Adaptations of Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is a novella written by the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson and first published in 1886. It is about a London lawyer who investigates strange occurrences between his old friend, Dr. Henry Jekyll and the misanthropic Mr. Hyde.
The work is known for its vivid portrayal of a split personality, and since the 1880s dozens of stage and film adaptations have been produced, although there have been no major adaptations to date that remain faithful to the narrative structure of Stevenson's original. Most omit the figure of Utterson, telling the story from Jekyll's and Hyde's viewpoint and often having them played by the same actor, thus eliminating entirely the mystery aspect of the true identity of Hyde, which was the original's twist ending and not the basic premise it is today. In addition, many adaptations introduce a romantic element which does not exist in the original story. While Hyde is portrayed in the novella as an evil-looking man of diminutive height, many adaptations have taken liberties with the character's physical appearance, sometimes depicting him with animalistic, or downright monstrous, features.
There are over 123 film versions, not including stage and radio, as well as a number of parodies and imitations. Notable examples are listed below in chronological order.
- 1887, stage play, opened in Boston. Thomas Russell Sullivan's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. The first serious theatrical rendering, it went on to tour Britain and ran for 20 years. It became forever linked with Richard Mansfield's performance; he continued playing the part up until his death in 1907. Sullivan reworked the plot to centre around a domestic love interest.
- 1900, a play in four acts. Unproduced adaptation by Marcel Schwob and Vance Thompson.
- 1991, stage play, opened in London. Written by David Edgar for the Royal Shakespeare Company. The play is notable for its fidelity to the book's plot.
- 1997, musical U.S. Jekyll & Hyde. Music by Frank Wildhorn, book and lyrics by Leslie Bricusse. Originally conceived for the stage by Steve Cuden and Frank Wildhorn. This musical features the song "This Is The Moment".
- 2009, a new theatrical adaptation by playwright Jeffrey Hatcher, for Tony Award winning local Cincinnati Playhouse in the Park.
- 2009, Ursinus College brings Thomas Russell Sullivan's play Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde back to the stage in its complete form, the first time in over 100 years.
- 2010, The Holden Kemble Theatre Company run a new adaptation titled The Scandalous Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde at the Edinburgh Festival and then a 31⁄2 week run at the Tabard Theatre in Chiswick, London.
- 2012, Synetic Theater runs a critically acclaimed silent adaptation of Jekyll & Hyde featuring Alex Mills as Jekyll/Hyde, Peter Pereyra as Lanyon, and Brittany O'Grady as the Fiancee.
- 2012, new version by Jonathan Holloway workshopped and premiered at The Courtyard Theatre, London, featuring Melody Roche as Jekyll, Charlie Allen as Utterson and Gary Blair as Enfield.
- 2013, a version of the story presented by Flipping the Bird at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival, explores the unique twist of Jekyll as a woman, Doctor Tajemnica Jekyll, recently arrived in London from an unspecified foreign country, whose transformation to Edward Hyde came about as part of her desire to defy social boundaries. Utterson serves as her lover and lawyer, while she claims Hyde is her deformed nephew before admitting the truth.
- 2013, Four of Swords staged an Arts Council England-funded adaptation of the story at Poltimore House, Devon.
- 1908, movie USA, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Produced by William N. Selig. There are no known existing copies of this film.
- 1910, movie Denmark, Den Skæbnesvangre Opfindelse (USA Title: Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde). Directed by August Blom and starring Alwin Neuß for the Nordisk Film company. There are no known existing copies of this film.
- 1912, movie USA, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. First USA production based on Richard Mansfield's stage performance. Thanhouser Company Starring James Cruze and Florence Labadie.
- 1913, movie USA, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Starring King Baggot and directed by Herbert Brenon.
- 1914, movie Germany, ein seltsamer Fall. Starring Alwin Neuss and directed by Max Mack.
- 1920, movie USA, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. A famous silent film version, starring John Barrymore in a bravura performance. Plot follows the Sullivan version of 1887, with elements from The Picture of Dorian Gray.
- 1920, movie USA, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Directed by J. Charles Haydon.
- 1920, movie Germany, Der Januskopf (literally, The Janus-Head, Janus being a Roman God depicted with two faces). Directed by F. W. Murnau. An unauthorized version of Stevenson's story, disguised by changing the names to Dr. Warren and Mr. O'Connor. The dual roles were essayed by Conrad Veidt. The film is now lost.
- 1931, movie USA, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Known for its acting, visual symbolism, and special effects, it follows the Sullivan plot. Fredric March won the Academy Award for his portrayal. The technical secret of the transformation scenes was not revealed until after the director's death.
- 1941, movie U.S., Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. A remake of the 1931 movie, it stars Spencer Tracy, Ingrid Bergman, and Lana Turner. "This is when // JEEK-ull became // JEK-ull, the movie pronunciation."
- 1957, movie U.S., The Daughter of Dr. Jekyll. A young woman discovers she's the daughter of Dr. Jekyll.
- 1959, made-for-TV movie France, The Testament of Dr. Cordelier. A modern adaptation of Stevenson's novel, it stars Jean-Louis Barrault, Teddy Bilis, and Michel Vitold.
- 1960, movie UK, The Two Faces of Dr. Jekyll (released in the US as House of Fright and Jekyll's Inferno). A lurid love triangle and explicit scenes of snakes, opium dens, rape, murder and bodies crashing through glass roofs. Notable in that an aged and ineffectual Dr. Jekyll becomes handsome and virile (but evil) Mr. Hyde.
- 1963, movie USA, The Nutty Professor. Directed by Jerry Lewis. This screwball comedy retains a thin connection to the original. Lewis reworks the Victorian polarised identity theme to the mid-20th century American dilemma of masculinity.
- 1967, movie India, Karutha Rathrikal (Dark Nights). A thriller, it was the first science fiction film in Malayalam, the language in which it was made, and the third in India.
- 1971, movie UK, Dr. Jekyll and Sister Hyde. Starring Ralph Bates as Jekyll and Martine Beswick as Hyde. The earliest work to show Jekyll transform into a woman. Recasts Jekyll as Jack the Ripper, who uses Sister Hyde as a disguise to carry out his murders. Jekyll also employs the services of Burke and Hare.
- 1971, movie UK, I, Monster. Starring Christopher Lee in the Jekyll and Hyde role and Peter Cushing as Utterson. Recasts Jekyll (with a name change to Dr. Marlowe/Mr. Blake) as a 1906 Freudian psychotherapist. Retains some of Stevenson's original plot and dialogue.
- 1972, movie Spain, Dr. Jekyll y el Hombre Lobo, a Paul Naschy film in his long-running series pits Dr. Jekyll against a werewolf.
- 1973, movie U.S. A musical for television with music by Lionel Bart, starring Kirk Douglas as Jekyll and Hyde, with co-stars Michael Redgrave as Danvers, Stanley Holloway as Poole and Donald Pleasence as Fred Smudge. Nominated for Emmy Award (Outstanding Achievement in Music Direction of a Variety, Musical or Dramatic Program - Irwin Kostal, music director)
- 1976, movie U.S. Dr. Black, Mr. Hyde, a blaxploitation version by William Crain starring Bernie Casey as Dr Henry Pride and Rosalind Cash.
- 1981, film France, Docteur Jekyll et les femmes with Udo Kier.
- 1981, TV UK, with David Hemmings in the dual role and directed by Alastair Reid. This version gives a twist to the usual ending when Jekyll's body turns into Mr. Hyde upon his death.
- 1982 movie U.S., Jekyll and Hyde... Together Again, a campy satire with Mark Blankfield as Jekyll who experiments with a "drug to replace all surgery" which is inadvertently mixed with an unknown substance.
- 1985, movie USSR, with Innokenty Smoktunovsky in title role.
- 1986, animated Australian telemovie, with John Ewart as Utterson, made by the Burbank production company.
- 1989, movie U.S., Edge of Sanity, a low-budget adaptation with Anthony Perkins as a Jekyll, whose experiments with synthetic cocaine transform him into Hyde, who is also Jack The Ripper.
- 1995, movie U.S., Dr. Jekyll and Ms. Hyde, in which a descendant of Dr. Jekyll creates a variant of his ancestor's potion that turns him into a woman.
- 1996, movie U.S., Mary Reilly. Starring Julia Roberts and John Malkovich and based on the 1990 novel of the same name by Valerie Martin.
- 1999, TV movie USA. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde starring Adam Baldwin. In this modern-day re-imagining, plastic surgeon Henry Jekyll learns ancient Chinese herbal medicine to give himself superhuman powers, which he uses to exact revenge for his wife's murder. Francis Ford Coppola produced.
- 2002, TV movie UK Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde starring John Hannah as both characters, with body language and wardrobe the only distinction between the appearance of the two. The narrative is chronologically disjointed, beginning with the end of the story then returning to the beginning via narrated flashbacks with the occasional brief glimpse of the reading of Jekyll's confession by Utterson.
- 2006, Canadian film Jekyll + Hyde. Starring Bryan Fisher as Henry "J" Jekyll and Bree Turner as Utterson. Two medical students set out to create a drug derived from ecstasy that would enhance and change their personalities.
- 2008, TV movie. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, starring Dougray Scott, Tom Skerritt, and Krista Bridges.
- 1932, radio drama, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Available for download at: . 52 fifteen-minute episodes, likely to have been broadcast weekly over one year. Further details unknown.
- 1954, radio drama, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, NBC Theater Royal radio program episode, starring Laurence Olivier.
- 1955, Season 1 Episode of CBS's live CLIMAX! drama program. This is an adaptation of Robert Louis Stevenson's "The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde". Hosted by Bill Lundigan, this episode was originally aired on 28 July 1955 (Season 1 Episode 34). The story was adapted for television by Gore Vidal.
- 1968, TV U.S. and Canada, Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Starring Jack Palance, directed by Charles Jarrott and produced by Dan Curtis of Dark Shadows fame. Nominated for several Emmy awards, it follows Hyde on sexual conquests and hack and slash murders.
- 1973, TV U.S. and England, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, a musical made-for-TV version starring Kirk Douglas in one of his few singing roles. No relation to the later musical version, the songs for this one were by Lionel Bart, who wrote Oliver.
- 1989, TV UK, with Laura Dern and Anthony Andrews in the dual role. This version, adapted by J. Michael Straczynski, was similar to Hammer's 1960 version in that Mr. Hyde is the more physically attractive of the two.
- 1990, TV U.S., Jekyll & Hyde, a four-hour, two-part, made-for-television film starring Michael Caine in the title roles. Adds in the story Jekyll's sister-in-law character (Cheryl Ladd), who is raped by Hyde.
- 2007, TV serial UK, Jekyll. A six part BBC serial, aired from 16 June 2007, starring James Nesbitt as Tom Jackman, a modern Jekyll whose Hyde wreaks havoc in modern London.
- The Who release the song "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" on the Magic Bus album.
- Men At Work released the song "Dr. Heckyll and Mr. Jive" on their album Cargo
- The Damned release a song titled "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" on their 1980 release The Black Album.
- Korean Boyband VIXX released they first Mini-Album (HYDE) and first Repackage (Jekyll) based on the book
- Halestorm release the song "Mz. Hyde" on their album "The Strange Case Of...".
- 2001, Ludovic Debeurme's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde illustrated edition adapted for young readers.
- The Robert Swindells book Jacqueline Hyde concerns the protagonist's struggle with her 'Hyde' after smelling a bottle, the contents of which releases her bad side.
Appearances in other fiction
- Mad Monster Party, a 1967 American animated comedy film, features Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde as guests at a party thrown by Baron Boris von Frankenstein.
- Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Holmes, a novel written in 1980 by Loren D. Estleman. Sherlock Holmes solves the mystery surrounding Jekyll and Hyde.
- 1988, video game, Dr. Jekyll and Mr Hyde for the NES, created by Toho.
- 1990 novel Mary Reilly by Valerie Martin, a reworking of Stevenson's plot, told from the viewpoint of a maid in Jekyll's household, named Mary Reilly in this novel.
- 1993, animated film, The Nightmare Before Christmas, Mr. Hyde appears as one of the citizens of Halloween Town. Only seen in his "Hyde" form, he keeps two smaller versions of himself underneath his hat.
- 1994, movie U.S., The Pagemaster, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde play as supporting characters, both voiced by Leonard Nimoy.
- 2000, film Monster Mash, during main character's trial for "failure to scare", their lawyer, a bumbling, mummy-type monster, according to Drac, once "got millions for Dr. Jekyll, when he sued Mr. Hyde for malpractice."
- 2001, video game, Jekyll and Hyde for Windows platform, created by Cryo Interactive.
- 2003, film The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, adapted from Alan Moore's eponymous comic book series. The film adaptation stars Jason Flemyng as both Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, the latter using prosthetic makeup. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde are employed by The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen to combat The Fantom. The version of Hyde depicted in both comic and movie bears more resemblance to the Hulk than the malevolent dwarf of the novel, possessing great strength and size. As in the comic book on which it is based, this is attributed to Hyde "growing, free from boundaries, free from limitations."
- 2004, film Van Helsing. Robbie Coltrane provides the voice of a CGI animated Mr. Hyde, who Van Helsing unintentionally kills at the cathedral of Notre Dame when pursuing him through Paris. Like in The League of Extraordinary Gentleman, Mr. Hyde is also portrayed as a large, hulking brute. When Hyde dies, he transforms back into Dr. Jekyll.
- 2008, animated film, Igor: a major character is Jacqueline and Heidi.
- 2010, television series, Sanctuary, the character Adam Worth's story was stolen by a former friend and retold under the "fictional" title of the Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Adam's psychological disorder is one of "split personality" at a time before modern psychiatry.
- 2012, Sony Pictures animated film, Hotel Transylvania, Mr. Hyde can be seen as one of the monsters in Hotel Transylvania. This version has an underbite, has pale yellow skin, and wears a suit and a top hat.
- 2012, BBC Radio Scotland crime drama, The Strange Case of Dr. Hyde, a four-part reworking of the Stevenson story written by Chris Dolan set in modern-day Edinburgh. Detective Inspector Newman (David Rintoul), assisted by Detective Constable Lanyon (Kenny Blyth), is investigating a series of mutilation murders and seeks the help of eccentric pathologist Dr. Hyde (Jimmy Chisholm), becoming involved along the way with solicitor Jane Poole (Wendy Seager).
- , NBC's 2013 television series, Do No Harm, is a modern retelling of the Jekyll and Hyde story featuring a Jekyll-like character, Dr. Jason Cole (Steven Pasquale), trying to stop his drug-addicted, sociopathic, Hyde-like counterpart (Ian Price) from ruining his professional and private life. Unlike the original story, the main character is a highly respected neurosurgeon who is able to keep his alter-ego in check through the use of an experimental sedative. Also, Jason suffers from dissociative identity disorder instead of developing a serum that separates the good and evil in a person.
Spoofs and parodies
- Dr. Pyckle and Mr. Pryde, a 1925 silent, black-and-white comedy film starring Stan Laurel.
- The Impatient Patient, a 1942 Looney Tunes Daffy Duck cartoon where he ended up meeting a Dr. Jerkyl while trying to send a telegram to someone named, "Chloe."
- Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Mouse, a 1947 Tom and Jerry cartoon.
- Motor Mania, a 1950 Goofy cartoon in which he transforms into a Mr. Hyde-type split personality.
- Abbott and Costello Meet Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, a 1953 horror comedy film starring the comedy team of Abbott and Costello and Boris Karloff as Jekyll/Hyde.
- Dr. Jerkyl's Hide, a 1954 Looney Tunes cartoon featuring Sylvester, Alfie and Chester
- Hyde and Hare, a 1955 Looney Tunes Bugs Bunny cartoon.
- Hyde and Go Tweet, a 1960 Looney Tunes cartoon featuring Sylvester and Tweety, with the bird as the dual character.
- Sicque! Sicque! Sicque!, the ninth episode of The Inspector animated film series. It was produced in 1966 and features Deux-Deux drinking a green potion from a test tube and constantly changing into a huge, ugly, green monster when the Inspector is not looking. The monster Deux-Deux becomes keeps shooting and stomping on the Inspector. In the Fantasia, this cartoon is set to the first movement of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony from Fantasia 2000. People loved having the cartoon set to Beethoven's Fifth a lot because of the timing.
- "Nowhere to Hyde," the September 12, 1970 episode of Scooby Doo Where Are You? in which the ghost of Mr. Hyde is committing jewelry store robberies and one of the suspects is a descendant of Dr. Jekyll.
- Dr. Heckyl and Mr. Hype, 1980 film starring Oliver Reed, in which a kindly but hideous doctor develops a potion that turns him into a suave, but evil, man of the world.
- Dottor Jekyll e gentile signora, 1980 Italian comedy film starring Paolo Villaggio and Edwige Fenech
- Jekyll and Hyde... Together Again, 1982, starring Mark Blankfield.
- Wondergran Meets Dr. Jackal and Mr. Hide the first episode of twelfth season of The Benny Hill Show. Produced in 1981, it starred Benny Hill as surgeon Dr. Jackal who, after eating a mix of chemicals, changed into the evil monster Mr. Hide.
- "Dr. Heckyll and Mr. Jive", a 1983 song by Men At Work.
- "Nasty Stuff", 1984 episode of claymation series The Trap Door
- "Scooby-Doo! and the Reluctant Werewolf, a 1988 comedy film, features a race between a number of classic Hollywood inspired monsters including "Dr. Jekyll/Mr. Snyde."
- Dr. Jekyll and Ms. Hyde, 1995 comedy film starring Tim Daly, Sean Young and Lysette Anthony
- "Bubba Hyde", a 1995 song by Diamond Rio. The video starred Jm J. Bullock playing Barney Jekyll and Bubba Hyde.
- Julia Jekyll and Harriet Hyde, a 1995 British children's television series which aired on BBC One
- Jekyll and Heidi, a 1999 book in the Goosebumps series
- "The Strange Case of Dr. Jiggle and Mr. Sly", which appeared as part of the Veggie Tales 2004 video A Snoodle's Tale
- "Mrs Hyde", 2005 song by the Italian rock noir band Belladonna
- The Phineas and Ferb episode "The Monster of Phineas-n-Ferbenstein" features the villain Dr. Jekyll Doofenshmirtz drinking a potion to turn himself into a monster.
- The Beast Within The Guardian, 13-Dec-2008
- Derivative works of Robert Louis Stevenson
- *Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde at the Internet Movie Database
- "Climax - Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1955)". Retrieved 31 January 2013.
- Mrs Hyde by Belladonna http://blogs.myspace.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=blog.view&friendId=35351347&blogId=196396081
- Derivative works of Robert Louis Stevenson
- "The Beast Within", Freudian fable, sexual morality tale, gay allegory — the novella has inspired as many interpretations as it has film adaptations. By James Campbell[disambiguation needed], The Guardian, December 13, 2008
-  Thanhouser Company's 1912 one-reel production of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.