Henson's grandfather Leslie Henson, was a music hall and musical comedy comedian and actor. His farmer father Joe Henson, presented a countryside TV programme with Angela Rippon and Phil Drabble; while his actor uncle Nicky Henson has appeared in films and TV programmes including Fawlty Towers and Inspector Morse. Henson is married to Charlotte and has two children. 
Born on the farm he now works, Bemborough Farm near Guiting Power, Gloucestershire, Adam did some work at the Chatsworth Estate, and gained a HND in Agriculture at Seale-Hayne Agricultural College in Newton Abbot, Devon, where he met his business partner and friend Duncan Andrews. After graduation, the pair travelled for over a year through Australia working on sheep and arable stations, then a kiwi plantation in New Zealand, before returning to plant tea in the Atherton Tablelands in Queensland. After diving on the Great Barrier Reef, they returned via California and Canada. Henson's father started the Cotswold Farm Park which Adam now runs, which attracts over 70,000 visitors per annum. Adam and Duncan Andrews took on the lease of Bemborough Farm from his father, and the pair now jointly run the 650 hectare estate, growing wheat, spring barley and oilseed rape, alongside a flock of 350 commercial ewes.
Henson broke into television work in 2001 when he was successful in gaining a presenting position on the BBC's Countryfile programme, after it ran a presenter search. Since this time he has worked on programmes such as Countryfile Summer Diaries and Inside Out. Due to his extensive farming knowledge, he has also worked on BBC Radio 4’s On Your Farm and Farming Today, and the joint presenter with Kate Humble of Lambing Live.
In November 2013 he starred alongside Nigel Slater on BBC's 'Nigel and Adam's Farm Kitchen' Adam the farmer and Nigel Slater (the chef) join forces to sow, grow rear and cook Britain's favourite foods, from a working farm in the Cotswolds, as they try to get people back in touch with where our food comes from.
- Mr Adam John Lincoln Henson company-director-check.co.uk. Retrieved 28 February 2012.
- "Adam Henson". Cotswold Life. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
- Cotswold Farm Park - The Home of Rare Breeds Conservation
- "Adam Henson". Horse and Country. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
- Adam Henson | BBC Gardeners World Live
- Adam Henson TractorPool - llewtubevideo - blip.tv
- Gray, Louise (9 May 2011). "Adam Henson receives death threats over badger cull". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 10 May 2011.