Adelaide Educational Institution

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Adelaide Educational Institution was a privately run academy for boys in Adelaide founded in 1852 by John L. Young[1][2] and closed when he retired in 1880. "He avoided rote learning, punishment and religious instruction, but taught moral philosophy, physiology, political economy and mechanical drawing ... (and) surveying on field trips".[3]

History[edit]

In 1852 Young opened a school with two, then three pupils (Hubert Giles,[4] Caleb Peacock and John Partridge) in the "Peacock Chapel"[5] lent by Mr Peacock[4] in the rear of the (Congregational) Ebenezer Chapel in Ebenezer Place,[3] off the east end of Rundle Street. The two grew to seventeen at years end.[6] and he was advertising for evening classes in Geometry and Arithmetic, apply between 6 and 7pm at Stephens Place,[7] off the west end of Rundle Street. Fees for day students were 10 guineas (₤10/10/-) per annum, (payable quarterly in advance). Facilities were available for boarding.[8] His residence was also located on Stephens Place.[9] By December 1855 the school had 107 students,[6] perhaps close to 200 in 1857,[4] 130 in 1862,[10] 133 in 1868.

Next venue was the Congregational chapel in Freeman Street (now that section of Gawler Place between Pirie and Flinders Streets).[11]

In 1872 new premises were built at Parkside in Young Street, which had been named after the headmaster.[2]

"Many of Young's pupils later attained positions of public and professional importance in the province and attested the value of the inspiration he had given. Ex-scholars included Caleb Peacock, William Bickford, Walter Samson, (Herschel) Babbage, Elias Solomon, W. P. Auld and Charles Kingston, premier and federationist. An Old Scholars' Association was formed and when the school closed in 1880 on Young's retirement, he was presented with 336 gold sovereigns and many grateful testimonials to his genial, sympathetic counselling."[2]

"He is commemorated by scholarships at the University of Adelaide for research in political economy and for general research."[2]

Education in Early South Australia[edit]

(Taken from Geoffrey H. Manning's A Colonial Experience)[12]

From a welter of amateur establishments emerged two institutions, one of which did noble service to two generations, the other the germ of one of the colony's greatest denominational schools today. The first was John Lorenzo Young's Adelaide Educational Institute, which in its peregrinations from a room at the rear of Ebenezer Chapel (now built over by the East End Market), by way of Stephens Place and Gawler Place, to a final home at Young Street, Parkside, educated 1,500 young South Australians many of later distinction – Caleb Peacock, Adelaide's first native-born Mayor, Charles Cameron Kingston, the dominating figure on the colony's political horizon and Joseph Verco, doyen of our medical fraternity. The other institution was the crib in which St Peter's College was created.

John L Young[edit]

John Lorenzo Young ca. 1861
In the 1860s, with his brother Oliver, he founded the Adelaide Educational Institution which grew into the largest private independent school in South Australia. In 1872 new premises were built at Parkside in Young Street (named after the schoolmaster). For a photograph of the school, see B 1843.
ca. 1870

John Lorenzo Young (30 May 1826, London – 26 July 1881, at sea) was born in London, the son of John Tonkin Young (1802?–10 April 1882), a builder from Veryan, Cornwall.[13][14][15]

He was educated at the Communal College of Boulogne, under Professor Opel at Wiesbaden, in 1842 at the Civil Engineering College in Putney, and at King's College London from 1843 to 1845, where John Howard Clark (later Sir John), editor of The Register and who conducted its "Geoffry Crabthorn" column, was a fellow student.[14] Another reference says this fellow-student was Sidney Clark.[16] He worked in Cornwall on railway and mining construction then left for Adelaide in 1850.[3] on the ship "Panama", arriving on 31 October 1850. He joined the rush to the Victorian goldfields but soon returned.[14]

In 1851 he became second master at South Australian High School,[17] but the venture failed by the end of the year. Headmaster Charles Gregory Feinaigle (1817? – 10 March 1880), before 1860 spelled "Feinagle", opened a private academy at his residence "Brandon" on Unley Road, but was soon in Victoria, in a wide variety of vocations. He remained friends with J. L. Young: together they founded the Philosophical Society on January 1853 (perhaps with W. W. R. Whitridge (died 28 May 1861) of The Register[16]), and he maintained active membership after he left Adelaide.[18]

After the South Australian High School folded he was persuaded in 1852 to open his own school at the rear of the old chapel in Ebenezer Street off Rundle Street East, and soon moved to larger premises in Stephens Place.[14][19] His brother, Oliver Young, held classes for some time,[20] (and acted headmaster in 1860 while J. L. Young was away on recuperation leave) but returned to Cornwall in 1866.[21] Oliver never married.[22]

On 29 October 1855, John married Martha Paynter Young. ("Young" was also her maiden name)[23]

Their first son Arago was born early in 1857 but died at Glenelg on 7 March 1859.[24]
A son was born at their home in North Terrace on 28 February 1858[25] This may have been Algernon Sidney Young, in 1881 cited as his eldest son.[16]
Son John Hampden was born at North Terrace on 26 August 1859[26] but died 18 August 1861
A daughter was born at Parkside 29 April 1861.[27] and may be the daughter Bertha who died 15 August 1915.[28]
A daughter was born at Parkside 8 February 1863[29]
A daughter was born at Parkside 30 December 1864[30]
Son A. Lincoln was born around 1866 and died 21 August 1917 aged 51[31]
Daughter Emily was born at Parkside on 26 March 1870[32] and died 25 September 1875
Son Roland was born at Parkside on 17 March 1873[33] and died 17 June 1925[34]

In 1861 he built the large two-storey "Young House" in Parkside, which was used both as his private residence and as a student boarding house. He then commissioned architects Wright and Hamilton to design and oversee building of a schoolhouse next door. (Edmund Wright had designed many prominent Adelaide buildings including the Town Hall).[35] In 1871 he was able to relinquish the Freeman Street premises.

John retired in 1880 and closed the school, with the intention of joining his wife and large family who were visiting brother Oliver and his father in Veryan, in Cornwall. On his retirement, a testimonial was held 17 December 1880 by his old scholars, and he was presentated with a purse of sovereigns.[36] His 16-room residence, with schoolhouse and various other houses on Young Street,[37] after several auction attempts in February 1881, was eventually purchased by Alfred Allen Simpson (who coincidently had also purchased the Gawler Place school property).[11] The two Parkside buildings, which may still be seen at 61-71 Young Street, were sold by Alfred A., Fred N. and Violet Laura Simpson to Mr. C. O. A. Lapidge in 1922.[35]

He embarked on the steamer John Elder in 1881 to visit England (where his father was still living), his family having preceded him, but died on 26 July 1881 while crossing the Red Sea. He was buried at sea.[14] Martha returned to Adelaide, at first living in Kent Town then settled in Glenelg.[38] She died 6 April 1887 aged 57.[39]

Fred W. Sims, formerly Deputy Registrar of Companies in the Supreme Court, wrote in The Advertiser: I could tell you quite a lot about John L. Young's school— 'dear old Johnny', as we used to call him ... Mr. Young possessed, among his other fine qualities, the saving grace of humor. It is recorded that his first two pupils were Caleb Peacock and John Partridge. He remarked at the time that, whether be met with success or not as a schoolmaster, he would anyway die "game".[40]

Classes and Curriculum[edit]

In its first stage of the school's history, Junior (or Third) Class consisted of boys from 7 to 10 years, Science being a chief subject with (although a non-sectarian school) a little religious insight. No homework was set. Second class homework was encouraged and after five hours of schoolwork the more industrious students would voluntarily turn in up to four long essays a week. In Senior or First class subjects covered included political economy, history, .[41]

Masters[edit]

Other academics at the Institution included:

  • Thomas Boutflower Bennett (1808- 14 September 1894) helped run the school, taught English and bookkeeping, later at St. Peter's College. His headstone in Moonta cemetery mentions SPSC but not AEI.[42] His son J. W. O. Bennett was killed on the Goyder expedition of 1869.
  • Thomas Caterer (around 1854) went on to found the notable Norwood Grammar School
  • John Howard Clark taught occasionally
  • Rev. F. W. Cox drawing 1864, 1866
  • Edward Dewhirst
  • C. J. Fox taught junior Latin 1870, then all levels
  • Henry Greffrath taught French and German from beginning 1852 to mid-1863 then St. Peter's College (overlap?). Left for Jena, Germany in 1864.
  • Theodore Hack a teacher?
  • Wilton Hack succeeded Charles Hill as drawing teacher 1868[43] W. Hack also taught drawing at Norwood Grammar and St. Peters College.
  • ?? Haines
  • ?? Harrison (called "Cocky" by students (as was Oliver Young), young, pimply, sacked for drunkenness at a June prizegiving, possibly 1856) [44]
  • Charles Hill taught drawing[45]
  • P. T. Hill taught writing and arithmetic NOT drawing[43]
  • G. R. Irwine (d. 7 October 1871)[46] taught Latin, Greek and English.
  • Dr Carl Heinrich Loessel (Lössel) taught French, German in 1863, 64 ([47] is interesting)
  • Adolph Emile Marval taught French 1866, also at St Peters College. Mme Caroline Emma Marval opened a Ladies' College
  • F. H. Needham R.N. taught mathematics, Latin 1861
  • G. Needham (1905?–19 March 1894)[48] (no relation though both taught Latin – [44])
  • Hamilton Charles Palmer (died 19 January 1880)
A lawyer arrived from England ca. 1857, based in Kapunda
Brother of Charles Edwin Palmer (Glenelg Congregational minister)
Wrote newspaper articles as "Templar"
Classics master 1861 [49]
  • J. R. P. Parsons
  • Rev. Canon Poole (Frederic Slaney Poole) taught advanced Latin 1870
  • H. von Schleinitz taught French, German 1865 to 1873 (also at St Peter's College, Norwood Grammar).
Educated at universities of Leipzig and "Greisewalde" (perhaps Greifswald).[50]
He arrived in Adelaide on the "Pauline" from Bremen on 9 December 1849.
In 1851 he founded a German School in Freeman Street.[51] Teachers at his school included Messrs Hansen, Klette and Nootnagel. He left in 1852.[52]
For several years he was clerk to C. Schilling, landbroker of Gawler Place.[53]
1864 he was with St Peter's College and offering private tuition at his North Terrace (east) home.[54]
1874 he's replaced by Jung at SPC.[55] Then no mention to 1876 when he's advertising for anything anywhere.
  • Rev. Thomas Smellie (pronounced "smiley") Presbyterian minister arrived Adelaide 1861, registered to grant marriage licences 1862, taught Latin at AEI from 1863 to 1866 and at Leslie's school Alberton 1864. Founded Gawler Academy 1868 returned to Britain 1872
  • Uren[56]
  • Oliver Young (J. L. Young's brother) taught drawing, ran school 1860. Nicknamed "Cocky" but not to his face, his appearance was marred by some kind of deformity.[57]

Timeline[edit]

  • 1852 School opened in Ebenezer Place with two students Caleb Peacock and John Partridge, soon joined by G. T. and T. L. Cottrell, John Waterman and Richard Mahoney.[14]
  • 1853 Moved to "Stephens Place" schoolroom at rear of Freeman Street Congregational chapel [58]
  • 1860 JL Young in poor health, on leave in England. Oliver Young acting head for the year.[59]
  • 1861 J L Young returns, buys 2 acres in Parkside. T. B. Bennett joins staff.
  • 1865 Old Scholars' Association dinner[60]
  • 1866 Oliver Young returns to England
Old Scholars' Association dinner[61]
  • 1867 Congregational Church moves to Stow Hall, AEI takes over Freeman Street chapel.[62]
First Old Scholars' dinner[63]
Old Scholars' AGM[64]
  • 1868 Pupil numbers down to 133.
  • 1869 "The Star" first (and last?) issue.[65]
Old Scholars' dinner[66]
  • 1870 Old Scholars dinner[67]
Old Scholars' annual meeting scheduled for 24 June postponed to following week due to poor attendance.[68]
  • 1871 All teaching now at Young Street, Parkside.[35] T. B. Bennett resigns.
Old Scholars' dinner [69] poor attendance
  • 1872 Old Scholars' dinner [69] 12 attendees
  • 1880 Presentation to Thomas Bennett [70] >30 attendees
  • 1880 School closed
  • 1881 JL Young died
  • 1887 Mrs Young died[56]
  • 1896 funeral of Caleb Peacock[71]
  • 1897 Stephens Place buildings demolished [44] (a beaut reminiscence)
  • 1912 Reunion[57] It was at this reunion that Peter Wood moved that a JLYoung scholarship be established.
  • 1913 Second reunion
  • 1914 Third reunion[72]
  • 1915 Fourth reunion[73]
  • 1916 Fifth reunion[74]
  • 1917 Sixth reunion
  • 1918 Seventh reunion
Function for Eden Herschel Babbage 21 May 1918[75]
  • 1919 Eighth reunion[76]
  • 1920 Ninth reunion[77]
  • 1921 Tenth reunion[78]
  • 1922
  • 1923
  • 1924
  • 1925 reunion[79][80]

Reunions[edit]

Around 1912 a group of old scholars felt it appropriate to establish a memorial for J L Young, and from 1912 held a series of annual reunion dinners to raise funds for the memorial. I need to re-read the reunion news clippings and expand this

Notable students[edit]

Heroes of the SS Gothenburg wreck
Robert Brazil, John Cleland & James Fitzgerald, 1875.

A remarkable number of Young's alumni became leading figures in Adelaide's businesses and public service. The following is sourced from Old Scholars reunions and other sources e.g. List of mayors and lord mayors of Adelaide

"and hundreds of others scattered throughout the land".
(Somewhere it says he educated 1,500 young men – in 28 years, that's about 100 per annum (estimated mean 2 years per student), @ 10 guineas per annum.)

Old Scholars Association[edit]

(First A.G.M.)[116] held 15 Dec 1863 at Mr. J. L. Young's school room, Stephens-place; Mr. E. Cheetham occupied the chair. Satisfactory reports were received with reference to the success of the association. Annual prize awarded to Edward Neale Wigg. Elected: C. Peacock, President; M. L. Clark, Treasurer; Joseph Coulls, Secretary; and E. Cheetham, Walter Samson, Wm. Bickford, A. K. Whitby, and G. Cottrell.

Prizegivings and Examinations[edit]

J. L. Young held twice-yearly public demonstrations, mostly held in White's Rooms which showcased the boys' accomplishments to parents and the public. A report was published as news in the newspapers immediately after, and always in glowing terms, the copy being provided by the school. Any flaws in the operation of the school and the training of eager young minds were only hinted at in retrospect – by pronouncements on the great strides made in the current year.

There were so many other schools that copied his example that the newspapers soon recognised these reports for what they were – advertisements – and charged by the column-inch. No longer were the speeches by the headmaster and the visiting dignitary quoted verbatim and, sadly for the historian, the only students named were the recipients of prizes.

Sports[edit]

The school fielded a (soccer) football team and two cricket teams.

The first school Sports Day was held in November 1874. Prizes included silver pencil cases and gold shirt studs.[117]

Other Adelaide private schools of the period[edit]

This list is by no means exhaustive. Many schools changed location, identity and management. And there were many women of culture and attainment, particularly widows (such as Caroline Carleton), who subsisted on their earnings as tutors.

  • Adelaide Collegiate School in North Adelaide, run by Thomas Field. Incorporated into Queen's School 1892.
  • Adelaide Model School (Alexander Clark) not strictly private school, run by Council of Education
  • Albert House Academy – see Haire's Academy
  • Alix House Academy, 100 South Terrace run by Eliza Hill (died October 1918), wife of Charles Hill, artist (died September 1915)
  • Mrs. Bell's school[45]
  • Billiatt's Grammar School at St. Leonards, Glenelg[118]
  • Bowden Day Schools (Methodist?) (Mr & Mrs Lawton)
  • Brougham School, Gilles Street ca. 1869 (Thomas Stevens Burgan, died 3 July 1858, succeeded by son Thomas Burgan,[119] also at Fellenberg Commercial School)
  • School run by W. A. Cawthorne on what was later Page Street, Adelaide,[5] became Victoria Square Academy.
  • Church of England Collegiate School see St. Peter's Collegiate School
  • Collegiate and Commercial Institute, Victoria Square 1860 see Haire's academy
  • Commercial School, Port Adelaide (Herr Nootnagel)[120]
  • Mr Dollison's school, Port Adelaide
  • Fellenberg Commercial School, Hindmarsh Square (John Martin (died 9 July 1876) schoolmaster previously at Pulteney Street)
  • German School, Freeman St (von Schleinitz, then Hansen) 1851-52
  • German School, Wakefield Street, run by Theodor Niehuus[121] and Adolph Leschen.
  • Glenelg Educational Institution (M. Mitchell)
  • Glenelg Grammar (1868) Frederick Isaac Caterer (died ca. 24 August 1892)
  • Grote Street Model School (coeducational – many female students prominent in Adelaide University examinations 1878)[122]
  • Haire's Academy, Albert House, Victoria Square then Collegiate Institute, Whitmore House, Whitmore Square between Gilbert Street and South Terrace.[5] (Francis Haire, died insolvent? ca. 1875)
  • Mr Hesking's Academy, Gouger Street
  • Hill House School (E. W. Wickes, later G. W. Moore)
  • School run by Miss Hillier (later Mrs Taylor) North Terrace.[5]
  • Mr Howard's Academy
  • James Jolly (died 3 November 1881)'s school in Waymouth Street (he later ran the Board of Education school at Encounter Bay then Port Elliot)
  • Mr King's Academy, Port Adelaide
  • St Leonards Grammar, Glenelg (W. K. Smart)
  • Mr Leslie's School
  • Mr McLaughlin's Public School, Port Adelaide
  • Miss Martin's School. Founded by Annie Montgomerie Martin. Second headmistress was Caroline Clark
  • North Adelaide Educational Institution (aka Nesbit & Drews')(1869- ) http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/41394776
  • North Adelaide Grammar (John Whinham) (1804?-13 March 1886) and son Robert (died 24 October 1884) later called Whinham College.
  • Norwood Grammar School (Thomas Caterer) 1861 became South Australian Commercial College 1881
  • Port Adelaide Grammar (A. Martin)
  • Mr Potter's School
  • Prince Alfred College (J. A. Hartley)
  • Princes street School (T. Cater?) (founded by James Cater, taken over by Department the following year)[123]
  • Pulteney Street School (1848)[124] (W. Moore) became Pulteney Grammar
  • Pulteney Street Central Schools (coeducational) 1847[125] (same as above?)
  • Queen's School, North Adelaide (1892) was founded by J.H. Lindon and E.L. Heinemann, both ex-St. Peter's College, taking over the building (and the bulk of the students) of Thomas Field's Adelaide Collegiate School.
  • Queenstown Commercial School
  • Miss Roland's school on Tavistock Street[45]
  • Rundle Street Grammar (R.C. Mitton and W.J. Anderson)
  • St. Peter's Collegiate School (previously Church of England Collegiate School)
  • Semaphore Collegiate School
  • Stepney College
  • Tranmere School, run by David Wylie[126] brother-in-law of William Scott MHR
  • Union College (religious training)[127]
  • Victoria Square Academy – W. A. Cawthorne's school on west of the Square.
  • Way College – a Bible Christian college on Park Terrace, North Unley, named for Rev. James Way. W. G. Torr principal
  • Whinham College – see North Adelaide College
  • Wickes and Titherington opened a school at Jeffcott Street 1847[128]
  • Mrs. Woodcocks Christ Church school room[45]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Adelaide Educational Institution, 6 January 1853, South Australian Register, p.2
  2. ^ a b c d B. K. Hyams, 'Young, John Lorenzo (1826–1881)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 6, Melbourne University Press, 1976, pp 457-458.
  3. ^ a b c Cumming, D.A. and Moxham, G. They Built South Australia published by the authors February 1986 ISBN 0 9589111 0 X
  4. ^ a b c Adelaide Educational Institution South Australian Register 16 June 1857 p.3 accessed 28 April 2011
  5. ^ a b c d Old Schools The Register 18 August 1926 p.19 accessed 3 July 2011
  6. ^ a b Adelaide Educational Institution South Australian Register 15 December 1855 p.3 accessed 26 April 2011
  7. ^ Evening Classes, 2 November 1852, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA), p.4
  8. ^ Adelaide Educational Institution, 25 March 1853, South Australian Register, p.2
  9. ^ Philosophical Society, 10 January 1853, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA), p.3
  10. ^ Adelaide Educational Institution South Australian Register 15 December 1862 p.3 accessed 3 May 2011
    also contains reference to growth of Philosophical Society
  11. ^ a b In and Out of the City. By Autolycus., 22 October 1928, The Register (Adelaide, SA), p.10
  12. ^ Geoffrey H. Manning Education in Early South Australia, in A Colonial Experience
  13. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/47104686
  14. ^ a b c d e f Young's School Diamond Jubilee Today South Australian Register Friday 11 October 1912 p.8 accessed 20 May 2011
  15. ^ Life Summary, Young, John Lorenzo (1826–1881), Australian Dictionary of Biography
  16. ^ a b c http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/47100138
  17. ^ South Australian High School, 19 July 1951, South Australian Register, pg.1
  18. ^ Death of Mr. C. G. Feinaigle, 3 April 1880, Supplement to the South Australian Register – summary for R.M.S. Bangalore, pg.1
    More on the Philosophical Society may be found at Story of Royal Society, 22 March 1929, The Register News-Pictorial, pg.13
  19. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/6435849
  20. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/1206436
  21. ^ Death of Mr. Oliver Young, Adelaide Observer, 12 March 1898, p. 29, col. e
  22. ^ The Late Mr Oliver Young, 8 March 1898, South Australian Register (Adelaide, SA), p.5
  23. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/49295952
  24. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/790149
  25. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/49774977
  26. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/1196536
  27. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/26953793
  28. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/50017473
  29. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/50165926
  30. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/31845937
  31. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/5545987
  32. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/39200486
  33. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/28693669
  34. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/54913286
  35. ^ a b c Payne, G.B. (1972) History of Unley, 1871-1971, ISBN 0 959917403 pp. 93-94, 173-174.
  36. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/8991506
  37. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/43148723
  38. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/46099042
  39. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/46095236
  40. ^ Out among the People Advertiser and Register 13 July 1931 p.8 accessed 12 February 2011
  41. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/49764321
  42. ^ http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~deadsearch/grave_fort.htm
  43. ^ a b Letter to the Editor
  44. ^ a b c d e f http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/54478241
  45. ^ a b c d "An Old Art Master". The Register (Adelaide: National Library of Australia). 12 October 1912. p. 17. Retrieved 1 March 2015. 
  46. ^ Obituary South Australian Register Tuesday 10 October 1871 supplement p.7 accessed 10 March 2011
  47. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/39175408
  48. ^ The Late Mr. G. Needham The Advertiser 22 March 1894 p.7 accessed 10 March 2011
  49. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/43111659/4001218
  50. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/41028181
  51. ^ German School Examination South Australian Register 18 July 1851 p.2 accessed 28 September 2011
  52. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/66449310/6280511
  53. ^ Employment Wanted South Australian Register Monday 11 May 1863 p.1 accessed 28 September 2011
  54. ^ Tuition South Australian Register 4 July 1864 p.1 accessed 29 September 2011
  55. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/28727098
  56. ^ a b Obituary for Mrs Young South Australian Register 18 April 1887 supplement p.2 accessed 19 March 2011
  57. ^ a b (First) Old Scholars Reunion (1912) The Advertiser 12 October 1912 p.20 accessed 10 March 2011
  58. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/48547603
  59. ^ Public Examination of Mr J L Young's Pupils South Australian Advertiser 20 December 1859 p.4 accessed 19 March 2011
  60. ^ Old Scholars' Association South Australian Register 16 September 1865 p.3 accessed 26 May 2011
  61. ^ Old Scholars Association South Australian Register 15 September 1866 accessed 6 June 2011
  62. ^ Adelaide Educational Institution South Australian Register 29 April 1867 p.2 accessed 7 May 2011
  63. ^ (First) Old Scholars Association Dinner (1867) South Australian Register 28 September 1867 p.7 accessed 10 March 2011
  64. ^ Miscellaneous South Australian Advertiser 29 July 1867 p.6 accessed 15 May 2011
  65. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/41407275
  66. ^ Old Scholars Association Dinner (1869) South Australian Register 25 September 1869 p.2 accessed 2 April 2011
  67. ^ Old Scholars Association Dinner (1870) South Australian Register 24 September 1870 p.3 accessed 3 April 2011
  68. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/39197465
  69. ^ a b http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/39263864
  70. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/43099854
  71. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/53671328
  72. ^ Third Old Scholars' Reunion (1914) The Advertiser 22 October 1914 p.11 accessed 17 February 2011
  73. ^ Fourth Old Scholars' Reunion (1915) The Advertiser 19 October 1915 p.9 accessed 17 February 2011
  74. ^ Fifth Old Scholars' Reunion (1916) The Advertiser 24 October 1916 p.5 accessed 17 February 2011
  75. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/60357714
  76. ^ Eighth Old Scholars' Reunion (1919 The Advertiser 21 October 1919 p.8 accessed 17 February 2011
  77. ^ Young's School (9th reunion, 1920) The Register 19 October 1920 p.4 accessed 10 March 2011
  78. ^ A Much-Loved Schoolmaster (10th reunion, 1921) The Advertiser 18 October 1921 p.8 accessed 10 March 2011
  79. ^ John L. Young's Old Scholars Association (Reunion 1925) The Register 12 May 1925 p.8 accessed 10 March 2011
  80. ^ Old Scholars Reunion (1925) The Advertiser 12 May 1925 p.15
  81. ^ "Obituaary". Murray Pioneer (Renmark, SA: National Library of Australia). 17 June 1943. p. 4. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  82. ^ a b c Companions of John McDouall Stuart on his sixth expedition (1861-1862)
  83. ^ "Ayers Rock". The Sydney Morning Herald (National Library of Australia). 30 July 1930. p. 8. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  84. ^ "Retiring Civil Servants". The Advertiser (Adelaide: National Library of Australia). 28 August 1914. p. 6. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  85. ^ Out among the People Advertiser and Register p.8 many more names in this reminiscence
  86. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/result?q=w.+b.+carr
  87. ^ Old Time Surveyor The Register 3 August 1928 p.12 accessed 17 February 17, 2011
  88. ^ Sudden Death of Mr. F.A. Chapman, The Advertiser 19 September 1925 p.17
  89. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s The Diamond Jubilee The Advertiser 11 October 1912 p.11 accessed 19 March 2011
  90. ^ a b "Alfred Giles – Enjoying Life at 80.". The Mail (Adelaide: National Library of Australia). 22 September 1928. p. 3. Retrieved 30 January 2013.  This reference cites nicknames "Jack" Cleland and "Willie" Gosse
  91. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/31969908/2277653
  92. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/31970012
  93. ^ http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/63701359
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    Adelaide Co-Operative Society Limited, 15 September 1917, The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA), p.15
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