|This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2014)|
Clockwise from top left: 1.Düden Waterfalls, 2.Yivliminare Mosque, 3.Konyaaltı, 4.Hıdırlık Tower, 5.Hadrian's Gate and 6.Falez Park at night.
|• Type||Metropolitan municipality|
|• Mayor||Menderes Türel (AKP)|
|• Metropolitan Municipality||1,417 km2 (547 sq mi)|
|Elevation||30 m (100 ft)|
|• Metropolitan Municipality||994,890|
|• Density||478/km2 (1,240/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Postal code||07x xx|
Antalya (Turkish pronunciation: [anˈtalja]), also called "Verdens navle", is a city on the Mediterranean coast of southwestern Turkey. It is Turkey's biggest international sea resort, located on the Turkish Riviera.
In 2013, Antalya became the third most visited city in the world by number of international arrivals, ranking behind Paris and London, respectively. Antalya previously ranked third in the world in 2011 and 2012 and fourth in 2010 with over 10.5 million visitors in 2011.
- 1 Name and Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Sports
- 6 Education
- 7 Culture
- 8 Transportation
- 9 International relations
- 10 Notable people from Antalya
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Name and Etymology
The city was founded as "Attaleia" (Greek: Αττάλεια), named after its founder Attalos II, king of Pergamon. This name, still in use in Greek, later mutated in Turkish as Adalia and then Antalya. Attaleia was also the name of a festival at Delphi and Attalis (Greek: Ἀτταλίς) was the name of an old Greek tribe at Athens. Despite the close similarity, there is no relationship to the name Anatolia.
It is uncertain when the site of the current city was first inhabited. Attalos II, king of Pergamon, is believed to have founded the city around 150 BC, during the Hellenistic period, naming it Attalia and selecting it as a naval base for his powerful fleet. However, excavations in 2008 in the Doğu Garajı district have uncovered remains dating to the 3rd century BC, suggesting that the city was founded earlier than previously supposed. Antalya became part of the Roman Republic in 133 BC when King Attalos III of Pergamon bequeathed his kingdom to Rome at his death. The city grew and prospered during the Ancient Roman period.
Christianity started to spread in the region after 2nd century. Antalya was visited by Paul of Tarsus, as recorded in the Acts of the Apostles: "From Perga, Paul and Barnabas went down to Attalia and sailed from there to Antioch after preaching in Pisidia and Pamphylia" (Acts 14:25-26). The ruins of the 13th-century Selcuk mosque at Attalia was previously a Christian Byzantine basilica from the 7th century. The Great Mosque had also been a Christian basilica and the Kesik Minare Mosque had been the 5th century Christian Church of the Panaghia or Virgin and was decorated with finely carved marble. The archaeological museum at Attalia houses some sarcophagi and mosaics from nearby Perga and a casket of bones reputed to be those of St. Nicholas, the bishop of Myra, further down the Turquoise coast.
Antalya was a major city in the Byzantine Empire. It was the capital of the Byzantine Theme of the Cibyrrhaeots, which occupied the southern coasts of Anatolia. At the time of the accession of John II Comnenus in 1118 it was an isolated outpost surrounded by Turkish beyliks, accessible only by sea.
The city and the surrounding region were conquered by the Seljuk Turks in the early 13th century. Antalya was the capital of the Turkish beylik of Teke (1321–1423) until its conquest by the Ottomans except Cypriot rule between 1361 and 1373. The Arabic traveler Ibn Battuta, who visited the city in 1335-1340, noted:
From Alanya I went to Antaliya [Adalia], a most beautiful city. It covers an immense area, and though of vast bulk is one of the most attractive towns to be seen anywhere, besides being exceedingly populous and well laid out. Each section of the inhabitants lives in a separate quarter. The Christian merchants live in a quarter of the town known as the Mina [the Port], and are surrounded by a wall, the gates of which are shut upon them from without at night and during the Friday service. The Greeks, who were its former inhabitants, live by themselves in another quarter, the Jews in another, and the king and his court and Mamluks in another, each of these quarters being walled off likewise. The rest of the Muslims live in the main city. Round the whole town and all the quarters mentioned there is another great wall. The town contains orchards and produces fine fruits, including an admirable kind of apricot, called by them Qamar ad-Din, which has a sweet almond in its kernel. This fruit is dried and exported to Egypt, where it is regarded as a great luxury.
In the second half of the 17th century Evliya Çelebi wrote of a city of narrow streets containing 3,000 houses in 20 Turkish and four Greek neighborhoods. The town had grown beyond the city walls and the port was reported to hold up to 200 boats.
In the 19th century, in common with most of Anatolia, its sovereign was a "dere bey" (land lord or landowner). The family of Tekke Oğlu, domiciled near Perge had been reduced to submission in 1812 by Mahmud II, but continued to be a rival power to the Ottoman governor until within the present generation, surviving by many years the fall of the other great beys of Anatolia. The records of the Levant (Turkey) Company, which maintained an agency in Antalya until 1825, documented the local dere beys.
In the 20th century the population of Antalya increased as Turks from the Caucasus and the Balkans moved into Anatolia. The economy was centered on its port that served the inland areas, particularly Konya. Antalya (then Adalia) was picturesque rather than modern. The chief attraction for visitors was the city wall, and outside a promenade, a portion of which survives. The government offices and the houses of the higher classes were outside the walls.
As of 1920, Antalya was reported as having a population of approximately 30,000. The harbor was described as small, and unsafe for vessels to visit in the winter. Antalya was exporting wheat, flour, sesame seeds, live stock, timber and charcoal. The latter two were often exported to Egypt and other goods to Italy or other Greek islands, who received mainly flour. In 1920, the city had seven flour mills. Wheat was imported, and then processed in town before exportation. Antalya imported manufactured items, mainly from the United Kingdom and United States.
The city was occupied by the Italians from the end of the First World War until the founding of the Turkish Republic in 1923. Large-scale development beginning in the 1970s transformed Antalya from a pastoral town into one of Turkey's largest metropolitan areas. Much of this has been due to tourism, which expanded in the 21st century.
In the early 20th century, the Antalya had two factories spinning and weaving cotton. As of 1920, the factories had 15,000 spindles and over 200 looms. A German-owned mill baled cotton. There were gin mills.
The area is shielded from the northerly winds by the Taurus Mountains. Antalya has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa) with hot and dry summers and mild and rainy winters. Around 300 days of the year are sunny, with nearly 3,000 hours of sunlight per year. The mean sea temperature ranges between 16 °C (61 °F) in winter and 27 °C (81 °F) in summer. The highest record air temperature reached 45 °C (113 °F) in July which normally averages as high as 34.4 °C (93.9 °F) and the lowest record dropped to −4 °C (25 °F) in February, when the low average is as low as 6.1 °C (43 °F).
|Climate data for Antalya|
|Record high °C (°F)||23.9
|Average high °C (°F)||15.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||10.6
|Average low °C (°F)||5.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−3.4
|Precipitation mm (inches)||234.2
|Avg. rainy days||12.3||10.8||9.0||7.2||5.6||2.9||1.4||1.4||2.3||5.8||7.5||12.0||78.2|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||139.5||156.8||204.6||219.0||288.3||297.0||310.0||279.0||237.0||213.9||162.0||133.3||2,640.4|
|Source #1: Turkish State Meteorological Service|
|Source #2: World Meteorological Organization (precipitation data)|
|17 °C (63 °F)||16 °C (61 °F)||16 °C (61 °F)||18 °C (64 °F)||20 °C (68 °F)||24 °C (75 °F)||26 °C (79 °F)||27 °C (81 °F)||26 °C (79 °F)||24 °C (75 °F)||21 °C (70 °F)||18 °C (64 °F)|
Agricultural production includes citrus fruits, cotton, cut flowers, olives, olive oil and bananas. Antalya Metropolitan Municipality’s covered wholesale food market complex meets 65% of the fresh fruit and vegetable demand of the province.
Since 2000, shipyards have been opened in Antalya Free Zone, specialized in building pleasure yachts. Some of these yards have advanced in composites boat building technology.
Kaleiçi, with its narrow cobbled streets of historic Ottoman era houses, is the old center of Antalya. With its hotels, bars, clubs, restaurants, and shopping, it has been restored to retain much of its historical character. Cumhuriyet Square, the main square of the city, is the location for temporary open air exhibitions and performances. There are sites with traces of Lycian, Pamphylian, and Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Seljuk architecture and cultures.
Festivals and events
- Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival: national film festival usually held in September / October.
- International Eurasia Film Festival: (2005-2008) annual international film festival, now part of the Golden Orange festival.
- Antalya Television Awards: awarded annually since 2009.
- Antalya Festival: September
- Mediterranean International Music Festival: October, 6 days
- Antalya International Folk Music and Dance Festival Competition: Last week of August
- Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival: June and July
- Flower festival May
There are a number of mosques, churches, madrasahs, masjids, hans (caravanserai) and hamams (Turkish bath) in the city. Kaleiçi, the harbor, which the city walls enclose, is the oldest part of the city. Kaleiçi contains historic houses with traditional Turkish and local Greek architecture.
Historic sites in the city center
- Kaleiçi: the historical center of the city.
- Ancient monuments include the City Walls, Hıdırlık Tower, Hadrian's Gate (also known as Triple Gate), and the Clock Tower.
- Hadrian's Gate: constructed in the 2nd century by the Romans in honor of the Emperor Hadrian.
- İskele Mosque: A 19th-century Mosque near the Marina.
- Karatay Medrese: A Medrese (Islamic theological seminary) built in 1250 by Emir Celaleddin Karatay.
- Kesik Minare (Broken Minaret) Mosque: Once a Roman temple then converted to a Byzantine Panaglia church and finally into a mosque.
- Tekeli Mehmet Paşa Mosque: An 18th-century Mosque built in honor of Tekeli Mehmet Paşa.
- Yat Limanı: the harbour dating to Roman era.
- Yivli Minare (Fluted Minaret) Mosque: Built by the Seljuks and decorated with dark blue and turquoise tiles, this minaret eventually became the symbol of the city.
- Kaleiçi Museum: Opened in 2007 by the Mediterranean Civilizations Research Center (Akdeniz Medeniyetleri Araştırma Merkezi)
- Atatürk's House Museum
- Antalya Toy Museum. The Antalya Metropolitan Municipality opened the exhibition facility in 2011.
- Suna & İnan Kıraç Kaleiçi Museum : An ethnographic museum run by the Suna and İnan Kıraç Foundation.
Sites of interest
The football club of Antalya, the Medical Park Antalyaspor plays in the Süper Lig. The team's home venue is Mardan Sports Complex. A New Antalya Stadium, which will have a seating capacity of around 42,000 people, has been proposed. Another football venue in the city is Antalya Atatürk Stadium.
The city hosts a number of international sports competitions due to its longer lasting warm weather condition. Since 2006, one of the four stages of Archery World Cup events are held at the Antalya Centennial Archery Field.
Since 2010, an international multiday trail running ultramarathon, called Lycian Way Ultramarathon, is held on the historical Lycian Way. The event runs eastward on a route of around 220–240 km (140–150 mi) from Ölüdeniz in Fethiye district of Muğla Province to Antalya in six days.
Antalya’s signature cuisine includes Piyaz (made with tahini, garlic, walnuts, and boiled beans), spicy hibeş with mixed cumin and tahini, şiş köfte, tandır kebap, domates civesi, şakşuka, and various cold Mediterranean dishes with olive oil. One local speciality is tirmis, boiled seeds of the lupin, eaten as a snack. "Grida" (also known as Lagos or Mediterrenean white grouper) is a fish common in local dishes.
The main transportation to the city is by air and land. Sea routes are still under development. In 2007, the airport added a new terminal.
The city has a main port at the south of the Konyaaltı.
Antalya Ulaşım, a municipally-owned corporation, runs the public bus system. The corporation owns Antobus and Antray. Antobus was started in September 2010. In 2010, the city planned to increase from 40 to 140 more buses.
Payment for public transportation was made in cash until the launch of a public transportation card, Antkart, in late 2007. The card system met with criticism and was subsequently canceled in June 2009, returning to a cash system. Halkkart has been used for the transportation system since the summer of 2010. Halkkart is managed by A-Kent Smart City Technologies under the control of Antalya Metropolitan Municipal government. Passengers can use identified cards to take buses or trams.
A tram system, opened in 1999, runs from Antalya Museum, and the Sheraton Voyager and Falez hotels, along the main boulevard through the city center at Kalekapisi, Hadrian's Gate, Karaalioglu Park, and ending at Talya Oteli. Trams depart on the hour and half-hour from the terminal (east and west), and reach Kalekapisi between 10 and 15 minutes later.
In December 2009, a 11.1 kilometres (6.9 mi) light rail line Antray was opened from one of the main city public bus hub northwest to the Zoo and beyond to suburban areas.
The infrastructure such as roads and drains are struggling to catch up with the increase in population and tourists.
Antalya Airport has two international terminals and one domestic terminal. In 2007, its number of passengers on international flights surpassed the total number at Istanbul Ataturk Airport and Sabiha Gökçen International Airport for the first time, officially earning the title of "the capital of Turkish tourism".
Twin towns — Sister cities
Notable people from Antalya
- Tarık Akıltopu, architect, historian, poet, writer
- Cafercan Aksu, football player
- Michael Attaliates Byzantine lawyer of 11th century
- Deniz Baykal, former leader of Republican People's Party
- Coşkun Göğen, film actor
- Onat Kutlar, writer
- Özgürcan Özcan, football player
- Rüştü Reçber, football player
- Yağmur Sarıgül, musician, composer of maNga
- Sümer Tilmaç, actor
- Musa Uzunlar, actor
- Burak Yılmaz, football player
- Levent Yüksel, musician, composer
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- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
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