Acute myelomonocytic leukemia

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Acute myelomonocytic leukemia
Classification and external resources
ICD-O: M9867/3
MeSH D015479

Acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMMoL) is a form of acute myeloid leukemia that involves a proliferation of CFU-GM myeloblasts and monoblasts.

It is classified under "M4" in the French-American-British classification (FAB).[1]

It is classified under "AML, not otherwise classified" in the WHO classification.[2]

Translocations have been observed.[3]

Progression from myelodysplastic syndrome has been reported.[4]

Acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) is a group of malignant bone marrow neoplasms of myeloid precursors of white blood cells. Acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4) is a common type of pediatric AML. However, the condition is rare and represents approximately 3 % of all leukemias during childhood and has an incidence of 1.1 – 1.7 per million per year. The symptoms may be aspecific: asthenia, pallor, fever, dizziness and respiratory symptoms. More specific symptoms are bruises and/or (excessive)bleeding, coagulation disorders (DIC), neurological disorders and gingival hyperplasia. Diagnosticmethods include blood analysis, bone marrow aspirate for cytochemical, immunological and cytogeneticalanalysis, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) investigations. A characteristic chromosomal abnormalityobserved in AML-M4 is inv(16). Treatment includes intensive multidrug chemotherapy and in selected cases allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Nevertheless, outcome of AML remains poor with an overall survival of 35-60%. Children with AML-M4 carrying the inv(16) abnormality have a better prognosis (61% 5-year overall survival). New therapeutics are required to increase the probability of cure in this serious disorder.

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