|Classification and external resources|
It is more commonly associated with animals than with humans.
One of the most commons form seen by veterinarians is the mouth actinobacillosis of cattle, due to Actinobacillus lignieresii. The most prominent symptom is the swelling of the tongue that comes out of the mouth and is very hard at palpation (wooden tongue).
Differential diagnosis 
Mouth actinobacillosis of cattle must be differentiated from actinomycosis that affects bone tissues of the maxilla.