Actinobacteria

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Actinobacteria
Actinomyces israelii.jpg
Scanning electron micrograph of Actinomyces israelii.
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Actinobacteria
Class: Actinobacteria
Stackebrandt et al. 1997
Subclasses & Orders

Actinobacteria are a group of Gram-positive bacteria with high guanine and cytosine content in their DNA.[1][2] The G+C content of freshwater Actinobacteria can be as high as 42%, though some may have a low G+C content.[3] They can be terrestrial or aquatic.[4] Although understood primarily as soil bacteria, they might be more abundant in freshwaters.[5] Actinobacteria is one of the dominant bacterial phyla and contains one of the largest of bacterial genera, Streptomyces.[6] Analysis of glutamine synthetase sequence has been suggested for phylogenetic analysis of Actinobacteria.[7]

Although some of the largest and most complex bacterial cells belong to the Actinobacteria, the group of marine Actinomarinales has been described as possessing the smallest free-living prokaryotic cells.[8]

General[edit]

Most Actinobacteria of medical or economic significance are in subclass Actinobacteridae, and belong to the order: Actinomycetales. While many of these cause disease in humans, Streptomyces is notable as a source of antibiotics.

Of those Actinobacteria not in Actinomycetales, Gardnerella is one of the most researched. Classification of Gardnerella is controversial, and MeSH catalogues it as both a gram-positive and gram-negative organism.[9]

Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces sp., are recognized as the producers of many bioactive metabolites that are useful to humans in medicine, such as antibacterials,[10] antifungals,[11] antivirals, antithrombotics, immunomodifiers, anti-tumor drugs and enzyme inhibitors; and in agriculture, including insecticides, herbicides, fungicides and growth promoting substances for plants and animals.[12][13] Actinobacteria-derived antibiotics that are important in medicine include aminoglycosides, anthracyclines, chloramphenicol, macrolide, tetracyclines etc.

Streptomyces and other actinobacteria are major contributors to biological buffering of soils and have roles in organic matter decomposition conductive to crop production.[14]

Phylogeny[edit]

The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [15] and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)[16] and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 by The All-Species Living Tree Project [17]



?Candidatus Planktophila limnetica Jezbera et al. 2009



?Cathayosporangium alboflavumRunmao et al. 1995



?Tonsillophilus suisAzuma and Bak 1980



Rubrobacter Suzuki et al. 1989



  Thermoleophilidae

Gaiella occulta Albuquerque et al. 2012




Thermoleophilum Zarilla and Perry 1986



Solirubrobacterales






Coriobacteriaceae




Acidimicrobiales



 Nitriliruptoridae

Euzebya tangerina Kurahashi et al. 2010



Nitriliruptor alkaliphilus Sorokin et al. 2009



  Actinomycetales

?Boyliae praeputialeYates et al. 2002



?Frankia alni(Woronin 1866) Von Tubeuf 1895



?Motilibacter peucedani Lee 2012



Acidothermus cellulolyticus Mohagheghi et al. 1986






Jiangellaceae




Micromonosporaceae




Propionibacterineae





Actinocatenispora Thawai et al. 2006 emend. Seo and Lee 2009



Glycomycetaceae




Streptosporangineae








Pseudonocardiaceae [incl. Actinopolyspora]



Corynebacterineae






Catenulisporineae




Streptomyces Waksman and Henrici 1943 emend. Witt and Stackebrandt 1991 [incl. Kitasatospora & Streptacidiphilus]





Sporichthya Lechevalier et al. 1968



Cryptosporangiaceae





Geodermatophilaceae




Nakamurellaceae




Kineosporiaceae




Kineococcus Yokota et al. 1993




Angustibacter luteus Tamura et al. 2010



Micrococcineae [incl. Actinomycetaceae & Bifidobacteriaceae]

















Notes:
♪ Prokaryotes where no pure (axenic) cultures are isolated or available, i. e. not cultivated or can not be sustained in culture for more than a few serial passages
♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LSPN)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ventura, M.; Canchaya, C.; Tauch, A.; Chandra, G.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Chater, K. F.; van Sinderen, D. (5 September 2007). "Genomics of Actinobacteria: Tracing the Evolutionary History of an Ancient Phylum". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 71 (3): 495–548. doi:10.1128/MMBR.00005-07. PMC 2168647. PMID 17804669. 
  2. ^ "MB451 Actinobacteria lecture". Retrieved 2008-11-21. [dead link]
  3. ^ Ghai R, McMahon KD, Rodriguez-Valera F (2012). "Breaking a paradigm:cosmopolitan and abundant freshwater actinobacteria are low GC". Environmental Microbiology Reports 4 (1): 29–35. doi:10.1111/j.1758-2229.2011.00274.x. PMID 23757226. 
  4. ^ Servin JA, Herbold CW, Skophammer RG, Lake JA (January 2008). "Evidence excluding the root of the tree of life from the actinobacteria". Mol. Biol. Evol. 25 (1): 1–4. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm249. PMID 18003601. 
  5. ^ Ghai R, Rodriguez-Valera F, McMahon KD, et al. (2011). Lopez-Garcia, Purification, ed. "Metagenomics of the water column in the pristine upper course of the Amazon river". PloS ONE 6 (8): e23785. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023785. PMC 3158796. PMID 21915244. 
  6. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. Bacteria. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds. Sidney Draggan and C.J.Cleveland, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC
  7. ^ Hayward D, van Helden PD, Wiid IJ (2009). "Glutamine synthetase sequence evolution in the mycobacteria and their use as molecular markers for Actinobacteria speciation". BMC Evol. Biol. 9: 48. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-48. PMC 2667176. PMID 19245690. 
  8. ^ Ghai R, Mizuno CM, Picazo A, Camacho A, Rodriguez-Valera F (2013). "Metagenomics uncovers a new group of low GC and ultra-small marine Actinobacteria". Scientific Reports 3: 2471. doi:10.1038/srep02471. PMC 3747508. PMID 23959135. 
  9. ^ Gardnerella at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
  10. ^ Mahajan, GB (2012). "Antibacterial agents from actinomycetes - a review". Frontiers in Bioscience 4: 240–53. 
  11. ^ Gupte, M.; Kulkarni, P.; Ganguli, B.N. (2002). "Antifungal Antibiotics". Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol 58: 46–57. 
  12. ^ Bressan, W (2003). Biocontrol 48: 233–240. doi:10.1023/a:1022673226324. 
  13. ^ Atta, M.A (2009). Austral. J. Basic and Appl. Sci. 3: 126–135. 
  14. ^ Ningthoujam, Debananda S.; Tamreihao, SuchitraSanasam K.; Nimaichand, Salam (2009). "Test". Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 3 (11): 737–742. 
  15. ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Actinobacteria". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [1]. Retrieved 2011-11-17. 
  16. ^ Sayers et al. "Actinobacteria". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database [2]. Retrieved 2011-06-05. 
  17. ^ All-Species Living Tree Project."16S rRNA-based LTP release 106: full tree. accessdate=2011-11-17". 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]