The Adai were among the first peoples in North America to experience European contact—and were profoundly affected. In 1530 Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca writes of them using the name Atayos. The Adai subsequently moved away from their homeland. By 1820, there were only thirty persons remaining. Their language is possibly Caddoan, but remains unclassified due to a lack of attestation.