July 1970 (age 44)
London, England, UK
He is the inventor of hashcash, the proof-of-work system used by Bitcoin and several anti-spam systems. Hashcash has also been used in a number of other protocols such as combating blog spam, and defending against user namespace pollution.
He was the first to formalize the Non-Interactive Forward-Secrecy security property for email and to observe that any Identity Based Encryption scheme can be used to provide Non-Interactive Forward Secrecy.
He is also known for pioneering the use of ultra-compact code with his 3-line RSA in Perl signature file and non-exportable T-shirts to protest the (now relaxed) United States cryptography export regulations.
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