||This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2009)|
|First appearance||Avengers #66 (July 1969)|
|Created by||Roy Thomas
|In story information|
|Element of stories featuring||Wolverine, Bullseye, Lady Deathstrike, X-23, Captain America's shield|
The first use of the term adamantium in Marvel Comics was in Avengers #66 (July 1969) as part of Ultron's outer shell. The word is a pseudo-Latin neologism (real Latin: adamans, adamantem [accusative]) based on the English noun and adjective adamant (and the derived adjective adamantine), with the neo-Latin suffix "ium" implying a metal. The adjective has long been used to refer to the property of impregnable, diamondlike hardness, or to describe a very firm/resolute position (e.g. He adamantly refused to leave). The noun adamant has long been used to designate any impenetrably or unyieldingly hard substance and, formerly, a legendary stone/rock or mineral of impenetrable hardness and with many other properties, often identified with diamond or lodestone. Adamant and the literary form adamantine occur in works such as the Aeneid, The Faerie Queene, Paradise Lost, Gulliver's Travels, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, The Lord of the Rings, and the film Forbidden Planet, all of which predate the use of adamantium in Marvel's comics.
Fictional history and properties of adamantium 
In the Marvel Universe, adamantium is a group of man-made metal alloys that possess varying durability, but are all nearly indestructible. Adamantium was (inadvertently) invented by the American metallurgist Dr. Myron MacLain in an attempt to recreate his prior discovery, a unique alloy of steel and vibranium (which required an unknown catalyst for its manufacture) that was used to create Captain America's shield.
Prior to molding it, the components of the alloy are kept in separate batches, typically in blocks of resin; Adamantium is prepared by melting the blocks together, mixing the components while the resin evaporates. The alloy must then be cast within an eight-minute time period. Adamantium's extremely stable molecular structure prevents it from being further molded even if the temperature is high enough to keep it in its liquified form. In its solid form, it is colorless, shiny, and resembles high-grade steel or titanium. It is almost impossible to destroy or fracture in this state and when crafted to a razor edge it can penetrate most lesser materials with minimal application of strength. It is partially magnetic, as Magneto has manipulated it on multiple occasions.
Types of adamantium 
Secondary adamantium 
As true adamantium is extremely difficult and expensive to create or manipulate, some parties found a way to duplicate it on a larger and more cost-effective scale at the expense of quality and durability. For most practical purposes, this secondary adamantium is also largely indestructible. Conventional weapons, such as ballistic missiles, have no effect on it and it is far stronger than even the most durable of titanium or steel compounds. However, extraordinary force, such as a punch from a being with superhuman strength, can warp or break it. Unconventional forms of energy discharges have also been known to warp or damage secondary adamantium, such as Thor's lightning attacks using Mjolnir.
Adamantium beta 
Adamantium beta is a new metal created as a side-effect of the process of bonding true adamantium to Wolverine's bones. His healing factor not only allowed him to survive the process, but also induced a molecular change in the metal. Adamantium beta functions identically to true adamantium, but it does not inhibit the biological processes of bone.
Carbonadium is a resilient, unstable metal that is vastly stronger than steel, but more malleable and cheaper than adamantium. Due to its malleability, carbonadium is less durable than true adamantium, but still nearly indestructible. Omega Red has carbonadium coils through which he can transmit his ability to drain life energies. Carbonadium is highly radioactive and objects composed of it have proven to disable the accelerated healing factors of Wolverine and his son, Daken, if implanted within the body. Deadpool used a Carbonadium katana to kill Wolverine in the miniseries "Deadpool Kills the Marvel Universe". It is currently unknown if carbonadium affects other beings with superhuman healing powers in a similar manner. The only device that can produce carbonadium, known as the Carbonadium Synthesizer, was initially believed thrown into a river in Brussels by Wolverine. It has since been revealed that the Carbonadium Synthesizer had been hidden on the deceased body of a double-agent who died escaping Omega Red along with Wolverine, Sabretooth, and Maverick. The synthesizer was retrieved and handed back to Maverick, whose mission was to retrieve the item for unknown parties.
In X-Men #191, when confronting Wolverine, one of the Children of the Vault named Serafina claims that adamantium has thirteen allotropes, all of which are "unstable, and short-lived, but virulently poisonous." She throws a small device that clamps onto Wolverine's claws and makes them glow green, claiming that it is adamantium nine. This apparently raises adamantium's toxicity dramatically, overloading Wolverine's healing factor. However, allotrope is a misnomer, as Adamantium is an alloy and not a pure element. The more general term, used for any crystalline material, is polymorphism.
Adamantium as key component 
Adamantium is used as the key component in several instances in the Marvel Universe, including:
- Ultron's outer shell
- Wolverine's skeleton and claws
- Agent Zero's combat knife and bullets
- The outer skin of some of Alkhema's robotic bodies
- Battlestar's shield
- Bullseye's spinal column and some strips coating several of his bones
- Certain iterations of Captain America's shield
- Constrictor's original wrist-mounted, prehensile metal coils
- Cyber's claws and skin
- (one particular set of) Doctor Octopus' arms
- The outer layer of Citizen V's rapier
- Lady Deathstrike's skeleton and talons
- One of Mister Fantastic's labs for extremely dangerous experiments
- Moon Knight's crescent blades
- A unique suit of armor once used by the villain Stilt-Man
- The outer skin of TESS-One
- One of several layers of containment at the superhuman incarceration facility known as the Vault
- An outer coating on the Swordsman's blades
- A special brand of bullet in the Iron Man suit's ballistic weapons
- Bullets used by Underworld
- X-23's claws
- Doom 2099 suit
- Bucky Barnes' Captain America suit is laced with adamantium
- A statue of the Hulk, sculpted by Alicia Masters
- Hammerhead's head is made of adamantium
Adamantium in the Ultimate Marvel Universe 
Within the Earth-1610 reality, also known as the Ultimate Marvel Universe, adamantium is highly durable and is able to effectively protect a person's mind from telepathic probing or attacks. It has been shown as a component of the claws and skeleton of the Ultimate Wolverine and Ultimate Lady Deathstrike characters. The shield of Ultimate Captain America is composed entirely of Vibranium which is the metal created before Adamantium but could not be replicated there for creating Adamantium . This version of adamantium is not unbreakable. In Ultimates #5, the Hulk breaks a needle made of adamantium. In Ultimate X-Men #11 (December 2001), an adamantium cage is damaged by a bomb. In Ultimate X-Men #12 (January 2002), one of Sabretooth's four adamantium claws is broken.
In other media 
Adamantine has, throughout ancient history, referred to anything that was made of a very hard material. The degree of resilience and the creation of adamantium can sometimes vary between different media forms. In Advanced Dungeons & Dragons, adamantite is referred to throughout the game's many books and adventure modules as a very special and valuable metal.
- In the MMORPG "RuneScape", there is an ore named adamantite, which can be smelted and made into weapons and armour.
- In the MMORPG Ragnarök Online, there's a homunculus skill named Adamantium Skin, that raises the HP recuperation, the maximum HP and the defense points.
- In the MMORPG Dark Age of Camelot, dropped and player crafted items can be made of adamantium.
- In the Master of Orion games, adamantium is one of the strongest types of armor.
- In Master of Magic adamantium mines can be found on Myrran and give weapon bonus to units.
- In the Warhammer 40,000 universe, adamantium is a super-hard alloy used by the Imperium of Man in the construction of weapons and armor.
- It is found in Blizzard Entertainment's World of Warcraft game in the Ornate Adamantium Breastplate. There was a minable variation of adamantium, known as adamantite, added in the Burning Crusade expansion pack; that could be mined, smelted and forged.
- Adamantium armor and weapons can be found in Bethesda Softworks' The Elder Scrolls series.
- Adamantium armor is a form of armor in the PlayStation 2 game Ratchet & Clank: Up Your Arsenal.
- In Two Worlds, there are two available Earth Magic spells with adamantium references. These spells are Summon Adamantium Golem (the strongest summon in the game) and Adamantium Shield.
- In the MMORPG MapleStory, adamantium is a mineral ore that can be processed into adamantium plates used to forge some equipment.
- In the MMORPG Mabinogi, the missing skeleton of the Generation One boss monster Glas Ghaibhleann was said to be substitutable adamantium.
- In the RPG Rage of Mages, the second strongest and most powerful set of weapons and armor is made of adamantium.
- In Age of Mythology, the gates of Tartarus, fashioned by Zeus to seal Kronos, are made of adamantium.
- In Vanguard: Saga of Heroes, adamantium is the Ultra Rare element for Tier 5 blacksmith recipes.
- In the MMORPG Star Sonata, many high-end items are built using Adamantium Sheets, these are refined from Adamantium Ore.
- In nearly all the Final Fantasy games, adamantium appears as unrefined metal or a piece of shell from a giant turtle called an adamantoise.
- In Ricochet Infinity, three of the top four ranks are described as having adamantium artifacts (sword, crown, and throne).
- In Fallout 3 and Fallout: New Vegas, the character may take a perk titled Adamantium Skeleton, which reduces the damage taken to limbs.
- In the MMORPG ROSE Online, there is a usable item called Adamantium Drill for slotting equipment and inserting gems.
- In Lost Souls, adamantium is an azure-colored metal that is extremely strong, but is rarely used in its pure form, as small amounts of it can be alloyed with iron to produce "adamantite".
- In Lost Odyssey, there is a sword called Adamantis, forged from adamantium.
- In the MMORPG Aion: The Tower of Eternity, Adamantium Ores are obtainable and used to craft various weapons and armor pieces.
- In the game Zoo World on Facebook, Adamantium Mastery can be achieved by breeding a certain amount of each animal species or completing various in game achievements. Adamantium is the fifth level of mastery, following bronze, silver, gold, and platinum.
- In the MUD Muddy Waters, adamantium weapons and armor are used by "Marlarans" in the underdark.
- In the game Digimon World 2 the highest level of Digi-beetle armor is known as adamantium.
- In the game Infinity Blade the sword, The Infinity Blade is crafted from adamantium.
- In the role-playing game Dungeons and Dragons, adamantium is one of the hardest metals, giving it high penetration and defense values.
- In later Harvest Moon games adamantium is used to craft accessories.
- In the game Terraria adamantium is an end-game ore.
- In Minecraft, the bedrock is sometimes referred to as adamantium.
- As with his comics counterpart, the X-Men film series version of Wolverine also possesses adamantium in his skeleton and claws. In X2: X-Men United, liquid adamantium was seen boiling in a tub. (William Stryker mentioned, "The tricky thing about adamantium is, that if you ever manage to process its raw, liquid form, you got to keep it that way, keep it hot. Because once the metal cools, it's indestructible.") The X2 version of Lady Deathstrike is also shown to have adamantium claws that are extruded from the tips of her fingers.
- In the film X-Men Origins: Wolverine, adamantium is a metallic compound developed after studying an unknown element found in a meteorite in Nigeria. During the film, adamantium is fused to Wolverine's skeleton and claws. When Wolverine is shot in the head with bullets made of this compound, he sustains severe intra-cranial trauma that induces extensive amnesia.
- In the Marvel Comics animated feature Ultimate Avengers, Captain America's shield is composed of an adamantium/vibranium alloy.
- In the 1998 film Lost in Space, the spider-like organisms are described as having an "adamantium shell." The organisms were destroyed by exposure to a nuclear fusion explosion.
- In the Toy Story film series, Buzz Lightyear's suit has an adamantium-nitrogen layer.
- In the 1956 film Forbidden Planet Dr Morbius explains adamantium was used in the construction of the Krell cities.
- In the Iron Man animated series, Tony Stark has armor made of adamantium, though it is stolen by the Mandarin.
- In the Samurai Jack episode "Jack and the Ultra-robots", the assassin robots are said to be made of adamantium.
- In the Spider-Man: The Animated Series episode "Neogenic Nightmare, Chapter XI: Tablet of Time", the criminal Hammerhead tells Spider-Man that his head is made from adamantium.
- In the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles animated series episode "Planet of the Turtleoids", Shredder refers to his Chrome Dome robot being made entirely of adamantium.
- In Green Wing, Martin Dear boasts his intent to purchase an adamantium motorcycle helmet. Dr. Macartney, however, points out that it is a fictional compound.
- In the animated series Mighty Orbots episode "The Jewel of Targon", the Orbots leader, Rob Simmons, exclaims that a containment unit is made of "pure adamantium."
- In the penultimate episode of House M. D. season seven, Gregory House uses the term in reference a very dense material.
- The plot of the Iron Man: Armored Adventures episode "Fugitive of S.H.I.E.L.D." revolves around an Adamantium/Vibranium hybrid that Black Widow steals for Justin Hammer.
- Adamantium appears in The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes episode "Behold...The Vision!", where the Vision steals some from a Weapon X facility. In "Ultron Unlimited", the stolen metal is used to construct a new body for Ultron.
- In the book Momo the third chapter contains a reference to adamantium. The children play an imaginary game involving a storm-hunting ship cast out of adamantium.
- In Snuff, adamantium is referenced in regard to Sam Vimes' patience when he suggests that a number of young ladies acquire jobs rather than wait for a young man with money to come along and marry them.
- In a short lived comic series Captain Tax Time, a group of criminials used an Adamantium vault to store their money.
- In the epic poem Paradise Lost, adamantium was a holy substance used to craft weaponry.
- The UK grime record label owned by Kiss FM DJ Logan Sama is called Adamantium Music.
- Adamantium was also the name of an American hardcore punk band.
- In the lyrics of the UK extreme metal band Bal-Sagoth, "The Hammer Adamantine" is a mystical unbreakable weapon wielded by one of the characters created by lyricist Byron Roberts.
See also 
- Lee, Stan; Sanderson, Peter (1986). The Official Handbook of the Marvel Universe. Marvel Comics Group. ISBN 0-87135-208-7. "Adamantium is a virtually indestructible man-made steel alloy which does not occur in nature.... Adamantium is not an element: its properties do not qualify it for any known space on the Periodic Table of Elements."
- Avengers (vol. 1) #66-68 (July – September 1969)
- Avengers (vol. 1) #201-202 (November – December 1980)
- X-Men (vol. 1) #139 (November 1980)
- Uncanny X-Men #304, X-Men #25, numerous other X-books
- Wolverine: The Jungle Adventure (1990)
- Thor (vol. 1) #271
- Wolverine (vol. 2) #80 (April 1994)
- X-Men (vol. 2) #7 (April 1992)
- Wolverine: Origins #7-8 (October – November 2006)
- Wolverine: Origins #25-26 (July – August 2008)
- Earth-1610 (Ultimate Universe) at Marvel.com
- Ultimate X-Men #12 (January 2002)
- "Adamantium". Lost Souls Wiki. Retrieved 2011-07-10.