Adductor muscles of the hip

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Adductor muscles of the hip
Anterior Hip Muscles 2.PNG
The adductors and nearby muscles
Gray344.png
Structures surrounding right hip-joint. (Adductor muscles visible at upper right.)
Gray's p.473
Origin Pubis
Insertion Femur and tibia
Nerve Obturator nerve
Actions Adduction of hip
Anatomical terms of muscle

In human anatomy, the adductor muscles of the hip are a group of muscles of the thigh.

Structure[edit]

The adductor group is made up of:

The adductors originate on the pubis and ischium bones and insert mainly on the medial posterior surface of the femur.

Muscle Origin Insertion innervation[2]
Adductor brevis Inferior pubic ramus Medial ridge of linea aspera Obturator nerve (L2-L4)
Adductor longus Front side of the pubic bone under the pubic tubercle Medial ridge of linea aspera Obturator nerve (L2-L4)
Adductor magnus Inferior pubic ramus and tuberosity of the ischium Medial ridge of linea aspera and the adductor tubercle Obturator nerve and tibial nerve (L2-L5)
Adductor minimus Inferior pubic ramus Medial ridge of linea aspera Obturator nerve (L2)[3]
Pectineus Pectineal line (pubis) Pectineal line Femoral nerve and sometimes the obturator nerve (L2-L4)
Gracilis Inferior pubic ramus Pes anserinus on the tibia Obturator nerve (L2-L3)
Obturator externus Lateral surface of obturator membrane and the ischiopubic ramus Trochanteric fossa Posterior branch of obturator nerve (L5-S2)

Innervation[edit]

The pectineus is the only adductor muscle that is innervated by the femoral nerve. The other adductor muscles are innervated by the obturator nerve[1] with the exception of a small part of the adductor magnus which is innervated by the tibial nerve.[4]

Variation[edit]

In 33% of people a supernumerary muscle is found between the adductor brevis and adductor minimus. When present, this muscle originates from the upper part of the inferior ramus of the pubis from where it runs downwards and laterally. In half of cases, it inserts into the anterior surface of the insertion aponeurosis of the adductor minimus. In the remaining cases, it is either inserted into the upper part of the pectineal line or the posterior part of the lesser trochanter. While similar to its neighbouring adductors, it is formed by separation from the superficial layer of the obturator externus, and is thus not ontogentically related to the adductors.[5]

Clinical significance[edit]

Tenotomy[edit]

So called adductor tenotomy (cutting the origin tendons of the adductor muscles of the thigh) and obturator neurectomy (cutting the anterior branch of the obturator nerve) is sometimes performed on children with cerebral palsy. These children often have a hypertonia of the adductor muscles, making abduction difficult, obstructing normal hip development, and putting them at risk of hip luxation.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Platzer, Werner (2004), " Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Vol. 1, Locomotor System, Thieme, 5th ed, p 240
  2. ^ Bojsen-Møller, Finn; Simonsen, Erik B.; Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen (2001). Bevægeapparatets anatomi [Anatomy of the Locomotive Apparatus] (in Danish) (12th ed.). pp. 364–367. ISBN 978-87-628-0307-7. 
  3. ^ "Adductor minimus". AnatomyExpert. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 
  4. ^ Bojsen-Møller, Finn; Simonsen, Erik B.; Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen (2001). Bevægeapparatets anatomi [Anatomy of the Locomotive Apparatus] (in Danish) (12th ed.). p. 266. ISBN 978-87-628-0307-7. 
  5. ^ Nakamura E, Masumi S, Miura M, Kato S, Miyauchi R. (August 1992). "A supernumerary muscle between the adductors brevis and minimus in humans.". Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn (Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn. 1992 Aug;69(2-3):89-98.) 69 (2-3): 89–98. PMID 1436954.