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Adam Ciołkosz (Polish pronunciation: [ˈadam ˈt͡ɕɔwkɔʂ]; January 5, 1902 - October 1, 1978) was a Polish scout, soldier, publicist and politician, who was one of the most important leaders of the Polish Socialist Party, both in country and in exile during and after World War II.
Early life and education
Ciołkosz was born in Kraków, but a year later in 1902[clarification needed], he and his family moved to Tarnów. His father, Kasper, was an active progressive and independence agitator. His mother, Maria Idzikowska, was the daughter of a veteran of the January Uprising.
Scouting and fighting for independence
In October 1918, he and National Emergency Squads of the Polish Scouts, which he had formed and led with POWs, forced Austrian forces to surrender in Tarnów. In November, he was one of the young scouts who participated in battle for Lwów.
At age of 27 (1928), he was elected a Sejm Member from the Polish Socialist Party. He was re-elected in 1930, but this time Sanacja authorities didn't allowed him to take office as with many others of the opposition.
He was one of the most outspoken critics of the Sanacja regime and was tried and sentenced to three years in prison.
Ciołkosz was an active politician in exile and soon was elected party leader. He led PPS in exile until his death in London.
A strong anti-communist, he opposed Soviet domination in the Eastern Europe after 1945.
His wife died in 2002 at age of 99.