a "skin eruption" in the writings of Aëtius Amidenus. Used by itself, the term "acne" refers to the presence of pustules and papules. The most common form of acne is known as acne vulgaris, meaning "common acne". Many teenagers get this type of acne. Use of the term "acne vulgaris" implies the presence of comedones.
The term "acne rosacea" is a synonym for rosacea, however, some individuals may have almost no acne comedones associated with their rosacea and therefore prefer the term rosacea. Chloracne is associated with exposure to polyhalogenated compounds.
Signs and symptoms
Typical features of acne include: seborrhea (increased oil-sebum secretion), comedones, papules, pustules, nodules (large papules), and possibly scarring. The appearance of acne varies with skin color. It may result in psychological and social problems.
Physical acne scars are often referred to as "ice pick" scars. This is because the scars tend to cause an indentation in the skin's surface. There is a range of treatments available. Although quite rare, the medical condition atrophia maculosa varioliformis cutis also results in "acne-like" depressed scars on the face.
- Ice pick scars: Deep pits, that are the most common and a classic sign of acne scarring.
- Box car scars: Angular scars that usually occur on the temple and cheeks, and can be either superficial or deep, these are similar to chickenpox scars.
- Rolling scars: Scars that give the skin a wave-like appearance.
- Hypertrophic scars: Thickened, or keloid scars.
Pigmented scars is a slightly misleading term, as it suggests a change in the skin's pigmentation and that they are true scars; however, neither is true. Pigmented scars are usually the result of nodular or cystic acne (the painful 'bumps' lying under the skin). They often leave behind an inflamed red mark. Often, the pigmentation scars can be avoided simply by avoiding aggravation of the nodule or cyst. Pigmentation scars nearly always fade with time taking between three months to two years to do so, although can last indefinitely if untreated.
Acne develops as a result of blockages in the follicles. Hyperkeratinization and formation of a plug of keratin and sebum (a microcomedo) is the earliest change. Enlargement of sebaceous glands and an increase in sebum production occur with increased androgen (DHEA-S) production at adrenarche. The microcomedo may enlarge to form an open comedo (blackhead) or closed comedo. Comedones are the direct result of sebaceous glands' becoming clogged with sebum, a naturally occurring oil, and dead skin cells. In these conditions, the naturally occurring largely commensal bacterium Propionibacterium acnes can cause inflammation, leading to inflammatory lesions (papules, infected pustules, or nodules) in the dermis around the microcomedo or comedone, which results in redness and may result in scarring or hyperpigmentation.
Hormonal activity, such as menstrual cycles and puberty, may contribute to the formation of acne. During puberty, an increase in sex hormones called androgens cause the follicular glands to grow larger and make more sebum. Use of anabolic steroids may have a similar effect. Several hormones have been linked to acne: the androgens testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), as well as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I).
Development of acne vulgaris in later years is uncommon, although the incidence of rosacea, which may have a similar presentation, is increased in older age groups. True acne vulgaris in adult women may be a feature of an underlying condition such as pregnancy, or disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome, hirsutism, or Cushing's syndrome. Menopause-associated acne (known as acne climacterica) occurs as production of the natural anti-acne ovarian hormones estradiol and progesterone fail, permitting the acnegenic hormone testosterone to exert its effects unopposed.
The predisposition for specific individuals to acne is likely explained by a genetic component, which has been supported by twin studies as well as studies that have looked at rates of acne among first degree relatives. The genetics of acne susceptibility is likely polygenic, as the disease does not follow classic Mendelian inheritance pattern. There are multiple candidates for genes which are possibly related to acne, including polymorphisms in TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha, CYP1A1 among others.
While the connection between acne and stress has been debated, scientific research indicates that "increased acne severity" is "significantly associated with increased stress levels." The National Institutes of Health (USA) list stress as a factor that "can cause an acne flare." A study of adolescents in Singapore "observed a statistically significant positive correlation … between stress levels and severity of acne."
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is the anaerobic bacterium species that is widely concluded to cause acne, though Staphylococcus aureus has been universally discovered to play some role since normal pores appear colonized only by P. acnes. Regardless, there are specific clonal sub-strains of P. acnes associated with normal skin health and others with long-term acne problems. It is as yet inconclusive whether any of these undesirable strains evolve on-site in the adverse conditions or are all pathogenically acquired, or possibly both depending on the individual patient. These strains either have the capability of changing, perpetuating, or adapting to, the abnormal cycle of inflammation, oil production, and inadequate sloughing activities of acne pores. At least one particularly virulent strain, though, has been circulating around Europe for at least 87 years. In vitro, resistance of P. acnes to commonly used antibiotics has been increasing, as well.
The relationship between diet and acne is unclear as there is no good quality evidence. However, a high glycemic load diet is associated with worsening acne. There is also a positive association between the consumption of milk and a greater rate and severity of acne. Other associations such as chocolate and salt are not supported by the evidence. Chocolate does contain a varying amount of sugar that can lead to a high glycemic load and it can be made with or without milk. There may be a relationship between acne and insulin metabolism and one trial found a relationship between acne and obesity.
Positive associations have been shown with the parasitic mite Demodex, however, the studies to date do not isolate a cause and it is unclear whether demodex or demodex associated bacteria produces the effects at this time.
There are multiple scales for grading the severity of acne vulgaris, three of these being:
- Leeds acne grading technique: Counts and categorises lesions into inflammatory and non-inflammatory (ranges from 0–10.0).
- Cook's acne grading scale: Uses photographs to grade severity from 0 to 8 (0 being the least severe and 8 being the most severe).
- Pillsbury scale: Simply classifies the severity of the acne from 1 (least severe) to 4 (most severe).
Many different treatments exist for acne including benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, retinoids, antiseborrheic medications, anti-androgen medications, hormonal treatments, salicylic acid, alpha hydroxy acid, azelaic acid, nicotinamide, and keratolytic soaps. They are believed to work in at least 4 different ways, including: normalizing shedding and sebum production into the pore to prevent blockage, killing Propionibacterium acnes, anti-inflammatory effects, and hormonal manipulation.
Benzoyl peroxide is a first-line treatment for mild and moderate acne due to its effectiveness and mild side-effects (mainly irritant dermatitis). It works against the "P. acnes" bacterium, helps prevent formation of comedones, and has anti-inflammatory properties. Benzoyl peroxide normally causes dryness of the skin, slight redness, and occasional peeling when side effects occur. This topical does increase sensitivity to the sun as indicated on the package, so sunscreen use is often advised during the treatment to prevent sunburn. Benzoyl peroxide has been found to be nearly as effective as antibiotics with all concentrations being equally effective. Unlike antibiotics, benzoyl peroxide does not appear to generate bacterial resistance. Benzoyl peroxide is often combined with antibiotics.
Antibiotics are reserved for more severe cases and decrease acne due to their antimicrobial activity against P. acnes in conjunction with anti-inflammatory properties. With increasing resistance of P. acnes worldwide, they are becoming less effective. Commonly used antibiotics, either applied topically or taken orally, include erythromycin, clindamycin, and tetracyclines such as doxycycline and minocycline.
Salicylic acid helps to lessen acne due to its bactericidal and keratolytic properties. Additionally, salicylic acid can open obstructed skin pores and promotes shedding of epithelial skin cells. Hyperpigmentation of the skin has been observed in individuals with darker skin types who use salicylic acid.
In females, acne can be improved with the use of any combined oral contraceptive. The combinations that contain third or fourth generation progestins such as desogestrel, norgestimate or drospirenone may theoretically be more beneficial.
Topical retinoids are medications that possess anti-inflammatory properties and work by normalizing the follicle cell life cycle. This class includes tretinoin, adapalene, and tazarotene. Like isotretinoin, they are related to vitamin A, but are administered topically and generally have much milder side effects. They can, however, cause significant irritation of the skin. The retinoids appear to influence the cell life cycle in the follicle lining. This helps prevent the hyperkeratinization of these cells that can create a blockage. Retinol, a form of vitamin A, has similar, but milder, effects and is used in many over-the-counter moisturizers and other topical products. Topical retinoids often cause an initial flare-up of acne and facial flushing.
Isotretinoin is very effective for severe acne as well as moderate acne refractory to other treatments. Improvement is typically seen after one to two months of use. After a single course, about 80% of people report an improvement with more than 50% reporting complete remission. About 20% of people require a second course. A number of adverse effects may occur including: dry skin, nose bleeds, muscle pains, increased liver enzymes, and increased lipid levels in the blood. If used during pregnancy there is a high risk of abnormalities in the baby and thus women of child bearing age are required to use effective birth control. There is no clear evidence that use of oral retinoids increases the risk of psychiatric side effects such as depression and suicidality.
Comedo extraction may help those with comedones that do not improve with standard treatment, at least temporarily. A procedure with high patient satisfaction for immediate relief is the injection of corticosteroids into the inflamed acne comedone. There is no evidence that microdermabrasion is effective.
As of 2012[update], evidence for light therapy and lasers is insufficient to recommend them for routine use. Light therapy is an expensive treatment modality and while it appears to provide short term benefit, there is a lack of long term outcome data or data in those with severe acne.
Numerous natural products have been investigated for treating people with acne. Azelaic acid has been shown effective for mild-to-moderate acne when applied topically at a 20% concentration. Application twice daily for six months is necessary, and treatment is as effective as topical benzoyl peroxide 5%, isotretinoin 0.05%, and erythromycin 2%. Azelaic acid may cause skin irritation but is otherwise very safe. A topical application of tea tree oil has been suggested.
Globally acne affects approximately 650 million people, or about 9.4% of the population, as of 2010. It affects almost 90% of people during their teenage years and sometimes persists into adulthood. About 20% have moderate or severe cases. Rates appear to be lower in rural societies and it may not occur in the non-Westernized people of Papua New Guinea and Paraguay. It is slightly more common in females than males (9.8% versus 9.0%). In those over 40 years old, 1% of males and 5% of females still have problems. It affects people of all ethnic groups, and it is not clear if race affects rates of disease.
Acne affects 40 to 50 million people in the United States (16%) and approximately 3 to 5 million in Australia (23%). In the United States tends to be more severe in Caucasians than people of African descent.
- Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome: Sulfur was used to treat acne.
- 1920s: Benzoyl peroxide was used as a medication to treat acne.
- 1970s: Tretinoin (original Trade Name Retin A) was found to be an effective treatment for acne. This preceded the development of oral isotretinoin (sold as Accutane and Roaccutane) in 1980. Also, antibiotics such as minocycline are used as treatments for acne.
- 1980s: Accutane is introduced in the United States, and later found to be a teratogen, highly likely to cause birth defects if taken during pregnancy. In the United States, more than 2,000 women became pregnant while taking the drug between 1982 and 2003, with most pregnancies ending in abortion or miscarriage. About 160 babies with birth defects were born.
A vaccine against inflammatory acne has been tested successfully in mice, but has not yet been proven to be effective in humans.
In 2007 the first genome sequencing of a Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophage (PA6) occurred which "should greatly enhance the development of a potential bacteriophage therapy to treat acne and, therefore, overcome the significant problems associated with long-term antibiotic therapy and bacterial resistance."
- Thappa, Devindermohan; Adityan, Balaji; Kumari, Rashmi (2009). "Scoring systems in acne vulgaris". Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology 75 (3): 323–6. doi:10.4103/0378-6323.51258. PMID 19439902.
- Benner, Nicholas; Sammons, Dawn (2013). "Overview of the treatment of acne vulgaris". Osteopathic Family Physician 5 (5): 185–90. doi:10.1016/j.osfp.2013.03.003.
- Harper, Julie C (6 August 2009). "Acne Vulgaris". eMedicine. Retrieved 2009-12-21.
- Taylor, Marisa; Gonzalez, Maria; Porter, Rebecca (May–June 2011). "Pathways to inflammation: acne pathophysiology". European Journal of Dermatology 21 (3): 323–33. doi:10.1684/ejd.2011.1357. PMID 21609898.
- Dawson, A. L.; Dellavalle, R. P. (2013). "Acne vulgaris". BMJ 346: f2634. doi:10.1136/bmj.f2634. PMID 23657180.
- Berlin, David J. Goldberg, Alexander L. Acne and Rosacea Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Treatment.. London: Manson Pub. p. 8. ISBN 9781840766165.
- Spencer, EH; Ferdowsian, HR; Barnard, ND (2009 Apr). "Diet and acne: a review of the evidence.". International Journal of Dermatology 48 (4): 339–47. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2009.04002.x. PMID 19335417.
- James, William D. (2005). "Acne". New England Journal of Medicine 352 (14): 1463–72. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp033487. PMID 15814882.
- Arndt, Hsu; Kenneth, Jeffrey (2007). Manual of dermatologic therapeutics. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0-7817-6058-5.[page needed]
- Anderson, Laurence. 2006. Looking Good, the Australian guide to skin care, cosmetic medicine and cosmetic surgery. AMPCo. Sydney. ISBN 0-85557-044-X.[page needed]
- Thiboutot, Diane M.; Strauss, John S. (2003). "Diseases of the sebaceous glands". In Burns, Tony; Breathnach, Stephen; Cox, Neil; Griffiths, Christopher. Fitzpatrick's dermatology in general medicine (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 672–87. ISBN 0-07-138076-0.
- Boils (Skin Abscesses), medicinenet.com
- Goodman, Greg (2006). "Acne and acne scarring - the case for active and early intervention". Australian family physician 35 (7): 503–4. PMID 16820822.
- Purvis, Diana; Robinson, Elizabeth; Merry, Sally; Watson, Peter (2006). "Acne, anxiety, depression and suicide in teenagers: A cross-sectional survey of New Zealand secondary school students". Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 42 (12): 793–6. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1754.2006.00979.x. PMID 17096715.
- Picardi, Angelo; Mazzotti, Eva; Pasquini, Paolo (2006). "Prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among patients with skin disease". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 54 (3): 420–6. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2005.11.1103. PMID 16488292.
- Devi S. Nambudripad. "1 - What Are the Common Skin Disorders?". Freedom From Eczema. Delta Publishing, 2008. p. 27.
- ἀκμή, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
- "acne" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
- "acne vulgaris" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
- "acne rosacea" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
- "Acne Scars". www.acne-lasertreatment.net. Retrieved 2010-09-09.
- Simpson, Nicholas B.; Cunliffe, William J. (2004). "Disorders of the sebaceous glands". In Burns, Tony; Breathnach, Stephen; Cox, Neil; Griffiths, Christopher. Rook's textbook of dermatology (7th ed.). Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Science. pp. 43.1–75. ISBN 0-632-06429-3.
- "Frequently Asked Questions: Acne". U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Public Health and Science, Office on Women's Health. 16 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
- Melnik, Bodo; Jansen, Thomas; Grabbe, Stephan (2007). "Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids and bodybuilding acne: An underestimated health problem". JDDG 5 (2): 110–7. doi:10.1111/j.1610-0387.2007.06176.x. PMID 17274777.
- Chiu, Annie; Chon, SY; Kimball, AB (2003). "The Response of Skin Disease to Stress". Archives of Dermatology 139 (7): 897–900. doi:10.1001/archderm.139.7.897. PMID 12873885.
- National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health (January 2006). "Questions and Answers about Acne" , p. 5.
- Yosipovitch, G; Tang, M; Dawn, AG; Chen, M; Goh, CL; Huak, Y; Seng, LF (2007). "Study of Psychological Stress, Sebum Production and Acne Vulgaris in Adolescents". Acta Dermato-Venereologica 87 (2): 135–9. doi:10.2340/00015555-0231. PMID 17340019.
- Bek-Thomsen, M.; Lomholt, H. B.; Kilian, M. (2008). "Acne is Not Associated with Yet-Uncultured Bacteria". Journal of Clinical Microbiology 46 (10): 3355–60. doi:10.1128/JCM.00799-08. PMC 2566126. PMID 18716234.
- Lomholt, Hans B.; Kilian, Mogens (2010). "Population Genetic Analysis of Propionibacterium acnes Identifies a Subpopulation and Epidemic Clones Associated with Acne". In Bereswill, Stefan. PLoS ONE 5 (8): e12277. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012277. PMC 2924382. PMID 20808860.
- "National Guideline Clearinghouse". Guideline.gov. 11/12/2007.
- Davidovici, Batya B.; Wolf, Ronni (2010). "The role of diet in acne: Facts and controversies". Clinics in Dermatology 28 (1): 12–6. doi:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2009.03.010. PMID 20082944.
- Ferdowsian, HR; Levin, S (2010). "Does diet really affect acne?". Skin therapy letter 15 (3): 1–2, 5. PMID 20361171.
- Smith, Robyn N.; Mann, Neil J.; Braue, Anna; Mäkeläinen, Henna; Varigos, George A. (2007). "The effect of a high-protein, low glycemic–load diet versus a conventional, high glycemic–load diet on biochemical parameters associated with acne vulgaris: A randomized, investigator-masked, controlled trial". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 57 (2): 247–56. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2007.01.046. PMID 17448569.
- Melnik, Bodo C. (2011). "Evidence for Acne-Promoting Effects of Milk and Other Insulinotropic Dairy Products". Milk and Milk Products in Human Nutrition. Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series: Pediatric Program 67. p. 131. doi:10.1159/000325580. ISBN 978-3-8055-9587-2.
- Melnik, Bodo C.; Schmitz, Gerd (2009). "Role of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, hyperglycaemic food and milk consumption in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris". Experimental Dermatology 18 (10): 833–41. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0625.2009.00924.x. PMID 19709092.
- Cordain, Loren (2005). "Implications for the Role of Diet in Acne". Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery 24 (2): 84–91. doi:10.1016/j.sder.2005.04.002. PMID 16092796.
- Zhao, Ya-e; Hu, Li; Wu, Li-Ping; Ma, Jun-Xian (2012). "A meta-analysis of association between acne vulgaris and Demodex infestation". Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 13 (3): 192–202. doi:10.1631/jzus.B1100285. PMC 3296070. PMID 22374611.
- Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-Ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-Ling; Xiao, Sheng-Xiang (2011). "Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: A case-control study". Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B 12 (12): 1008–15. doi:10.1631/jzus.B1100179. PMC 3232434. PMID 22135150.
- University of Nottingham Centre of Evidence Based Dermatology (2012). "2011-2012 Annual Evidence Update on Acne vulgaris". p. 10. Retrieved 23 September 2013.
- Leeds, Cook's and Pillsbury scales obtained from here
- Ramos-e-Silva, M; Carneiro, SC (2009). "Acne vulgaris: Review and guidelines". Dermatology nursing / Dermatology Nurses' Association 21 (2): 63–8; quiz 69. PMID 19507372.
- Sagransky, Matt; Yentzer, Brad A; Feldman, Steven R (2009). "Benzoyl peroxide: A review of its current use in the treatment of acne vulgaris". Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 10 (15): 2555–62. doi:10.1517/14656560903277228. PMID 19761357.
- Arowojolu, Ayodele O; Gallo, Maria F; Lopez, Laureen M; Grimes, David A (2012). "Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment of acne". In Arowojolu, Ayodele O. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 7: CD004425. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004425.pub6. PMID 22786490.
- Titus, S; Hodge, J (2012). "Diagnosis and treatment of acne". American family physician 86 (8): 734–40. PMID 23062156.
- Hamilton, F.L.; Car, J.; Lyons, C.; Car, M.; Layton, A.; Majeed, A. (2009). "Laser and other light therapies for the treatment of acne vulgaris: Systematic review". British Journal of Dermatology 160 (6): 1273–85. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2009.09047.x. PMID 19239470.
- Chapas, Anne M.; Brightman, Lori; Sukal, Sean; Hale, Elizabeth; Daniel, David; Bernstein, Leonard J.; Geronemus, Roy G. (2008). "Successful treatment of acneiform scarring with CO2ablative fractional resurfacing". Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 40 (6): 381–6. doi:10.1002/lsm.20659. PMID 18649382.
- Yarnell, Eric; Abascal, Kathy (2006). "Herbal Medicine for Acne Vulgaris". Alternative and Complementary Therapies 12 (6): 303–9. doi:10.1089/act.2006.12.303.
- Graupe, K; Cunliffe, WJ; Gollnick, HP; Zaumseil, RP (1996). "Efficacy and safety of topical azelaic acid (20 percent cream): An overview of results from European clinical trials and experimental reports". Cutis 57 (1 Suppl): 20–35. PMID 8654128.
- Morelli, Vincent; Calmet, Erick; Jhingade, Varalakshmi (2010). "Alternative Therapies for Common Dermatologic Disorders, Part 2". Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice 37 (2): 285–96. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2010.02.005. PMID 20493337.
- "Azelaic Acid Topical". National Institutes Of Health. Retrieved 2013-09-09.
- Pazyar, Nader; Yaghoobi, Reza; Bagherani, Nooshin; Kazerouni, Afshin (2013). "A review of applications of tea tree oil in dermatology". International Journal of Dermatology 52 (7): 784–90. doi:10.1111/j.1365-4632.2012.05654.x. PMID 22998411.
- Vos, Theo; Flaxman (2012). "Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990–2010: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". The Lancet 380 (9859): 2163–96. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2. PMID 23245607.
- Bhate, K; Williams, HC (2013 Mar). "Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.". The British journal of dermatology 168 (3): 474–85. doi:10.1111/bjd.12149. PMID 23210645.
- Shah, Sejal K.; Alexis, Andrew F. (2010). "Acne in skin of color: Practical approaches to treatment". Journal of Dermatological Treatment 21 (3): 206–11. doi:10.3109/09546630903401496. PMID 20132053.
- White, Gary M. (1998). "Recent findings in the epidemiologic evidence, classification, and subtypes of acne vulgaris". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 39 (2): S34–7. doi:10.1016/S0190-9622(98)70442-6. PMID 9703121.
- Keri J, Shiman M (2009). "An update on the management of acne vulgaris". Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 17 (2): 105–10. PMC 3047935. PMID 21436973.
- Myra Michelle Eby, Michelle Eby Myra. Return to Beautiful Skin. Basic Health Publications. p. 275.
- "Tretinoin (retinoic acid) in acne". The Medical letter on drugs and therapeutics 15 (1): 3. 1973. PMID 4265099.
- Jones, H (1980). "13-Cis Retinoic Acid and Acne". The Lancet 316 (8203): 1048–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(80)92273-4. PMID 6107678.
- Bérard, Anick; Azoulay, Laurent; Koren, Gideon; Blais, Lucie; Perreault, Sylvie; Oraichi, Driss (2007). "Isotretinoin, pregnancies, abortions and birth defects: A population-based perspective". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 63 (2): 196–205. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2006.02837.x. PMC 1859978. PMID 17214828.
- Holmes, SC; Bankowska, U; MacKie, RM (1998). "The prescription of isotretinoin to women: Is every precaution taken?". British Journal of Dermatology 138 (3): 450–5. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2133.1998.02123.x. PMID 9580798.
- Kim, Jenny (2008). "Acne Vaccines: Therapeutic Option for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris?". Journal of Investigative Dermatology 128 (10): 2353–4. doi:10.1038/jid.2008.221. PMID 18787542.
- Farrar, M. D.; Howson, K. M.; Bojar, R. A.; West, D.; Towler, J. C.; Parry, J.; Pelton, K.; Holland, K. T. (2007). "Genome Sequence and Analysis of a Propionibacterium acnes Bacteriophage". Journal of Bacteriology 189 (11): 4161–7. doi:10.1128/JB.00106-07. PMC 1913406. PMID 17400737.
Media related to Acne at Wikimedia Commons