There's Nothing in the World Like Action Park
|Location||Vernon, New Jersey, U.S.|
|Owner||Vernon Valley/Great Gorge Ski Resort|
|Operating season||Memorial Day–Labor Day|
It featured three separate attraction areas: an alpine slide, Motorworld, and Waterworld. The lattermost was one of the first American water parks. Many of its attractions were unique, attracting thrillseekers from across the New York City metro area. The park's popularity went hand in hand with a reputation for poorly designed, unsafe rides; under aged, under trained, and often under the influence staff; intoxicated, unprepared visitors; and the consequently poor safety record.
At least six people are known to have died as a result of mishaps on rides at the park. It was given nicknames such as "Traction Park""Accident Park", and "Class Action Park" by doctors at nearby hospitals due to the number of severely injured parkgoers they treated. Little action was taken by state regulators despite a history of repeat violations. In its later years personal-injury lawsuits forced the closure of more and more rides and finally the park itself in 1996.
Intrawest purchased the property and in 1998, many of the water attractions were reopened as Mountain Creek Waterpark. With a vastly increased emphasis on ride safety, the alpine slide and Motorworld areas were eliminated and some new water attractions were added. In 2010, the whole Mountain Creek ski area and waterpark was sold to a group led by Eugene Mulvihill, the former operator of Great Gorge and Action Park.
The park was born in 1978 when Great American Recreation (GAR), new owners of the recently combined Vernon Valley/Great Gorge ski area, wanted to do something with the ski area during the off season. They followed the trend of many other ski areas at the time, and in 1977 began offering an alpine slide down very steep ski trails, then gradually put together Waterworld, one of North America's earliest water parks, at the base of the slopes.
They started out with two speed waterslides in the summer of 1978, and then more waterslides and a small deep-water swimming pool the next year. The early 1980s saw more slides along with a huge wavepool. Finally, Motorworld was carved out of the swampy areas the ski area owned across Route 94. Ultimately, the small park consisting of the Alpine Slide and two speed slides evolved to a major destination with 75 rides (35 motorized self-controlled rides and 40 waterslides).
GAR promoted its new attraction with television commercials in the New York metropolitan area, using the jingle "There's nothing in the world like Action Park!" in several-part harmony (later, "The action never stops...at Action Park!"). The park soon became a popular summertime weekend destination in and of itself, due to the level of control it offered visitors over their experience compared with most other amusement parks. Some visitors were not even aware that it was part of a ski area.
Action Park's most successful years were the mid-1980s. Most rides were still open, and the park's later reputation for danger had not yet developed. In 1982, the deaths of two visitors within a week of each other and ensuing permanent closure of one ride took place, but that hardly dampened the flow of crowds.
The park's fortunes began to turn with two deaths in summer 1984 and the legal and financial problems that stemmed from the lawsuits. A state investigation of improprieties in the leasing of state land to the park led to a 110-count grand jury indictment against the nine related companies that ran it and their executives for operating an unauthorized insurance company. Many took pretrial intervention to avoid prosecution; head Eugene Mulvihill pled guilty that November to five insurance fraud-related charges. Still, attendance remained high and the park remained profitable, at least on paper. The park entertained over a million visitors a year, with as many as 12,000 coming on some of the busiest weekends.
Park officials said this made the injury and death rate statistically insignificant. Nevertheless, the director of the emergency room at a nearby hospital said they treated from five to ten victims of park accidents on some of the busiest days, and the park eventually bought the township of Vernon extra ambulances to keep up with the volume.
A few rides were closed and dismantled due to costly settlements and rising insurance premiums in the 1990s, and at last the park's attendance began to suffer as the recession early in that decade reduced visitation. GAR was finally forced into bankruptcy in 1995, and it operated with no insurance policy for its last several years in operation.
Action Park closed at the end of the season as usual on Labor Day, September 2, 1996. It was assumed that it would reopen on Memorial Day weekend of 1997 as usual. However, the financial state of GAR continued to cast a pall over the operations of both Action Park and the Great Gorge ski resort. The park's opening was first pushed back to mid-June 1997, and then 4th of July weekend. These never came to pass, as GAR announced in July that it was shutting down its operations immediately, including the park.
Alpine attractions 
Alpine slide 
Action Park's alpine slide descended the mountain roughly below one of the ski area's chairlifts, resulting in much verbal harassment and sometimes spitting from passengers going up for their turn, who would often be entertained by the accidents they witnessed while at the same time hoping to avoid similar fates.
The tracks themselves were made of concrete and fiberglass, which led to numerous serious abrasions on riders who took even mild spills. The tendency of some to ride in bathing suits so they could go on to Waterworld attractions afterwards made this problem worse.
The sleds themselves were a large factor in the injuries. A stick that was supposed to control speed led, in practice, to just two options on the infrequently maintained vehicles: extremely slow, and a speed described by one former employee as "death awaits."
This slide led to the first fatality at the park, a head injury suffered in 1980 by an employee whose sled ran off the track; he then fell down a large embankment and hit his head on a rock, which killed him. Hay bales at the curves were meant to cushion the impact of those whose sleds jumped the track (a frequent occurrence), but did not always do so effectively. According to state records, in 1984 and 1985 the alpine slide produced 14 fractures and 26 head injuries. While park officials regularly asserted its safety, saying that 90-year-old grandmothers could and did ride it, in the early years of the park the slide was responsible for the bulk of the accidents, injuries, lawsuits, and state citations for safety violations.
When Intrawest took over the park and renamed it Mountain Creek in spring 1998, they announced the slide would remain open for one final season. Riders were required to wear helmets and kneepads. The last day of the slide's operation was September 6 of that year, the day before the park closed for the season, as that year's Labor Day was rainy and the slide had to be closed.
The tracks were torn out afterwards, but the route can still be seen from the gondola that replaced the chairlift. Mountain Creek recently introduced an "Alpine Coaster", which combines elements of the Alpine slide and a roller coaster.
Skateboard park 
A skateboard park briefly existed, near the ski area's ski school building, but closed due to poor design after a season. Bowls were separated by pavement, which in many cases did not meet the edges smoothly. Former park employee Tom Fergus was quoted in the magazine Weird NJ saying that the "skate park was responsible for so many injuries we covered it up with dirt and pretended it never existed."
Grass skiing 
Grass skiing was available the same summer the skate park was open. Grass Skiing was on the beginner and intermediate slopes under the Brown chairlift.
The park also had a section called Motorworld. It had powered vehicles and boats on the west side of Route 94. These closed with Action Park in 1996. They have been replaced with a condominium housing development, a mini golf course, a restaurant, and additional parking for the Mountain Creek ski resort. Several types of vehicles were used in this area.
Land vehicles 
- Super Go Karts: The karts were meant to be driven around a small loop track at a speed of about 20 mph (32 km/h) set by the governor devices on them. But park employees knew how to circumvent the governors by wedging tennis balls into them, and were known to do so for parkgoers. As a result, an otherwise standard small-engine car ride became a chance to play bumper cars at 50 mph (80 km/h), and many injuries resulted from head-on collisions. Also, the engines were poorly maintained, and some riders were overcome by gasoline fumes as they drove.
- LOLA cars: These were miniature open-cockpit race cars on a longer track. Extra money was charged to drive them, and they, too, could be adjusted for speed by knowledgeable park employees, with similarly harmful consequences to riders. Fergus said that, after the park management briefly set up a microbrewery nearby, employees looking for after-hours fun would break into it, steal the beer, and then ride the cars on Route 94.
- Tank Ride: This was one of the most popular rides at Motorworld, and it was featured prominently in the television ads. In a chainlink fence-enclosed area, small tanks could be driven around, for a fee, for five minutes at a time, with tennis ball cannons that enabled riders to shoot at a sensor prominently mounted on each tank. If hit, the tank stopped operating for 15 seconds, while other tankers often took advantage of the delay to pepper the stricken vehicle with more fire. Visitors on the outside could also join in the fun through less costly cannons mounted on the inside of the fence. When workers had to enter the cage to attend to a stuck or crashed tank, which usually happened several times a day, they were often pelted with tennis balls from every direction despite prohibitions against such behavior that could result in expulsion from the park. This gave the tank ride a reputation for being more dangerous for the employees than the patrons, making it the least popular place to work in the park. It is not known if there were any serious injuries from the tank ride. As of 2012, the area has not been redeveloped and only a vacant lot remains.
- Super Speedboats: These were set up in a small pond, known by staff to be heavily infested with snakes. They were supposed to be driven around a small island in the middle at 35-40 mph (56–64 km/h). While, unlike the land vehicles, there was no way to tamper with them and increase their speed, many riders nonetheless used them to play bumper boat, and one seriously inebriated rider had to be rescued by the attendant lifeguard after his boat capsized following a collision.
- Bumper boats: This ride was supposedly safer, but the engines often leaked gasoline, at least once requiring medical attention for one rider who got too much on his skin. As with the Super Speedboats mentioned above, the bumper boat pond was infested with snakes, and the boats themselves were notoriously difficult to maneuver, so much so that the employees who worked there in 1990 were reduced to shouting "Skee-Da-Va", "Squeeze The Wheeze", and other nonsense. It made no difference, because riders could neither understand instructions above the din of the noisy engines nor control the skittering boats in any event.
Air rides 
- Space Shot: The "space shot" attraction was fairly safe. It was a tower drop up and down ride, common in many amusement parks today. This attraction was open in 1996 and again in 1998 (under Mountain Creek management). It was sold at the end of the 1998 season.
- Bungee Jumping Tower: The bungee jumping tower was a tower where guests would bungee jump as they were strapped to a cord and released to a huge, soft blow-up mat at the end of their ride. This was open from the late 1980s until 1996.
- Sling Shot: A bungee cord ride in which two riders sat in a seat and were strapped in while the ride was shot up in the air and supported by a bungee cord. Riders looped upside down. There are a few similar rides still standing in a handful of major amusement parks, the most common name being the Slingshot found at many Six Flags parks, but they are upcharge attractions (an additional charge to admission) due to insurance issues. At Action Park, the extra fee was only $5. This particular ride was open from 1993 to 1995. "We often wondered how many whiplash cases came out of that ride", one former employee recalled.
Water-based attractions made up half of the park's rides and accounted for the greatest share of its casualty count. Mountain Creek Waterpark still operates some of these attractions. In addition, there was also a miniature golf course as well as standard pools and rides for children. These were sometimes smaller, safer versions of the park's main attractions.
Cannonball Loop 
The one ride that has come to symbolize Action Park and its extreme thrillseeking was almost never used.
In the mid-1980s GAR built an enclosed water slide, not unusual for that time, and indeed the park already had several. But for this one they decided to build, at the end, a complete vertical loop of the kind more commonly associated with roller coasters. Employees have reported they were offered hundred-dollar bills to test it. Tom Fergus, "one of the idiots", said "$100 did not buy enough booze to drown out that memory."
It was opened for one month in summer 1985 before it was closed at the order of the state's Advisory Board on Carnival Amusement Ride Safety, a highly unusual move at the time. One worker told a local newspaper that "there were too many bloody noses and back injuries" from riders, and it was widely rumored, and reported in Weird NJ, that some of the test dummies sent down before it opened had been dismembered. A rider also reportedly got stuck at the top of the loop due to insufficient water pressure, and a hatch had to be built at the bottom of the slope to allow for future extractions.
The ride supposedly reopened a few more times over the years. In summer 1995 it opened for several days before a few more injuries forced another shutdown.
Those who rode it have said that more safety measures were taken than was otherwise common at the park. Riders were weighed and hosed down with cold water, required to remove jewelry, and then carefully instructed in how they had to position their bodies to complete the ride.
For the remainder of the park's existence, it remained visible near the entrance of Waterworld. It was dismantled shortly after the park closed and has never been rebuilt.
Other notable water attractions 
- The Tidal Wave Pool: The first patron death occurred here in 1982; another visitor drowned in this common water-park attraction five years later. It was, however, the number of people the lifeguards saved from a similar fate that made this the only Waterworld attraction to gain its own nickname, "The Grave Pool." It was 100 feet (30 m) wide by 250 feet (76 m) long and could hold 500 to 1,000 people. Waves were generated for 20 minutes at a time with 10-minute intervals between them, and could reach as much as 40 inches (102 cm) in height. It was not always obvious that pool depth increased as one got closer to the far end, and there were patrons who only remembered or realized that they could not swim when they were in over their heads and the waves were going full blast. Even those who could swim well did not realize that the waves, as fresh water, were not as buoyant as their ocean counterparts, and they sometimes exhausted themselves doing more swimming than they were ready for, causing patrons to crowd the side ladders as the waves began, leading to many accidents. Twelve lifeguards were on duty at all times, and on high-traffic weekends they were known to rescue as many as 30 people, compared to the one or two the average lifeguard might make in a typical season at a pool or lake. Mountain Creek continues to operate this attraction as the "High Tide Wavepool" but made the pool much shallower.
- The Kayak Experience: After the second visitor death in the park's history in 1982 occurred at this ride, it was closed permanently. It was an imitation whitewater course that used submerged electric fans to agitate the water above. Frequently the kayaks got stuck or tipped over, and people had to get out of them to remedy the situation.
- The Tarzan Swing: This was a steel arch hanging from a 20-foot (6.1 m)-long cable over a spring-fed pool. Patrons waited in long lines for the chance to hang from it, swing out over the water, then jump off as the beam reached its height. In early years the area patrons jumped off from was not over the water but a cushioned area. Some people who let go as soon as they started their swing would land on the cushion and then slide/crash into the water. In the mid-1980s the starting position was shifted so that patrons started over the water. Some patrons hung on too long and scraped their toes on the concrete at the far side. Others used the ride properly, but were then surprised to find out the water underneath was very cold. It was cold enough, in fact, that the lifeguards sometimes had to rescue people who were so surprised by the sudden chill they could not swim out of. In 1984, one man died from a heart attack after experiencing the swing. This ride is still open today.
- Roaring Rapids: This was a standard raft-based whitewater ride. Reports that the park filed with the state in 1984 noted fractured femurs, collar bones and noses, and dislocated knees and shoulders. This attraction is still open. The left side is known as The Gauley and riders use a single tube. The right side is known as Thunder Run and is a double tube rafting ride.
- Surf Hill: This ride, common to other water parks at the time, allowed patrons to slide down a water-slick sloped surface on mats into small puddles, until they reached a foam barrier after an upslope at the end. Barriers between lanes were minimal, and people frequently collided with each other on the way down, or at the end. The seventh lane was known as the "back breaker," due to its special kicker two-thirds of the way down intended to allow jumps and splashdowns into a larger puddle. Employees at the park used to like eating at a nearby snack bar with a good view of the attraction, since it was almost guaranteed that they could see some serious injuries, lost bikini tops, or both. Mountain Creek kept this attraction open through 2005, then reopened it in 2012.
- Super Speed Water Slides: These were two water slides, set slightly apart from the rest of the park, that took advantage of nearly vertical slopes to allow riders to attain higher speeds than usually possible. One started with riders going almost vertically downwards and was covered with screening for the first several feet. As barriers on the side of the slides were very low, lifeguards reminded every user to remain flat on their back with their arms at the side as they descended since there was no way to ride it otherwise and stay on. The fall from both slides had the potential for very serious injury. Those who made it to the bottom found their progress arrested by water, which made a large splash, and then a small pool. Only one of these slides remains today as H-2-Oh-No.
- Diving cliffs: The area around Roaring Rapids was (and still is) laid out like a kind of grotto, with many lower-intensity attractions. One was a pair of diving cliffs — one 23 feet (7 m), the other 18 feet (5.4 m) — above a 16-foot (5 m) deep pool. However, the pool below was not blocked off from those who might be swimming in or away from other attractions, and nothing at water level gave any indication to swimmers below that they could expect people to dive in right next to them - or right on top of them. The sole lifeguard on duty often had his or her hands full dealing with the results of those collisions. Also, nonswimmers would jump off the cliffs, not fully appreciating how deep the water below was, and have to be rescued. Former employee Tom Fergus says the bottom of the pool was eventually painted white to make it easier to spot any bodies on the bottom. The large pool into which people jumped is no longer used for regular swimming, only to deposit used tubes. Still operating, known as Canyon Cliffs.
- Colorado River Ride: The Colorado River Ride, which still exists, winds its way down a heavily wooded area on the side of the park. It used to feature large, circular rafts that people had to carry from the splash pool to the start. The "river" is actually a large trough made to look like a natural river bed. The ride started out at a slow pace around a couple of turns, but then became far more challenging. Since the river is on a steady pitch down the hill, the rafts gained speed very quickly. Sudden turns would send the rafts up the walls. Riders who were not holding on would sometimes fall out onto the steep surrounding terrain. A rider recounted to Weird NJ how a friend's mother suffered a broken nose when their raft was thrown into a rock wall. At one point the rafts would come to a fork where they could either head into a tunnel, or (less frequently) around a corner into an unknown section of river. The tunnel had many turns and was dark. Inside the tunnel were jagged rocks, which could cause cuts or scrapes if riders placed their hands out. At the exit, rafts commonly struck a curved wall with great force. The raft then floated into a small rock pool and stayed there until it found its way out. The final stretch of the river consisted of a large downhill portion complete with bumps, and a foot-high (30 cm) jump where the rafts would momentarily catch air and then slam back onto the surface.
- Aqua Scoot: The Aqua Scoot was a ride where the patron was placed on a solid plastic sled and pushed down a steep slide made of assembly line rollers into a small pool, with the idea being that the sled would skip across the water like a stone would skip across water. To accomplish this riders were expected to hold themselves in an upright and centered position while their sled descended. Otherwise, instead of skipping across the water the rider would be flung off the sled, and since the pool was very shallow (most of the pool was only inches deep) this would often result in riders' heads hitting the hard concrete pool floor and causing lacerations. Other times riders would suffer injuries when others would crash into them as they were leaving the pool.
The Aerodium 
Waterworld also featured the Aerodium, a vertical wind tunnel that allowed riders to hover in the air without any type of restraints. Stadium seating encircled the perimeter of the Aerodium, allowing friends and spectators to watch riders fly. Riders wearing a special skydiving suit, helmet, and earplugs would join the bodyflight instructor one by one on a trampoline-like netting directly over the fan. The instructor would grab each rider's wrists and guide the rider to fall forward, allowing the fan to loft the rider skyward. After a few seconds of flight, the attendant operating the fan would cut the power, causing the rider to fall onto the air cushions surrounding the fan. Park guests' flights were limited to a maximum of 6 or 7 feet (2 m) above the ground, approximately a foot or two over the instructor's head. The Aerodium has also caused severe injuries, for example, when the rider instinctively tries to break his fall by extending his arm, causing shoulder dislocation, severed nerves and near permanent paralysis of the arm.
Factors contributing to the park's safety record 
A range of factors contributed to accidents at the park, from the design and construction of the rides themselves to the makeup of both visitors and staff, and infamously lax government oversight.
Ride design 
Action Park and its defenders often pointed out that it was one of the first water parks in the nation and thus pioneered ideas that were later widely copied. This meant that visitors were using rides that had not been tested through practical use for very long. Ride designers may have had insufficient training in physics or engineering. "They seemed to build rides," one attendee recalls, "not knowing how they would work, and [then let] people on them."
GAR, as its legal troubles would suggest, has been accused of cutting corners to maximize its profits. For example, it was accused of building rides cheaply, sporadically maintaining many of them, and failing to renovate rides to take advantage of later safety improvements to its ideas made by other facilities. These practices may have taken place in a range of its operations, including customer safety (in the park's last year, it kept part of the ski area open despite being unable to obtain liability insurance).
The vast majority of workers at Action Park, at least the ones regularly seen by visitors, were teenagers. Jim DeSaye, a security director for the park, says he got that job at the age of 21, after having worked at the park for two years. His experience was not uncommon.
Since it was closer and slightly cheaper than Six Flags Great Adventure, Action Park attracted many visitors from the urban areas of the New York metropolitan area. Many of them were often from lower-income neighborhoods where they had few, if any, opportunities to swim, much less learn how. The park greatly overestimated these abilities, and this was a factor in many accidents as well as the drownings, according to park officials. DeSaye faults management's decision to broaden the customer base by advertising in Spanish-language media as contributing to the accident rate, since few employees spoke Spanish and no written information was made available in that language.
The staff's indifference to many of the park's own rules led to a similarly lawless culture among riders, who generally liked the high level of control they had over their experience and felt that any accidents were the fault of the victims. A state official lamented that many waterslide accidents were caused by the victims themselves, who, in blatant violation of an explicitly posted rule, would often discard their mats midway down the slide and wait at a turn for their friends so they could go down together.
Since many rides routed their lines so that those waiting could see every previous rider, many played to the audience with risky and bawdy behavior when it did finally come to be their turn. The Tarzan Swing in particular was known for outbursts of foul language (not always planned) and exhibitionism as people jumped off the swing in full view of the whole line behind them.
Availability of alcohol on grounds 
The park also sold beer in many kiosks on the grounds, with similarly relaxed enforcement of the drinking age as with other restrictions in the park. Doctors treating the injured often reported that many of them were intoxicated.
Lax regulatory climate 
Despite many citations for safety violations between 1979 and 1986, including allowing minors to operate some rides and failing to report accidents, which was unique among New Jersey's amusement parks, an investigation by the New Jersey Herald, Sussex County's main daily newspaper, later found that the park was fined only once. It was also unique in that department in that all the other amusement parks were fined for first offenses — except Action Park. It asked if there was some sort of special relationship between GAR and the state.
Some of the state's regulations failed to adequately address the situation. After the 1987 drowning, it was reported that the Tidal Wave Pool was considered a pool by the state, not a ride. Under state regulations at the time, that meant that all the company had to do was keep the water clean and make sure that certified lifeguards were on duty.
Six people are known to have died directly or indirectly from rides at Action Park:
- On July 8, 1980, a 19-year-old park employee was riding the Alpine Slide when his car jumped the track and his head struck a rock, killing him.
- A week later, on August 1, a 27-year-old man from Long Island got out of his tipped kayak on the Kayak Experience to right it. While doing so, he stepped on a grate that was either in contact with, or came too close to, a section of live wiring for the underwater fans that somehow became exposed and he suffered a severe electrocution which sent him into cardiac arrest. Several other members of his family nearby were also injured. He was taken to a hospital in nearby Warwick, New York where he died later of the shock-induced cardiac arrest. The park at first disputed that the electric current caused his death, saying there were no burns on his body, but the coroner responded that burns generally do not occur in a water-based electrocution. The ride was drained and closed for the investigation. Accounts differed as to the extent of the exposed wiring: the park said it was "just a nick," while others said it was closer to 8 inches (20 cm). The state's Labor Department found that the fan was properly maintained and installed and cleared the park of wrongdoing; however it also said that the current had the possibility to cause bodily harm under certain circumstances. While the park said it was vindicated, it never reopened the ride, saying that people would be afraid to go on it afterwards.
- In 1984, a fatal heart attack suffered by one visitor was unofficially believed to have been triggered by the shock of the cold water in the pool beneath the Tarzan Swing. The water on the ride and in that swimming area was 50-60 °F (10-16 °C) while other water areas were in the 70-80 °F (21-27 °C) range more typical of swimming pools. The Tarzan swing and the cannon ball ride in this area were operated by spring water.
- On July 19, 1987, an 18-year-old drowned in the Tidal Wave Pool.
Action Park was a cultural touchstone for many Generation Xers who grew up in North and Central Jersey, as well as nearby locales in New York and Connecticut. A popular list of "You Know You're from New Jersey When ..." that circulates in email begins with, "You've been seriously injured at Action Park."
Some even credit the park for making them learn some difficult lessons. In 2000, one, Matthew Callan, recalled Action Park thus:
Action Park made adults of a generation of Tri-State Area kids who strolled through its blood-stained gates, by teaching us the truth about life: it is not safe, you will get hurt a lot, and you'll ride all the way home burnt beyond belief.
Action Park was a true rite of passage for any New Jerseyan of my generation. When I get to talking about it with other Jerseyans, we share stories as if we are veterans who served in combat together. I suspect that many of us may have come closest to death on some of those rides up in Vernon Valley. I consider it a true shame that future generations will never know the terror of proving their grit at New Jersey's most dangerous amusement park.
Mountain Creek Waterpark 
Many of the water rides still exist, extensively renovated by Intrawest, which bought the ski area in 1998 and decided the next year to reopen them as Mountain Creek Waterpark. However, it is no longer the state's largest water park nor is it quite the draw it once was. Other waterparks have been built in and around the region, dividing what was once an exclusive market.
New Jersey toughened its amusement regulations as a result of the Action Park experience. Rides at Mountain Creek, many of them built in Action Park's heyday, now boast large bilingual signs advising patrons of just what the ride entails, how deep the water is in metric and US customary units, the age it is most appropriate for, and the state regulatory ID numbers. Safety rules are strictly enforced at the new park, although alcohol is still available.
In 2010, Intrawest, which ended up in bankruptcy proceedings itself as a result of a leveraged buyout, sold the park back to its original owners, bringing the park full circle.
- Arthur Levine, About.com; "The Action is back at Mountain Creek", http://themeparks.about.com/cs/waterparks/a/mountaincreek_2.htm
- Austin, Joanne; October 2005, "Revisiting Traction ... Er, Action, Park," Weird NJ, 22.
- Austin, Joanne, op. cit., 20-24.
- Jersey Ed; May 2006; "We Called it Accident Park" in "The Reaction to Traction at Action Park"; Weird NJ, 28.
- Perone, Joseph (May 27, 2010). "Mountain Creek resort in N.J. sold to developer Gene Mulvihill". The Star-Ledger (Newark, NJ: Advance Publications). Retrieved September 12, 2010.
- Austin, op. cit., 20
- The Digital Millennium Copyright Act forbids linking directly to this video at the moment, but entering "Action Park" as a search string at YouTube will bring it up.
- McKay, Martha; May 12, 2005; Ultimate wine snob; New Jersey Herald, retrieved August 27, 2006.
- New Jersey State Commission of Investigation, date not given, Concrete Results: Ensuring Justice, Saving Taxpayers' Money, 47, retrieved August 27, 2006.
- Austin, op. cit., 24
- Gethard, Chris; October 2005, "Brothers in Wounded Arms (And Legs) Serving Together at Action Park," Weird NJ, 23.
- Fergus, Tom; May 2006; "Another Action Park Employee Spills His Guts", in "The Reaction to Traction at Action Park"; Weird NJ, 29.
- Austin, op. cit., 21-22.
- See picture on this discussion thread
- Austin, op. cit., 21.
- Braybrook, Steve; May 2006; "A Survivor from Action Park Writes In", in "The Reaction to Traction at Action Park"; Weird NJ, 29.
- Shpunder, Greg; May 2006; "Action Park Designed to Hurt People" in "The Reaction to Traction at Action Park"; Weird NJ, 28.
- Callan, Matthew; Nov. 22, 2000, In Memoriam: Action Park, Freezerbox.
- DeSaye, Jim; May 2006; "From Former Vermin Valley Great Gorge Manager" in "The Reaction to Traction at Action Park"; Weird NJ, 29.
- Water Ride Fatalities 1972-1997 at rideaccidents.com, retrieved January 12, 2006.
- "Brooklyn Man Drowns in Pool At a Jersey Amusement Park". New York Times. August 27, 1984. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
- "18-Year-Old Drowns At Amusement Park". New York Times. July 20, 1987. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
- "You Know You're from New Jersey When ..." at inav.net, retrieved January 10, 2006.
- Action Park History, Recollections, News Articles and Photos from Weird NJ
- Narrative description of Action Park
- The Center of the Action, blog by former Action Park employees
- Interview with a former Action Park employee