Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine
Court Custine Versailles.jpg
The General, affectionately known as "the Mustaches".
Born 4 February 1740 (1740-02-04)
Metz
Died 28 August 1793 (1793-08-29) (aged 53)
Paris
Allegiance  Kingdom of France
 French First Republic
Service/branch French Army
Years of service 1756–1789; 1791–1793
Rank General
Battles/wars War of Austrian Succession
Seven Years' War
American Revolutionary War
French Revolutionary Wars
Awards Order of Cincinnati
Name engraved on Third Column (north pillar), Arc de Triomph
Other work Estates-General, 1789; National Constituent Assembly, 1789–1790

Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine (4 February 1740 – 28 August 1793) was a French general. As a young officer in the Bourbon Royal army, he served in the Seven Years' War, and subsequently formed part of Rochambeau's Expédition Particulière (Special Expedition) supporting the American colonists against the British during the American Revolutionary War; upon its conclusion, he rejoined his unit in the Royal Army.

When the French Revolution began he was elected to the Estates-General and served in the subsequent National Constituent Assembly as a representative from Metz. He supported some of the August Decrees, but also supported, generally, royal prerogative and the rights of the French émigrès. At the dissolution of the Assembly in 1791, he rejoined the army as a lieutenant general and the following year replaced Nicolas Luckner as commander-in-chief of the Army of the Vosges. Following Dumoriez's apparent treason, the Committee of Public Safety investigated him, but a vigorous defense mounted by the Revolutionary lawyer Robespierre resulted in Custine's acquittal. However, when he failed to relieve besieged Condé the following year, he was recalled Paris and found guilty of treason by the Revolutionary Tribunal and guillotined.

Military service[edit]

Adam Philippe de Custine began his career at the age of eight, in 1748, at the end of the War of Austrian Succession in Germany under Marshal Saxe, who continued his tutelage during peace time. During the Seven Years' War (1756-–1763), Custine served in the French army in the German states; in 1758, he was a captain of dragoons in the Schomberg regiment.[1] His father was killed during the spectacular Prussian victory at the Battle of Rossbach in 1757. While fighting the Prussians, Custine learned to admire their modern military organization, which later influenced his own military style.[2]

By the end of the Seven Years War (1763), Custine was maestre de camp. The Duc de Choiseul, who recognized his talent, created a regiment of dragoons for him, but Custine exchanged this for a regiment of infantry that was heading for America, where he could continue military action, acquire additional experience, and obtain promotion.[3] His regiment, the Regiment de Saintonge (1,322 men and officers) embarked for the Thirteen Colonies in April 1780 from Brest. There, he served with distinction against the British[4] as a colonel in the expeditionary force of the comte de Rochambeau in the War of American Independence. The regiment participated in the Virginia campaign of 1781 and received distinguished commendations for action at the Battle of Yorktown, at which Custine received a recognition of merit and brevet from the United States government.[5] Rouchambeau's reports praised his honesty, zeal, courage and talents.[3] Following the surrender of the British, his regiment wintered in Williamsburg, Virginia and departed for the Antilles in December 1782, with the rest of the expeditionary force. On his return to France, Custine was named maréchal de camp (brigadier general) and appointed governor of Toulon.[6] He also resumed responsibilities as the proprietor of the dragoon Regiment de Rouergue.[5]

Activities during the French Revolution[edit]

In 1789, the bailliage of Metz elected Custine to the Estates-General; upon his election, he resigned his military commission, judging that his responsibilities in the assembly required his full attention.[6] In July 1789, as the French Revolution gained momentum, he remained in the National Constituent Assembly. There, he supported the creation of a constitution espousing the principles of representative government and often voted with such liberal (constitutional) nobility as the Marquis de Lafayette. Although he supported the abolition of some seigniorial rights, he strongly defended royal prerogative and the rights of the nobility who fled during the Great Fear, especially their rights of property. He offered limited support of the nineteen decrees that abolished game-laws, seigniorial courts, the purchase and sale of posts in the magistracy, of pecuniary immunities, favoritism in taxation, of surplice money, first-fruits, pluralities, and unmerited pensions.[7]

With the dissolution of the Legislative Assembly in October 1791, Custine was appointed lieutenant general to the Army of the Vosges, as the army of volunteers was known. Despite his strict discipline, he was popular with the soldiers, amongst whom he was known as "général moustache".[4] The following year he was appointed commander-in-chief of the army, replacing Nicolas Luckner; in the following campaign, he took Speyer, Worms, Mainz and Frankfurt in September and October 1792.[4]

His conduct at Mainz is indicative of his nature. The French troops began the encirclement and siege of the city on October 18. On that night, the vanguard of General Jean Nicolas Houchard reached Weisenau.

One of our columns ... marched to within cannon shot of the town; the troops of Mainz, who lined the advanced works, fired and wounded few men. This operation complete, the howitzer batteries opened fire on the fort Hauptstein and the body of the place; but they were only field guns, and as the fortifications that surround the main forum for Mainz are very extensive, we quickly recognized the impossibility to wear down the city using six inch shells. The engineer commander Clémencey proposed to use red balls [incendiaries]; Custine but laughed and said he would have the city without resorting to fire.[8]

Custine had already been informed by the republicans among Mainz's inhabitants that the French had only to appear before the city to become its master.[9]

In the Rhineland, Custine continued the revolution by proclamation, and levied heavy taxes on the nobility and clergy. During the winter a Prussian army forced him to evacuate Frankfurt, re-cross the Rhine and fall back upon Landau. This occurred during Charles François Dumouriez's treasonous collaboration with the Austrians. After a major defeat in the Battle of Neerwinden in March 1793, Dumouriez made a desperate move to save himself from his radical enemies. He arrested the four deputy-commissioners of the National Convention who had been sent to inquire into his conduct as well as the Minister of War, Pierre Riel de Beurnonville, and he handed them over to the Austrians, and then attempted to persuade his troops to march on Paris and overthrow the revolutionary government. The attempt failed, and Dumouriez, along with the duc de Chartres (afterwards King Louis Philippe) and his younger brother, the duc de Montpensier, fled into the Austrian camp. This blow left the Girondists vulnerable due to their association with Dumouriez and, which, when discovered, brought the suspicious of the Paris regime on all the French generals, and particular those of aristocratic birth. Summoned to Paris to account for himself, Custine was accused of treason, but defended by Robespierre, the French revolutionary and lawyer, who declared him an honest man who gave his country good service ("J’estime sa franchise, ce général a bien servi la patrie."); with Robespierre's defense, he was cleared of all charges. Subsequently, he commanded the Army of the North.[6]

Reorganization of the army[edit]

In early 1793, France was in terrible crisis: French forces were pushed out of Belgium; also there was revolt in the Vendée over conscription; wide-spread resentment of the Civil Constitution of the Clergy; and the French king had just been executed. The armies of the French Republic were in a state of disruption; the problems became even more acute following the introduction of mass conscription, the levée en massee, which saturated an already distressed army with thousands of illiterate, untrained men.[10]

The French Convention reorganized the army on 24 April 1793. Believed to be tainted with royalists sentiments, the Armies of Belgium and Holland (Dumouriez's commands) were suppressed, and troops were consolidated into the new Army of the North. A new system of demi brigades placed experienced soldiers of the Ancien Régime side-by-side with raw volunteers recruited from levée en massee. Although this numerically expanded the army, it fundamentally undermined unit cohesion, at least temporarily. The old officer corps had been demolished: many of the officer class had emigrated, and the cavalry in particular suffered from their departure. Consequently, with this radical reorganization, what had seemed like easy victories over the First Coalition in 1792 when the old royal army had remained relatively intact, became far more difficult in 1793.[11] Auguste Marie Henri Picot de Dampierre held overall command and the subordinate Army of the Ardennes remained under François Joseph Drouot de Lamarche.[12]

On top of this, the problems created by Dumouriez's treason escalated. For the revolutionaries in Paris, military failures were not a result of poor planning, grandiose war aims, mediocre training, and non-existing provisioning; they were the fault of traitorous generals. Consequently, the regime in Paris sent representatives on mission to insure the cooperation, especially of all officers or men of aristocratic birth. These representatives held absolute power and all personnel — enlisted men, officers, generals — were urged to accomplish impossible feats with revolutionary fervor, but a minimum of ammunition, provisions, weapons, and military accoutrements. Failure was, in the eyes of the Paris regime, a result of misconduct based in a general's lack of will and his undoubted conspiracy with the enemy. Any accusation of misconduct could result in death. Consequently, French commanders walked a fine line between the security of the frontier and clamor for victories which would protect the regime in Paris on the one hand, and the desperate condition of the army on the other. Furthermore, they themselves were constantly under suspicion from the representatives of the new regime, who were present in their camps, looking over their shoulders, and second-guessing every move.[11] In this Reign of Terror, the price of failure or disloyalty was the guillotine. Such a fate was also the price of prudence and common sense.[13]

Problem at Condé[edit]

These problems came to a head at the fortress at Condé, an old town on the confluence of the Scheldt and Haine rivers, which was a significant strategic prize. In 1659, the Spanish had converted the town into a fortress. They built a new bastioned trace around the town, outside the old wall which was kept as an inner line. Originally, the new defenses were constructed of earth, but in 1666, the bastions on the west side were revetted with stone. On the south side, a new horn work protected the old town castle. In case of attack, the defenders could easily flood the ditch with water from the rivers. Fortifications expert Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban improved the defenses on the east side, adding two demi-bastions and a full bastion. He also constructed sluice gates so that the garrison could control the depth of the water in the ditches and flood areas on the east side. Outside the fortress, Vauban built five square redoubts to keep an attacker away from the main defenses. It was an impressive fortress, one that would be difficult to take.[14]

The French garrison was commanded by Maréchal de Camp (General of Brigade) Jean Nestor de Chancel with 4,300 defending French soldiers. On 8 April 1793, a 6,000-strong Coalition division led by Duke Ferdinand Frederick Augustus of Württemberg invested Condé-sur-l'Escaut. The Austrian portion of Württemberg's force included one battalion each of the Infantry Regiments d'Alton Nr. 15 and Joseph Colloredo Nr. 57, two composite battalions drawn from Infantry Regiments de Ligne Nr. 30, Württemberg Nr. 38, Murray Nr. 55 and Vierset Nr. 58, four companies of Tyrolean Sharpshooters and two squadrons of Kavanagh Cuirassier Regiment Nr. 12. The French Royalist contingent was made up of two squadrons each of the Berczeny Hussar, Saxe Hussar and Royal Allemand Cavalry Regiments.[15]

General Custine, a 1793 engraving.

Dampierre, who had the unenviable task of replacing Dumouriez, knew that his troops needed rest after the disasters at Neerwinden, and Pellenberg, but the representatives on mission — political, not military, men — demanded action. Dampierre's army reoccupied Famars near Valenciennes on 15 April. Two weeks later on 1 May, the French attacked the Coalition army under Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld in an attempt to relieve Condé, which had already been invested on 8 April by approximately 6000 Austrian and Émigrè troops.[15]

In this attempt, the depredations of the Revolution on the army were strongly felt: the infantry fought stoutly, but the cavalry fell short in its charge and the assault failed. On 8 May, at the Battle of Raismes, Dampierre attacked again and his left wing made some progress, but was halted by a brigade of British Guards. Although intense fire stopped the British counter-attack, the French relief attempt failed again.[16] The French suffered 1,500 casualties out of 30,000 involved in the action while the Coalition lost about 600 killed and wounded.[17] Dampierre was carried from the field with part of his thigh shot away; he died the next day. Despite this heroic effort, Georges Couthon denounced him as a traitor to the revolution before National Convention. Had Dampierre survived, he would probably have been sent to the guillotine, since he, as a general, was already under suspicion. On 10 May the Coalition forces recaptured all the ground that they lost on the 8th and the French army retired to their camp at Famars.[16]

While this occurred, Custine dared not take the offensive vis a vis Condé: he too had the feared representatives on mission present among his troops. Custine had no patience for such men; and he reacted angrily to suggestions that lacked any military knowledge or foundation.[18] He had been attacked by such men before, and had barely escaped from condemnation in the previous autumn. If he moved to relieve the besieged garrison at Condé, he would leave other territories unprotected.[19]

This is not to say Custine remained inactive. In early May, Custine designed a plan to cut off a body of the Coalition force that had ventured too far from the main force. However, since he was about to take command of the Army of the North, he delegated some of the responsibility for this plan to Houchard, instructing him to attack Limberg and Carlsberg with the Army of the Moselle. The garrison at Landau was to make several feints and actions to distract the Prussian troops. Custine also created a false report that the cavalry of the army of Moselle had arrived, as well as part of the artillery of Strasbourg. General Ferier, who commanded an 40 battalions, was to throw himself on the Prussians until he heard that the principal engagement at Rheinzadern had begun. Custine left with his troops in the evening; several delays prevented him from arriving until five in the morning, but Landremont engaged the Austrian army in the meanwhile and prevented them from advancing until Custine arrived and charged the Austrian post with two divisions of dragoons. Unfortunately, a battalion of French mistook the Custine's dragoons for the enemy, and fired upon them with great accuracy. Any attempt to rally the battalion met with additional discharges. The commander, who apparently had little control over his troop, was denounced by the representatives and his troops, and arrested, but shot himself. Custine was disgusted with the affair: "This day, which ought to have so memorable, terminated by the taking of one piece of cannon and a very great number of prisoners." [19]

Ultimately, Dampierre's failure to relieve the garrison at Condé and Custine's seeming inaction spelled Custine's end. Jacques-René Hébert denounced him to the Convention, reporting that he sought to have his troops destroyed by the Emigrè army, an accusation Chamans called "an absurd calumny."[18] In fact, before leaving the Army of the Rhine, Custine had attempted to solidify the French position on the river before taking over Dampiere's old command on the Dutch border. None of this seemed to matter. Custine was recalled to Paris and arrested on 22 July. During his trial, Hébert continued to spew vitriol and this time Robespierre did not defend Custine. The Revolutionary Tribunal convicted him of treason and he was executed by guillotine on 28 August 1793.[20]

Character[edit]

Custine's leadership and character, although impugned by the Tribunal, proved fundamentally sound in the field. As an admirer of the Prussian style of drill and discipline, he was a strict disciplinarian, but his soldiers actually liked him, and felt inspired by him. Custine liked to make speeches and reportedly knew the names of his soldiers. He visited men in the hospital, demonstrated blunt good humor, and was the master of repartee. His ready wit was quoted throughout his command.[21] He did not tolerate disorder or insubordination however; when encountering a troop of volunteers in 1792, who bragged to say they were going to teach the army the right step (make it Republican), he ordered his cavalry to surround and disarm them.[22]

Custine also recognized and recruited talented officers. At the surrender of the garrison at Mainz, he offered the Mainz commander, Rudolf Eickemeyer, a colonel's commission to serve in the French army.[23] By 1793, Eickemeyer had been promoted to brigadier general; he served in the Upper Rhine campaigns and the Rhine Campaign of 1796.[24] During this campaign, he also acquired the services of a young officer, Laurent Gouvion, later known as Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr.[25] According to Antoine Marie Chamans, he acquired Saint Cyr's services in an unusual way, indicative of Custine's temperament and personality. In a break in action, Gouvion was sketchng the countryside, including the enemy positions near Eckheim, in the vicinity of Mainz, when Custine saw him from a distance. Not approving of his occupation, Custine galloped to him, snatched the paper from his hand, and angrily asked what he was doing. Upon noticing that Gouvion's drawing closely matched the positions, he assigned the young officer to his own staff.[26]

Family[edit]

Custine's daughter in law, Delphine Sabran, (Paris, 18 March 1770–1826)[27] Madame de Custine, was considered an icon of femininity and beauty.

Born in Metz, Custine was a son of Philippe-Joseph, comte de Custine, and Anne-Marguerite Maguin, daughter of Francois, comte d' Roussy and Marguerite de Walter. Some sources indicate he was the fourth of five sons: Jean-Philippe, Christophe-François Philippe, François Philippe, and the last, Blaiscard-Philippe.[28] His family traced its lineage to the early thirteenth century. His father, the tenth count, died in 1757.[29] Custine's other titles included Signeur de Guermagne and de Sareck, and he was, after 1770, the lord of Niderviller.[30]

The family was well-connected to some of the leading aristocracy of France. His sister, Marie-Antoinette de Custine, married on 3 April 1770 to Albert Louis de Pouilly (baron de Pouilly and de Chauffour), marshal of the camp of the royal army and commandant of Luxembourg, who died in Germany in 1795. Some biographies maintain Custine married Marie Gertrude de Caba de Caberque, daughter of Philippe, comte de Caba de Caberque;[28] others suggest that this lady was his grandmother.[30] Delphine de Sabran de Custine's biographer maintains that Custine's wife was Adelaide-Celeste Louise Gagnat de Longny.[31] Custine's daughter, Adelaide-Anne-Philippe, married (9 March 1790) Henri Evrard, marquis de Dreux-Brézé,[32] master of ceremonies for Louis XVI. She and her husband spent much of the early 1790s as refugees in Britain, although he returned to France several time to visit his estates;[33] he was eventually confirmed as a peer of France,[30] resumed his pre-Revolution position as master of ceremonies, this time for Louis XVIII, and was awarded military rank.[34]

Custine's son, Renaud-Louis-Philippe-Francois, (b. in Paris in 1768 and died 3 January 1794), also called Armand, was a captain in one of the regiment's under command of the ill-fated Nicolas Luckner, in the Army of the Rhine. As a young man, he had traveled widely, and made a long study of the art of war in Berlin. Comte de Mirabeau, ever the politician, predicted that the young Custine would become a well-respected diplomat. His deceased mother had left him capital of 700,000 livres, making him a wealthy young man; his father would also settle a suitable amount on him upon his marriage as well as the family estates in Niderviller, which included six farms.[35] By 1792, Armand was Luckner's aide-de-camp; following Luckner's dismissal, he entered a brief embassy duty in Berlin in 1792 as chargé de affaires and eventually, as diplomatic relations between France and the rest of Europe became strained, he was a hostage for the safe return of Prussian and Austrian diplomats in Paris.[36]

Typical of his station and the times, Custine arranged Armand's marriage with a suitable bride, in this case Delphine de Sabran (1770–1826), the daughter of an aristocratic family from Provence. Although the two had met several years earlier, a scandal in the Sabran family created roadblocks to the marriage contract.[Note 1] With great difficulty, Delphine's widowed mother succeeded in pinning down Custine's intentions regarding his son, and a wedding date set with assistance from the Duchess of Polignac. Eventually, after a contract was signed, and the wedding occurred,[35] although not without its own small crises: a few days prior to the event, Delphine and her mother were involved in a bad carriage accident; the day before the wedding, young Custine had a molar withdrawn by an incompetent dentist, who removed part of his jaw with the tooth; and on the night night before the wedding, Delphine's mother told her about her anticipated marital obligations, which caused considerable embarrassment and nervousness.[37] They had two sons, Gaston, born in 1788, and Astolphe, born in 1790.[38] Gaston died of smallpox in 1792, after his inoculation.[39]

Destruction of the family during the Terror[edit]

Custine's execution, among the first of the Summer of 1793, predated what historians usually consider the official start of the Terror by only a few days. After the resolution of the foreign wars during 1791–93, the violence associated with the Reign of Terror increased significantly: only roughly 4 percent of executions had occurred before November 1793, among them, Custine's.[40] The foundation of the Terror is centered on the April 1793 creation of the Committee of Public Safety with its militant Jacobin delegates. The National Convention believed that the committee needed to rule with "near dictatorial power" and the committee was delegated new and expansive political powers, such as the Law of Frimaire, passed in December 1973 to consolidate power onto the committee, to quickly respond to popular demands.[41] The consolidation of this committee in September 1793 accelerated the accusations and trials. The result of this was a policy through which the state used violent repression to crush resistance—real or imagined—to the government.[Note 2] The guillotine became the symbol of a string of executions: Louis XVI had already been guillotined before the start of the terror; Marie-Antoinette, the Girondists Philippe Égalité, Madame Roland, and many others lost their lives under its blade.

Custine, as an aristocratic general, and his son, an up and coming diplomat, were seeming natural targets of suspicion. In 1792, after spending part of a year in Berlin, the younger Custine found himself under suspicion, despite his careful and circumspect behavior in Berlin: he had gone out of his way to make sure that he documented and reported any contact with the Prussians, and that all reports of his conversations specifically annotated. By a miracle, he wrote to his mother-in-law, he was not on the list of those to be arrested, and had avoided the September 1792 massacre at the Prison de l'Abbaye. He reported that he feared writing to his wife by post, because of the insecurity of letters. He languished in Paris over the winter, but eventually he secured a post in his father's command in the Army of the Rhine, joining that army in Frankfurt. By August 1793, though, following his father's arrest, young Custine found himself proscribed, meaning on the list of suspected royalists.[42]

Delphine de Sabran had been living in Orleans and later at Le Havre with friends, and traveled to Paris to be with her husband and father-in-law during their trials.[43] She reportedly sat by her father-in-law through every day of his three-week trial. When she left the courtroom, she had to walk through the crowds to her rooms on Bourbon avenue and once the crowd was so unruly that she feared being knocked over and murdered, like Madame Lamballe had been a year earlier.[44]

While his father was under trial, Armand was held in the La Force prison, where there were eight or ten to a room, and guard dogs roamed the hallways.[45] After his father's execution, Delphine visited him there daily. The September Law of Suspects accelerated his trial. He had written to his father the previous spring, suggesting that he resign from the army, and this, as well as other letters—real and forged—guaranteed his condemnation. Delphine devised a plot, scraping together 30,000 livres, in which she would costume her husband as the jailor's daughter. Her husband refused, because all who assisted a prisoner in escape would be executed.[46] At his trial, the president of the court asked him if he was privy to his father's plots, to which he responded that his father had not plotted anything except to serve France. At the age of 25, he was guillotined.[47]

After her husband's death in January 1794, she prepared to travel to Berlin, to join her brother and his wife, but was arrested and imprisoned in Compiègne's infamous Carmelite abbey, then in use as a prison. She was incarcerated with Josephine Beauharnais, Madame d'Aiguillon, and Madame de Lameth. By Spring most of the prisoners had been released, but she was neither famous enough, nor had sufficient friends on the outside of the prison to secure her freedom. Released in late spring, through the intervention of the workers at the Niderviller faience factory, she eventually recovered a portion of her property, assisted by Joseph Fouché, who was minister of police. A short time later she emigrated with her son, Astolphe, and his nanny, first to Switzerland, then to Berlin. She began an on-and-off liaison with the married François-René de Chateaubriand, the writer, diplomat, and politician, which lasted until she died.[48] [Note 3] Astolphe, a writer, married there, to Leontine de Saint Simon de Courtomer (12 February 1803–7 July 1823); they had one son, Louis-Philippe-Enguerrand, who died in 1826 of brain fever (19 June 1822–2 January 1826) Delphine herself died at Bex, in Switzerland, on 15 June 1826. Astolphe, the thirteenth (and last) Marquis de Custine died in 1857; with him the line died as well.[49]

The fate of the family of Custine illustrates the counterproductive power of the revolutionary government. Ultimately, although it temporarily terminated internal opposition, the Reign of Terror weakened the revolution. In particular, the destruction of the military leadership—one and two generations of it, in the case of the Custines—emasculated the army and the diplomatic corps. The military took more than three years to develop a new generation of generals, which it did in the Italian campaigns, particularly in 1796 and later, and the Rhine Campaign of 1796.[50]

Covered tureen, Niderviller exhibited in the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery 18th century. After Custine purchased the business, the factory began producing tableware in the English style.

Faience investment[edit]

In 1770, Custine acquired property in the Niderviller region, which included a faience factory. The manufactory had been founded in 1735, but had enjoyed limited profitability. Various difficulties, including a fire that gutted the production building and a limitation on the manufacture of soft-paste porcelain, discouraged the original investors. When Custine purchased the property in 1770, it was struggling investment. He encountered significant financial problems over the next eight years, and considered bankruptcy in 1778. He subsequently entered into business with François-Henri Lenfrey and the factory began producing faience in the English style of tableware. Lenfrey also revamped the production process, producing cailloutage, which combined faience production techniques with a newly-created process that mixed crushed limestone with the clay.[51] Custine's execution led to the temporary closing of the plant when the regime confiscated his property; the workmen, summarily laid off, traveled to Paris to find work, and several signed a petition for her release.[52] The continued war with the Coalition reduced the number of employees to 15; the factory survived, however, and enjoyed a renaissance in the mid-nineteenth century.[53] Custine presented George Washington with a set of this tableware service in 1782.[54]

Notes and citations[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In 1786, the tutor for Delphine's brother Elzéar had plotted with a housemaid to poison the boy and steal his fortune. In the course of this crime, the tutor had estranged both children from their mother. As the crime was revealed (and the tutor and housemaid imprisoned), the tutor claimed that Delphine had been privy to the plot. This was later disproved. See Gaston Maugras, Pierre Croze-LeMercier, Memoires of Delphine de Sabran, Marquise de Custine, London, W. Heinemann, 1912, pp. 17–22.
  2. ^ Under control of the dictatorial committee, the convention quickly enacted more legislation. On 9 September, the convention established sans-culottes paramilitary forces, the "revolutionary armies", to force farmers to surrender grain demanded by the government. On 17 September, the convention passed the Law of Suspects, which authorized the charging of counter-revolutionaries, or anyone remotely considered as counter-revolutionary, with vaguely defined "crimes against liberty". On 29 September, the convention extended price-fixing from grain and bread to other essential goods, and also fixed wages.
  3. ^ She also had a short term affair with Emmanuel de Grouchy, Marquis de Grouchy, and long-term affair with Prince Victor de Broglie; she referred to him throughout her correspondence as "The Troubadour." See Maugras, pp. 48, 376,

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ (French) Adam Philippe Custine, Mémoires sur les guerres de la République. Introduction by Charles Francois Dumouriez. Paris, Ladvocat, 1824. pp.ii–xii.
  2. ^ Émile Auguste Nicolas Jules Bégin Biographie de la Moselle, Verronais, 1829, vol. 1, pp. 320–370.
  3. ^ a b Thomas Balch, The French in America during the War of Independence. nl, Porter and Coates, 1895, pp. 90–91.
  4. ^ a b c Chisholm 1911, p. 668.
  5. ^ a b Appleton Prentiss Clark Griffin and United States Congress, Joint committee on the Library. Rochambeau: A commemoration by the Congress of the United States of America of the Services of the French Auxiliary Forces in the War of Independence. Washington, DC, S. Government Printing Office, 1907. pp. 570–572.
  6. ^ a b c Bégin, p. 321.
  7. ^ James Matthew Thompson, The French Revolution nl, Sutton, 2001 [1943], pp. 90–111.
  8. ^ Jean Louis Camille Gay de Vernon, Baron Gay de Vernon: Mémoire sur les opérations militaires des généraux en chef Custine et Houchard, pendant les années 1792 et 1793; Firmin-Didot frères, 1844, p. 63
  9. ^ Charles Alan Fyffe, A History of Modern Europe 1792–1878, nl, H. Holt, 1896, p. 35.
  10. ^ (French) R. Dupuy, Nouvelle histoire de la France contemporaine. La République jacobine, 2005, p.156
  11. ^ a b William Doyle, Aristocracy and its Enemies in the Age of Revolution, Oxford University Press, 2009, p. 287.
  12. ^ Phipps (2010), p. 172
  13. ^ Jean Paul Bertaud, R.R. Palmer (trans). The Army of the French Revolution: From Citizen-Soldiers to Instrument of Power, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.
  14. ^ Goode, Dominic (2008). "Condé-sur-l'Escaut". fortified-places.com. 
  15. ^ a b Smith, Digby (1998). The Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill. pp. 48–49. ISBN 1-85367-276-9. 
  16. ^ a b Phipps (2010), pp. 178–180
  17. ^ Smith (1998), pp. 45–46
  18. ^ a b Chamans, p. 70.
  19. ^ a b Jean-Paul Rabaut, An Impartial History of the Late Revolution in France: From Its Commencement, to the Death of the Queen, and the Execution of the Deputies of the Gironde Party. nl, Rabaut, 1794, pp. 462–464.
  20. ^ Phipps (2010), p. 189
  21. ^ Chamans, p. 71.
  22. ^ Chamans, p. 84.
  23. ^ Fyffe, p. 35.
  24. ^ Emanuel Leser, "Eickemeyer, Rudolf," Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, herausgegeben von der Historischen Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Band 5 (1877), S. 743–746, p. 743. Digitale Volltext-Ausgabe in Wikisource, URL:ADB:Eickemeyer,_Rudolf&oldid=2091623 (Version vom 10. Dezember 2014, 20:33 Uhr UTC)
  25. ^ Léonard Honoré Gay de Vernon. Vie de Gouvion Saint-Cyr (1857)
  26. ^ Antoine-Marie Chamans, The memoirs of Count Lavallette, Philadelphia, T.T. Ash, 1832, p. 84.
  27. ^ Maugras, pp. 370–371.
  28. ^ a b (French) Louis Moreri, Desaint det Sailant. Noveau supplement au grand dicitonaire historique genealogigue... Paris, Jean-Thomas Herissant, 1749 — 59, pp.333, 420–421.
  29. ^ (German) Gaston Bodart. Militär-historisches kreigs-lexikon, (1618–1905). Vienna, Stern, 1908, p. 220.
  30. ^ a b c (French) Pierre Napoléon Célestin Charles Auguste Kessel,Livre d'or de la noblesse Luxembourgeoise, ou, Recueil historique, J. Everling, 1869, pp. 45–46.
  31. ^ (French) Agénor Bardoux, Madame de Custine: d'après des documents inédits Calmann-Lévy, 1898, p. 17.
  32. ^ Bardoux, p. 19.
  33. ^ Philip Mansel, The Court of France, 1789–1830, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991, p. 39.
  34. ^ Mansel, pp. 94, 108.
  35. ^ a b Gaston Maugras, Pierre Croze-LeMercier, Memoires of Delphine de Sabran, Marquise de Custine, London, W. Heinemann, 1912, p. 25.
  36. ^ Maugras, p. 82–83
  37. ^ Maugras, pp &ndash25-26.
  38. ^ Maugras, p. 42.
  39. ^ Maugras, p. 85.
  40. ^ Greer, Donald. Incidence of the Terror During the French Revolution: A Statistical Interpretation. 1935. Peter Smith Pub Inc. ISBN 978-0-8446-1211-9
  41. ^ Owen Connlly, The Wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon, 1792–1815, New York, Routledge Publishing,2011, p. 39
  42. ^ Maugras, pp. 92–93.
  43. ^ (French) Bardoux, p. 99.
  44. ^ Maugras, p. 111
  45. ^ Maugras, p. 372.
  46. ^ Maugras, pp. 129–131.
  47. ^ Maugras, 136; Begin, p. 372.
  48. ^ (French) Bardoux, pp. 2–3.
  49. ^ The Nation, Mdme Custine, nl, Nation Company, 1894, Volumes 58–59, p. 135.
  50. ^ Schama 2004, p.689
  51. ^ Joseph Marryat, A History of Pottery and Porcelain... nl, J. Murray, 1868, pp. 438–439.
  52. ^ Maugras, p. 164.
  53. ^ Faience History of Niderviller factory. Infofaience, 2012–2014. Accessed 8 December 2014.
  54. ^ Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union. Annual Report – The Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union. Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union, 1977.

References[edit]

  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Custine, Adam Philippe". Encyclopædia Britannica 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 668. 
  • Appleton Prentiss Clark Griffin and United States Congress, Joint committee on the Library. Rochambeau: A commemoration by the Congress of the United States of America of the Services of the French Auxiliary Forces in the War of Independence. Washington, DC., Government Printing Office, 1907.
  • (French) Bardoux, Agénor. Madame de Custine: d'après des documents inédits. Calmann-Lévy, 1898.
  • Begin, Émile Auguste Nicolas Jules. Biographie de la Moselle, Verronais, 1829, vol. 1 .
  • Bertaud, Jean Paul, R.R. Palmer (trans). The Army of the French Revolution: From Citizen-Soldiers to Instrument of Power, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.
  • (German) Bodart, Gaston. Militär-historisches kreigs-lexikon, (1618–1905). Vienna, Stern, 1908.
  • Chuquet, Arthur, Les Guerres de la Révolution (1886–1895; vol. vi, "L'Expédition de Custine").
  • Doyle, William. Aristocracy and its Enemies in the Age of Revolution, Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • (French) Dumouriez, Charles Francois, and Adam Philippe Custine, Mémoires sur les guerres de la Républicque. Introduction by Charles Francois Dumouriez. Paris, Ladvocat, 1824.
  • Dupuy, R, Nouvelle histoire de la France contemporaine. La République jacobine, 2005 (reprint)
  • Faience, History of Niderville factory. Infofaience, 2012–2014. Accessed 8 December 2014.
  • Fyffe, Charles Alan, A History of Modern Europe 1792–1878, nl, H. Holt, 1896.
  • Gay de Vernon, Jean Louis Camille. Mémoire sur les opérations militaires des généraux en chef Custine et Houchard, pendant les années 1792 et 1793 Firmin-Didot frères, 1844.
  • Mansel, Philip. The Court of France, 1789–1830. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991.
  • Marryat, Joseph. A History of Pottery and Porcelain... nl, J. Murray, 1868.
  • Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union. Annual Report – The Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union. Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union, 1977.
  • Rabaut, Jean-Paul. An Impartial History of the Late Revolution in France: From Its Commencement, to the Death of the Queen, and the Execution of the Deputies of the Gironde Party. nl, Rabaut, 1794.
  • Rambaud, Alfred Nicolas, Les Français sur le Rhin (Paris, 1880).
  • Smith, Digby. The Napoleonic Wars Data Book. London: Greenhill, 1998. ISBN 1-85367-276-9.
  • Thompson, J.M. The French Revolution nl, Sutton, 2001 [1943]. ISBN 9780750927581
  • The Nation, Mdme Custine, nl, Nation Company, 1894, Volumes 58–59.