Robot Scientist

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Robot Scientist
Type of project Scientific Research
Location University of Manchester
Aberystwyth University
Imperial College London
University of Cambridge[1]
Robert Gordon University[2]
Owner Professor Ross King
Established 2004
Funding EPSRC

Robot Scientist (also known as Adam[3]) is a laboratory robot created and developed by a group of scientists including Ross King, Kenneth Whelan, Ffion Jones, Philip Reiser, Christopher Bryant, Stephen Muggleton, Douglas Kell and Steve Oliver.[2][4][5][6][7][8]


As a prototype for a "robot scientist", Adam is able to perform independent experiments to test hypotheses and interpret findings without human guidance, removing some of the drudgery of laboratory experimentation.[9][10] Adam is capable of:

While researching yeast-based functional genomics, Adam became the first machine in history to have discovered new scientific knowledge independently of its human creators.[3][16][17]

Adam and Eve[edit]

Adam's research studied baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)[2] and is one of two robot scientists along with "Eve"[11] (named after Adam and Eve), a robot currently doing research on drug screening.


  1. ^ a b "2 April 2009 - Robot scientist becomes first machine to discover new scientific knowledge - Media release - BBSRC". Archived from the original on 2013-02-24. 
  2. ^ a b c King, R. D.; Whelan, K. E.; Jones, F. M.; Reiser, P. G. K.; Bryant, C. H.; Muggleton, S. H.; Kell, D. B.; Oliver, S. G. (2004). "Functional genomic hypothesis generation and experimentation by a robot scientist". Nature 427 (6971): 247–252. doi:10.1038/nature02236. PMID 14724639.  edit
  3. ^ a b King, P.; Rowland, J.; Aubrey, W.; Liakata, M.; Markham, M.; Soldatova, L. N.; Whelan, K. E.; Clare, A.; Young, M.; Sparkes, A.; Oliver, S. G.; Pir, P. (2009). "The Robot Scientist Adam". Computer 42 (7): 46 – 54. doi:10.1109/MC.2009.270.  edit
  4. ^ "Robot Scientist page at Aberystwyth University". Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 27 June 2011. 
  5. ^ Sparkes, A.; Aubrey, W.; Byrne, E.; Clare, A.; Khan, M. N.; Liakata, M.; Markham, M.; Rowland, J.; Soldatova, L. N.; Whelan, K. E.; Young, M.; King, R. D. (2010). "Towards Robot Scientists for autonomous scientific discovery". Automated Experimentation 2: 1. doi:10.1186/1759-4499-2-1. PMC 2813846. PMID 20119518.  edit
  6. ^ King, R. D.; Rowland, J.; Oliver, S. G.; Young, M.; Aubrey, W.; Byrne, E.; Liakata, M.; Markham, M.; Pir, P.; Soldatova, L. N.; Sparkes, A.; Whelan, K. E.; Clare, A. (2009). "Make Way for Robot Scientists". Science 325 (5943): 945–945. Bibcode:2009Sci...325R.945K. doi:10.1126/science.325_945a. PMID 19696334.  edit
  7. ^ Anderson, Philip W.; Abrahams, Elihu (2009). "Machines Fall Short of Revolutionary Science". Science 324 (5934): 1515–1516. Bibcode:2009Sci...324.1515A. doi:10.1126/science.324_1515c. PMID 19541975.  edit
  8. ^ a b King, R. D. (2011). "Rise of the Robo Scientists". Scientific American 304: 72–76. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0111-72.  edit
  9. ^ Mosher, Dave (13 April 2011). "Developer of Robot Scientist Wants to Standardize Science". Wired. 
  10. ^ Buchen, Lizzie (2 April 2009). "Robot Makes Scientific Discovery All by Itself". Wired. 
  11. ^ a b Wilson, N. (2004). "Technology: A robot scientist". Nature Reviews Genetics 5 (3): 164. doi:10.1038/nrg1300.  edit
  12. ^ Greenemeier, Larry (2009). "Meet Adam and Eve: AI Lab-Bots That Can Take On Reams of Data". Scientific American. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  13. ^ Kleiner, Kurt (2009). "Robot scientist makes discoveries without human help". New Scientist. 
  14. ^ Anon (2009). "Adam becomes first robot to make a scientific discovery after conducting its OWN experiments". Daily Mail (London). 
  15. ^ Gill, Victoria (2 April 2009). "Robo-scientist's first findings". BBC News. 
  16. ^ King, R. D.; Rowland, J.; Oliver, S. G.; Young, M.; Aubrey, W.; Byrne, E.; Liakata, M.; Markham, M.; Pir, P.; Soldatova, L. N.; Sparkes, A.; Whelan, K. E.; Clare, A. (2009). "The Automation of Science". Science 324 (5923): 85–89. Bibcode:2009Sci...324...85K. doi:10.1126/science.1165620. PMID 19342587.  edit
  17. ^ Cookson, Clive (2009). "Robot achieves scientific first". Financial Times.