Adams County, Wisconsin
|Adams County, Wisconsin|
Location in the state of Wisconsin
Wisconsin's location in the U.S.
|Named for||John Adams or John Quincy Adams|
|• Total||689 sq mi (1,785 km2)|
|• Land||646 sq mi (1,673 km2)|
|• Water||43 sq mi (111 km2), 6.2%|
|• Density||32/sq mi (12/km²)|
|Time zone||Central: UTC-6/-5|
Adams County is a county in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 20,875. Its county seat is Friendship. Sources differ as to whether its name is in honor of the second President of the United States, John Adams, or his son, the sixth President, John Quincy Adams.
The area covered by present-day Adams County was historically part of several other counties. In 1840, when Wisconsin was still a territory, Adams County was the southwestern section of Brown County. In 1836, Portage County was created and included most of present day Columbia County, including the city of Portage, Wisconsin. In 1846, Portage County was renamed Columbia County. The area from the northern boundary of Columbia County to Lake Superior was removed from Brown County and was then called Portage County. In 1848, the southern part of Portage County was renamed Adams County and included all of current-day Adams County and the northern section of Juneau County. In 1858, The northwestern part of Adams County was joined with the northern part of Sauk County to form present-day Juneau County. At this time, Adams County took its current shape.
Adams County was a New England settlement. The original founders of Adams County consisted entirely of settlers from New England as well as some from upstate New York who had parents that moved to that region from New England shortly after the American Revolution. These people were "Yankee" settlers, that is to say they were descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the 1600s. They were part of a wave of New England farmers who headed west into what was then the wilds of the Northwest Territory during the early 1800s. Most of them arrived as a result of the completion of the Erie Canal and the end of the Black Hawk War. When they arrived in what is now Adams County there was nothing but dense virgin forest, the "Yankee" New Englanders laid out farms, constructed roads, erected government buildings and established post routes. They brought with them many of their Yankee New England values, such as a passion for education, establishing many schools as well as staunch support for abolitionism. They were mostly members of the Congregationalist Church though some were Episcopalian. Due to the second Great Awakening some of them had converted to Methodism and some became Baptist before moving to what is now Adams County. Adams County, like much of Wisconsin, would be culturally very continuous with early New England culture for most of its early history. In the late 1880s, German immigrants began to settle in Adams County, making up less than one out of thirty settlers in the town before this date. Generally there was little conflict between them and the "Yankee" settlers, however when conflict did arise it focused around the issue of prohibition of alcohol. On this issue the Yankees were divided and the Germans almost unanimously were opposed to it, tipping the balance in favor of opposition to prohibition. Later the two communities would be divided on the issue of World War I in which, once again, the Yankee community would be divided and the Germans were unanimously opposed to American entry into the war. The Yankee community was generally pro-British, however many of the Yankees also did not want America to enter the war themselves. The Germans were sympathetic to Germany and did not want the United States to enter into a war against Germany, but the Germans were not anti-British. Prior to World War I, many German community leaders in Wisconsin spoke openly and enthusiastically about how much better America was than Germany, due primarily (in their eyes) to the presence of English law and the English political culture the Americans had inherited from the colonial era, which they contrasted with the turmoil and oppression in Germany which they had so recently fled.
Friendship was founded by settlers coming from Friendship, New York. Today, Adams is the largest community in Adams County, but this was not always so. In the 1880s, there were plans for a railroad that connected Chicago and St. Paul to pass through Friendship. Once this was decided, local landowners increased their demands. Instead of paying more for the land in Friendship, the railroad placed the tracks two miles (3 km) south of Friendship. It was recorded that Emma Barnes, wife of "Appletree" Barnes, Friendship postmaster in the 1920s, wrote in 1957, "I believe that the people of Friendship should express their appreciation of two of the early citizens... J. B. Hill and J. W. Purves... for holding the price of their land so high that the great C&NW R.R. Co. would not purchase a right of way... for who would enjoy the smoke and the noise of a train running through this beautiful village?"
To house workers, boxcars were stacked to form housing, and the town of Adams was created. What is now called the City of Adams the railroad originally called Friendship, but because there were two rail depot stops named "Friendship" on the rail-line, passengers were often confused and bought the wrong tickets, so it was suggested that the name be changed. Photo of Depot Showing "Friendship" The new name was determined by the citizens who chose between Adams, for President Adams, and Nottingham. This stretch of track became the famous "400" route. Today, the population of Adams is about three times that of Friendship.
- Highway 13 (Wisconsin)
- Highway 21 (Wisconsin)
- Highway 23 (Wisconsin)
- Highway 82 (Wisconsin)
- Highway 73 (Wisconsin)
- Wood County – northwest
- Portage County – northeast
- Waushara County – east
- Marquette County – east
- Columbia County – southeast
- Sauk County – southwest
- Juneau County – west
As of the census of 2000, there were 18,643 people, 7,900 households, and 5,466 families residing in the county. The population density was 29 people per square mile (11/km²). There were 14,123 housing units at an average density of 22 per square mile (8/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 97.63% White, 0.27% Black or African American, 0.59% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.33% from other races, and 0.83% from two or more races. 1.44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 39.3% were of German, 14.8% American, 9.2% Polish, 8.3% Norwegian, 8.0% Irish and 6.0% English ancestry. 96.1% spoke English, 1.8% Spanish and 1.1% German as their first language.
There were 7,900 households out of which 23.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.50% were married couples living together, 6.70% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.80% were non-families. 25.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.76.
In the county, the population was spread out with 20.80% under the age of 18, 5.60% from 18 to 24, 24.30% from 25 to 44, 28.40% from 45 to 64, and 20.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 102.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.30 males.
According to the 2005 Census, German was the most commonly reported ethnic group in Adams County. The leading ethnic groups were:
- German 35.1%
- Irish 10.7%
- Polish 9.1%
- Norwegian 8.1%
- English 7.1%
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- Wisconsin Then and Now, Volumes 21-24 State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1974 pages 102-103, page 138
- The German Historians and England: A Study in Nineteenth-century Views By Charles E. McClelland pages 19, 136, 138. 176, 196
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
- Adams County official website
- Adams County Chamber of Commerce
- Memorial and Biographical Record and Illustrated Compendium of Biography ... of Columbia, Sauk and Adams counties, Wisconsin...
- Adams County Genealogy and Family History
||Wood County||Portage County|
|Juneau County||Waushara County and Marquette County|
|Sauk County||Columbia County|