The work is known for its vivid portrayal of a split personality, and since the 1880s dozens of stage and film adaptations have been produced, although there have been no major adaptations to date that remain faithful to the narrative structure of Stevenson's original. Most omit the figure of Utterson, telling the story from Jekyll's and Hyde's viewpoint and often having them played by the same actor, thus eliminating entirely the mystery aspect of the true identity of Hyde, which was the original's twist ending and not the basic premise it is today. In addition, many adaptations introduce a romantic element which does not exist in the original story. While Hyde is portrayed in the novella as an evil-looking man of diminutive height, many adaptations have taken liberties with the character's physical appearance, sometimes depicting him with animalistic, or downright monstrous, features.
There are over 123 film versions, not including stage and radio, as well as a number of parodies and imitations. Notable examples are listed below in chronological order.
1887, stage play, opened in Boston. Thomas Russell Sullivan's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. The first serious theatrical rendering, it went on to tour Britain and ran for 20 years. It became forever linked with Richard Mansfield's performance; he continued playing the part up until his death in 1907. Sullivan reworked the plot to centre around a domestic love interest.
1900, a play in four acts. Unproduced adaptation by Marcel Schwob and Vance Thompson.
2009, a new theatrical adaptation by playwright Jeffrey Hatcher, for Tony Award winning local Cincinnati Playhouse in the Park.
2009, Ursinus College brings Thomas Russell Sullivan's play Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde back to the stage in its complete form, the first time in over 100 years.
2010, The Holden Kemble Theatre Company run a new adaptation titled The Scandalous Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde at the Edinburgh Festival and then a 31⁄2 week run at the Tabard Theatre in Chiswick, London.
2012, Synetic Theater runs a critically acclaimed silent adaptation of Jekyll & Hyde featuring Alex Mills as Jekyll/Hyde, Peter Pereyra as Lanyon, and Brittany O'Grady as the Fiancee.
2012, new version by Jonathan Holloway workshopped and premiered at The Courtyard Theatre, London, featuring Melody Roche as Jekyll, Charlie Allen as Utterson and Gary Blair as Enfield.
2013, a version of the story presented by Flipping the Bird at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival, explores the unique twist of Jekyll as a woman, Doctor Tajemnica Jekyll, recently arrived in London from an unspecified foreign country, whose transformation to Edward Hyde came about as part of her desire to defy social boundaries. Utterson serves as her lover and lawyer, while she claims Hyde is her deformed nephew before admitting the truth.
1920, movie Germany, Der Januskopf (literally, The Janus-Head, Janus being a Roman God depicted with two faces). Directed by F. W. Murnau. An unauthorized version of Stevenson's story, disguised by changing the names to Dr. Warren and Mr. O'Connor. The dual roles were essayed by Conrad Veidt. The film is now lost.
1931, movie USA, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Known for its acting, visual symbolism, and special effects, it follows the Sullivan plot. Fredric March won the Academy Award for his portrayal. The technical secret of the transformation scenes was not revealed until after the director's death.
1960, movie UK, The Two Faces of Dr. Jekyll (released in the US as House of Fright and Jekyll's Inferno). A lurid love triangle and explicit scenes of snakes, opium dens, rape, murder and bodies crashing through glass roofs. Notable in that an aged and ineffectual Dr. Jekyll becomes handsome and virile (but evil) Mr. Hyde.
1971, movie UK, I, Monster. Starring Christopher Lee in the Jekyll and Hyde role and Peter Cushing as Utterson. Recasts Jekyll (with a name change to Dr. Marlowe/Mr. Blake) as a 1906 Freudian psychotherapist. Retains some of Stevenson's original plot and dialogue.
1999, TV movie USA. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde starring Adam Baldwin. In this modern-day re-imagining, plastic surgeon Henry Jekyll learns ancient Chinese herbal medicine to give himself superhuman powers, which he uses to exact revenge for his wife's murder. Francis Ford Coppola produced.
2002, TV movie UK Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde starring John Hannah as both characters, with body language and wardrobe the only distinction between the appearance of the two. The narrative is chronologically disjointed, beginning with the end of the story then returning to the beginning via narrated flashbacks with the occasional brief glimpse of the reading of Jekyll's confession by Utterson.
2006, Canadian film Jekyll + Hyde. Starring Bryan Fisher as Henry "J" Jekyll and Bree Turner as Utterson. Two medical students set out to create a drug derived from ecstasy that would enhance and change their personalities.
1955, Season 1 Episode of CBS's live CLIMAX! drama program. This is an adaptation of Robert Louis Stevenson's "The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde". Hosted by Bill Lundigan, this episode was originally aired on 28 July 1955 (Season 1 Episode 34). The story was adapted for television by Gore Vidal.
2007, TV serial UK, Jekyll. A six part BBC serial, aired from 16 June 2007, starring James Nesbitt as Tom Jackman, a modern Jekyll whose Hyde wreaks havoc in modern London.
2013, TV U.S., Do No Harm, an NBC series. This is a contemporary take on the story, with actor Steven Pasquale in dual roles as Dr. Jason Cole/Ian Price. Cole is a successful neurosurgeon who has long been able to suppress Price, his evil, alternate personality with an experimental drug. However, Price develops an immunity to the drug and subsequently wreaks havoc on Cole's life, when in control.
1990 novel Mary Reilly by Valerie Martin, a reworking of Stevenson's plot, told from the viewpoint of a maid in Jekyll's household, named Mary Reilly in this novel.
1993, animated film, The Nightmare Before Christmas, Mr. Hyde appears as one of the citizens of Halloween Town. Only seen in his "Hyde" form, he keeps two smaller versions of himself underneath his hat.
2000, film Monster Mash, during main character's trial for "failure to scare", their lawyer, a bumbling, mummy-type monster, according to Drac, once "got millions for Dr. Jekyll, when he sued Mr. Hyde for malpractice."
2003, film The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, adapted from Alan Moore's eponymous comic book series. The film adaptation stars Jason Flemyng as both Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, the latter using prosthetic makeup. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde are employed by The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen to combat The Fantom. The version of Hyde depicted in both comic and movie bears more resemblance to the Hulk than the malevolent dwarf of the novel, possessing great strength and size. As in the comic book on which it is based, this is attributed to Hyde "growing, free from boundaries, free from limitations."
2004, film Van Helsing. Robbie Coltrane provides the voice of a CGI animated Mr. Hyde, who Van Helsing unintentionally kills at the cathedral of Notre Dame when pursuing him through Paris. Like in The League of Extraordinary Gentleman, Mr. Hyde is also portrayed as a large, hulking brute. When Hyde dies, he transforms back into Dr. Jekyll.
2008, animated film, Igor: a major character is Jacqueline and Heidi.
2010, television series, Sanctuary, the character Adam Worth's story was stolen by a former friend and retold under the "fictional" title of the Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Adam's psychological disorder is one of "split personality" at a time before modern psychiatry.
2012, Sony Pictures animated film, Hotel Transylvania, Mr. Hyde can be seen as one of the monsters in Hotel Transylvania. This version has an underbite, has pale yellow skin, and wears a suit and a top hat.
2012, BBC Radio Scotland crime drama, The Strange Case of Dr. Hyde, a four-part reworking of the Stevenson story written by Chris Dolan set in modern-day Edinburgh. Detective Inspector Newman (David Rintoul), assisted by Detective Constable Lanyon (Kenny Blyth), is investigating a series of mutilation murders and seeks the help of eccentric pathologist Dr. Hyde (Jimmy Chisholm), becoming involved along the way with solicitor Jane Poole (Wendy Seager).
2013, NBC's television series, Do No Harm, is a modern retelling of the Jekyll and Hyde story featuring a Jekyll-like character, Dr. Jason Cole (Steven Pasquale), trying to stop his drug-addicted, sociopathic, Hyde-like counterpart (Ian Price) from ruining his professional and private life. Unlike the original story, the main character is a highly respected neurosurgeon who is able to keep his alter-ego in check through the use of an experimental sedative. Also, Jason suffers from dissociative identity disorder instead of developing a serum that separates the good and evil in a person.
Hyde and Go Tweet, a 1960 Looney Tunes cartoon featuring Sylvester and Tweety, with the bird as the dual character.
Sicque! Sicque! Sicque!, the ninth episode of The Inspector animated film series. It was produced in 1966 and features Deux-Deux drinking a green potion from a test tube and constantly changing into a huge, ugly, green monster when the Inspector is not looking. The monster Deux-Deux becomes keeps shooting and stomping on the Inspector. In the Fantasia, this cartoon is set to the first movement of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony from Fantasia 2000. People loved having the cartoon set to Beethoven's Fifth a lot because of the timing.
"Nowhere to Hyde," the September 12, 1970 episode of Scooby Doo Where Are You? in which the ghost of Mr. Hyde is committing jewelry store robberies and one of the suspects is a descendant of Dr. Jekyll.
Dr. Heckyl and Mr. Hype, 1980 film starring Oliver Reed, in which a kindly but hideous doctor develops a potion that turns him into a suave, but evil, man of the world.